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XIV., who settled a pension on him, with apart-
ments at the Gobelins. In 1675 he received letters
of naturalization, and in 1677 he was received
into the Academy, and was soon after knighted by
the King. He worked entirely with the graver ;
and his execution is at the same time both bold
and finished. His style is more delicate than
that of Bolswert and Pontius, without being less
picturesque. His plates, though exquisitely fin-
ished, display nothing of labour or littleness. The
size and the number of his prints evince the most
surprising facility. The pictures of Le Brun, under
the graver of Edelinck and Gerard Audran, appear
to have been the works of an accomplished colonr-
ist, and assume qualities in which they were really
deficient. Edelinck died in Paris in 1707. Robert-
Dumesnil, in his ' Peintre-Graveur Francais,' vii.
169 336, describes 339 engravings by him, of
which 200 are portraits: the following are his
principal works.


Louis XIV., bust on a pedestal ; after J. B. Corneille.
Louis XIV., an equestrian statue, with a group of the

eminent men of his reign ; after Sonet.
Louis XIV. on horseback, with Providence hovering
over him, and his Enemies overthrown at his feet;
in two sheets ; very fine ; after Le Brun.
Louis XIV., bust on a shield borne by Religion seated
in a triumphal car drawn by the Four Evangelists,
called the ' Triumph of the Church,' or the ' Extirpa-
tion of Calvinism ; ' in two sheets ; fine and scarce ;
after Le Brun.
Louis XIV. giving peace to Europe ; in two sheets ;

after Le Brun.

Louis XIV., half-length ; after J. de La Hays.
Louis, Duke of Burgundy ; after F. de Troy.
Esprit Flechier, Bishop of Nimes ; after Rigaud.
Charles Perrault ; after Tortebat.
Paul Fontanier de Pellisson.
Jean de La Fontaine ; after Rigaud.
Jean Racine.

Blaise Pascal ; after L. Q. V.
Pieter van Bouc.
Nathanael Dilgerus. 1683.

Abraham Teniers ; after a picture by himself.
Albrecht Diirer.
Jean Cousin.
Gilles Sadeler, engraver.
Abraham Bloemaert.

Jacques Blanchard ; after a picture by himself.
Francois Tortebat, Painter to the King ; after De Piles.
Israel Silvestre, engraver ; after Le Brun.
Pierre Simon, engraver ; after P. Ernou.
Francois Cbauveau, engraver ; after C. Le Fevre.
Marten van den Bogaert, sculptor ; after Riyaud.
Hyacinthe Rigaud, painter; after a picture by himself.
Jules Hardouin Mansart, architect ; after Riyaud.
Charles Le Brun ; after N. de Largilliere.
Philippe de Champaigne ; after a picture by himself;

very fine.

Charles d'Hozier, Genealogist of France ; after Rigaud.
Frederic Leonard, Printer to the King ; after the same.
Jean Charles Parent ; after Tortebat.
Madame Helyot, with a crucifix ; after Galliot.
Francois Michel Le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois, bust,
with Mars and Minerva as supporters ; after Le Brun.
Andre Hameau, Doctor of the Sorbonne ; after Vivien.
Nicolas de Blampignon, Doctor of the Sorbonne ; after

the same.

Jean Rouille, Count of Meslay ; after Nanteuil.
Charles Mouton, Musician to Louis XIV. ; after De Troy.


The Holy Family, with St. Joseph, St. Elizabeth, St.

John, and two Angels ; after the picture by Raphael

in the Louvre, presented to Francis I. by Pope Leo X. ;

very fine. The first impressions are before the arms
of Colbert, the second are with the arms, and the
third have the arms effaced, while the frame in which
they were inserted remains.

The Virgin Mary sewing, with the Infant sleeping in a
Cradle, surrounded by Angels, called ' La Couseuse ; '
after Guido ; fine.

The Holy Family, with St. Joseph presenting Flowers
to the Infant Jesus ; after C. Jfaratti.

The Holy Family, called the ' Benedicite ;' after Le Brun.

A Female Saint, holding a Lily, and kneeling before the
Virgin and Infant seated on a Throne, to whom she
presents a Book ; after Pietro da Cortona.

The Penitent Magdalen renouncing the Vanities of the
World ; after the picture by Le Brun, now iu the
Louvre at Paris. The portrait is that of Madame de
La Valliere. The first impressions are without the
inscription, and are very scarce ; the next best are
without the border.

St. Louis prostrating himself before a Crucifix ; after Le

St. Charles Borromeo kneeling ; after the same.

The Crucifixion, surrounded with Angels ; on two
sheets ; after the same.

Moses holding the tables of the Law ; after Philippe de
Champaiyne ; commenced by Nanteuil, and finished
after his death by Edelinck.

Christ and the Woman of Samaria ; after the same.

The Virgin at the foot of the Cross ; after the same.

St. Jerome ; after the same.

St. Ambrose ; half-length ; after J. B. de Cliampaiune.

St. Basil and St. Gregory ; half-length ; after the same.

A Combat of Cavalry, four Horsemen fighting for a
Standard, with three dead Figures on the ground;
after the celebrated cartoon by Leonardo da J inci.

Alexander, accompanied by Hephiestion, entering the
Tent of Darius ; on two sheets ; after Le Brun. The
first impressions have the name of Goyton at the bot-
tom. This print completes the set of the * Battles of
Alexander' engraved by Gerard Audran after Le Brun.

Alexander entering the Tent of Darius ; after Miynard ;
Edelinck's last work, finished after his death by P.

EDELINCK, JEAN, a brother of Gerard Edelinck,
and probably younger than the latter, was born at
Antwerp, but in what year is not known. He
preceded his brother to Paris, and there engraved
several plates in imitation of his style. Although
very unequal to the works of his brother, his prints
are not without considerable merit. He died in
Paris in 1680. He engraved several of the statues in
the gardens at Versailles, and there are also by him :

The Portrait of Isbrandus de Diemerbroeck, a famous
anatomist ; after Romeyn De Hooghe.

The Deluge ; after Alessandro Turchi. This plate was
finished after his death by his youngest brother,
Gaspard Francois Edelinck.

EDELINCK, NICOLAS, the son of Gerard Ede-
linck, was born in Paris about 1680. Although he
had the advantage of his father's instruction, and of
studying in Italy, he never rose above mediocrity.
He engraved some portraits, and a few plates for
the Crozat Collection. He died in Paris in 1730.
Among other prints by him are the following :

Gerard Edelinck ; after Tortebat.
Cardinal Giulio de' Medici ; after Raphael.
Count Baldassare Castiglione ; after the same.
Philip, Duke of Orleans, Regent of France, on horse-
back ; after J. Ranc.
Adrien Baillet.
John Dryden ; after Knellcr.
The Virgin and Infant ; after Correggio.
Vertumnus and Pomona ; after J. Ranc.

EDEMA, GERARD, was born in Friesland (or
according to others, at Amsterdam), in 1652. He
was a scholar of Allart van Everdingen, and, like
his master, painted landscapes with rocks and
waterfalls, chiefly from views in Norway. At the



age of eighteen he came to England, where he met
with encouragement, and made voyages to Norway
and Newfoundland, to collect subjects for his pic-
tures among those wild scenes of nature, for which
he had a romantic predilection. The figures in
his landscapes are generally painted by Th. Wyck.
Although the pictures by Edema are painted with
spirit, they possess little of the chaste and simple
colouring, and the picturesque touch, which dis-
tinguish the landscapes of Van Everdingen. He
died at Richmond in 1700. At Hampton Court are
a ' River Scene ' and a ' Landscape ' by him.

EDEMA, NICOLAES, born in Friesland in 1666,
went to Surinam to paint the landscapes, plants,
and insects of that country. He became a good
landscape painter, as his views are after nature,
with a good tone of colour, and a spirited touch.
He died in London in 1722.

EDENBERGER, J. N., a German miniature
painter, was a native of Baden-Durlach. He
possessed considerable talent, and was living in
1773 at the Hague, whence he came to England,
but returned thither in 1776.

EDLINGER, JOHANN GEORQ, a portrait painter,
was born at Graz in 1741. He was a pupil of
Desmarees, and became court painter at Munich,
where he died in 1819. His portraits are well
painted, and show a leaning towards the works of
Rembrandt. Some of his portraits of eminent
Bavarians, engraved by Friedrich John, appeared
in 1821 under the title ' Sarnnilung von Bildnissen
denkwiirdiger Manner.'

EDLINGER, KARL FRANZ, a Saxon painter, was
born at Dresden in 1785, and died there in 1823.
He painted portraits, especially miniatures, but only
one historical picture by him is known, ' Ariadne
who was born at Dresden in 1823, and died in 1847,
was a portrait painter and etcher.

EDMONDS, JOHN W., an American painter of
genre subjects, was born at Hudson, New York,
in 1806. Engaged during the greater part of his
life as a cashier in a bank, he devoted his morn-
ings and evenings to painting ; but this constant
toil weakened his health so much that in 1840 he
came to Europe for rest. He first exhibited at the
New York Academy in 1836, under an assumed
name, ' Sammy the Tailor.' This was followed,
among other works, by ' Dominie Sampson ' in
1837, the 'Penny Paper' in 1839, 'Sparking' in
1840, 'Stealing Milk' in 1843, 'Vesuvius' and
'Florence' in 1844, 'Bargaining' in 1858, and
'The New Bonnet' in 1859. In 1838 he was
elected an Associate of the National Academy, and
in 1840 an Academician. He died at his residence
on the Bronx River in 1863.

EDMONSTONE, ROBERT, a Scottish subject
painter, was born at Kelso in 1795. He pursued
the study of art under many difficulties, but at last
became a student in the Royal Academy, London,
where he first exhibited in 1818. He then went to
the continent, and studied for a few years in Italy.
Returning, he practised portrait painting in London
from about 1824 to 1831, when he paid a second
visit to Italy. He died at his native place in 1834,
from the effects of fever contracted at Rome. His
forte lay in works in which he introduced children.
Amongst the pictures he exhibited were :

Italian Boys playing at Cards. 1830.
Venetian Water-Carriers. 1833.
Kissing the chains of St. Peter
The White Mouse. (His last work)


EDRIDGE, HENRY, a miniature painter, was
born at Paddington in 1769. He was apprenticed
to Pether, the mezzotint engraver and landscape
painter, but his chief excellence lay in miniature
portraits, which he executed in black lead and
Indian ink, and subsequently in water-colours.
In 1786 he exhibited at the Academy ' The Weary
Traveller,' and in 1803 portraits of King George
III. and Queen Charlotte. He was elected an
Associate of the Royal Academy in 1820, and died
in London in 1821. The following are among his
works :

National Portrait Gallery :

Marquis of Anglesey. 1S08.

Lord Auckland. 1809.

Eobert Southey. 1804.

National Gallery of Scotland :
Coast Scene, with Figures.

South Kensington

Chenies House, near Bramhletye.

Rick Yard, Ashford.

Farm-House, Buckinghamshire. 1814.

View near Bromley.

Brighton Beach.

Pont Neuf , Paris.

Portrait of a Military Officer.

EDWARDS, EDWARD, an historical painter, born
in London in 1738, was employed by Boydell
to make drawings from the old masters for his
publications, and by the Society of Antiquaries for
the same purpose. He painted for Boydell's
Shakespeare a subject from the ' Two Gentlemen
of Verona ; ' he painted also arabesques, and pub-
lished 52 'etchings. He never arrived at distinction,
except that he was appointed teacher of perspective
in the Royal Academy in 1788, which situation he
held until his death. He was elected an Associate
of the Royal Academy in 1773, and sent pictures
to its exhibitions pretty constantly from 1771 till
the end of his life. He published in 1808 the
' Anecdotes of Painters,' intended as a supplement
to Walpole ; but in his facts he was too accurate
to please his contemporaries, and consequently the
work and its author were much decried. He died
in 1806. A water-colour drawing by him, entitled
'North Dean, Castle Eden, Durham,' is at South

EDWARDS, EDWIN, a landscape painter in
water-colours and an etcher, was born at Framling-
ham in 1823. He was originally brought up for the
law and practised as a proctor for many years. He
commenced water-colour painting after a journey
in the Tyrol, and through meeting the French artist
Legros, in 1861, was induced to take up etching,
on which his reputation chiefly rests. His works
appeared at the Royal Academy, and at the Dudley
Gallery. Amongst his best productions may be
cited a series of etchings of English Inns. He
died in London in 1879.

EDWARDS, GEORGE, a natural history draughts-
man, was born at Stratford, in Essex, in 1694.
From 1716 to 1731 he travelled much in Holland,
Norway, Belgium, and France in pursuit of his art.
In 1733 he was appointed librarian to the College
of Physicians. In 1747-51 he published ' A Natural
History of uncommon Birds and Animals,' and
in 1758-64 'Gleanings of Natural History.' He
retired to Plaistow, where he died in 1773.

ED WARDS, SYDENHAM, a draughtsman of animals
and flowers, was born about 1768. He exhibited
at the Royal Academy from 1792 to 1813. He pub-
lished ' Cynographia Britannica,' 1800, the 'New
Flora Britamiiea,' 1812, and founded the ' Botanical











Degister' in 1815. He also made drawings for
Kees's 'Cyclopaedia,' the 'Flora Londinensis,' the
'Botanical Magazine,' and the ' Sportsman's Maga-
zine.' He died at Brompton in 1819.

EDWIN, DAVID, an American engraver, was
born at Bath, in England, in 1776. He was the
son of John Edwin, a celebrated comic actor, and
was apprenticed to an engraver, but he ran away
to sea, and reached America in 1797. There he
was employed by Edward Savage, the portrait
painter, and soon gained much reputation by his
portraits. After twenty years' work his sight
failed, and he was compelled to resort to various
means in order to obtain a livelihood. He died at
Philadelphia in 1841.

EECKE, (alias EECKELE,) JAN VAN. He settled
in Bruges in 1534, and was admitted as master
painter into the Guild of Saint Luke in September
of that year. He held the office of "vinder" in
1542-3, 1548-9, 1551-2 and 1557-8. He died in
November 1561, and was buried in the church of
Saint James. Only two paintings are known to be
by him ; both are signed with his cipher.

1. Mater dolorosa, acopy of apaintinganterior to 1492, a
woodcut after which adorns 'Ghedenckenisse van den
VII. Weeden Onser Liever Vrouwen," printed at
AntwerpbyGerardLeeuinl492. (Bruyes: Cathedral.)

2. The Vision of Saint Bernard, and other episodes of his
life. (Tournai: Museum.)

EECKHOUT, JACOB JOSEPH, was born at Ant-
werp in 1793, and studied first at the Academy of
that city. He painted historical and genre subjects,
and portraits, and in 1829 he was elected a member
of the Academies of Amsterdam, Antwerp, Brus-
sels, and Rotterdam. He settled at the Hague in
1831, and in 1839 became director of the Academy
in that city, and after staying at Mechlin and Brussels
he went to live in Paris in 1859. He imitated
Rembrandt with some skill, and may be considered
one of the most distinguished painters of the
modern Dutch school. His compositions are ex-
pressive and lively, and the colouring vigorous.
Eeckhout died in Paris in 1861. His best works

The Death of William the Silent.
Peter the Great at Zaandam.
The Departure of the Recruits of Scheveningen.
Collection de Portraits d'Artistes modernes, nes dans
le royaume des Pays-Bas. 1822.


EECKHOUT, VICTOR, a genre painter, the son
of Jacob Joseph Eeckhout, was born at Antwerp
in 1821. He studied under his father, and went to
the East. He died in 1879.

EELKAMA, EELKE JELLES, a painter of land-
scapes, flowers, and fruit, was born at Leeuwarden
in 1788. On account of his deafness, which was
brought on by an illness at the age of seven, he
was educated in the institution for the deaf and
dumb at Groningen, where he was instructed in
the art of painting by G. De San. In 1804, he
obtained the first prize of the Academy, and his
works were highly praised. He visited Paris and
London, travelled in France and Switzerland, and
afterwards painted at Haarlem and Amsterdam. He
afterwards lost his sight, and died at Leeuwarden
in 1839.


EGAN, JAMES, an Irish mezzotint engraver, was
born at Roscommon in 1799. He was employed
in the lowest capacities by S. \V. Reynolds, and,
notwithstanding great difficulties and privations,

persevered in the pursuit of his art. He died in
London in 1842. His last and best plate is after
Cattermole's 'English Hospitality in the Olden

EGERTON, D. T., a landscape painter, was one
of the original members of the Society of British
Artists, where he exhibited in the years 1824 to 1829,
and in 1838 to 1840. In the latter years of his life
he travelled much in America, obtaining thus the
subjects for several pictures, notably one of
'Niagara.' He was murdered in Mexico in 1842.

EGG, AUGUSTUS LEOPOLD, the son of the eminent
gunrnaker of Piccadilly, was born in London in
1816. Though he took to the pencil and brush
whilst at school, he does not appear to have thought
of adopting the arts as a profession till about the
year 1834, when he went to Sass's Art School, and
shortly afterwards, in 1835, he was admitted a
student at the Royal Academy. Even thus early
he had commenced painting pictures of Italian
subjects, though a stranger to Italy, as well as
scenes from the pages of Scott ; but his first work
of importance was ' The Victim,' from ' Le Diable
Boiteux ' of Le Sage, which was exhibited at the
Liverpool Academy of Arts. To this he after-
wards, in 1844, painted a companion picture. Egg
then exhibited in London, and in 1836, and the
following years, we find his works on the walls
of the Society of British Artists, the British Insti-
tution, and the Royal Academy; but owing to
his having inherited a considerable fortune from
his father, he was independent of his art for
support and accordingly did not exhibit, as a rule,
more than one work each year at the Royal
Academy, to the exhibitions of which he sent, in
all, twenty-eight pictures. Of these, seven are
taken from Shakespeare, five are founded on scenes
in well-known works of fiction, and of the re-
mainder nine are from familiar incidents in history.
He was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy
in 1848, and an Academician in 1860. His pictures
are comparatively few for one who had won the
highest honours of his profession, but he was pre-
vented from doing more in his art by delicate
health, which compelled him to resort to the mild
climate of Italy and the South of France, and
latterly to Algiers, where he died and was buried
in 1863.

Egg's talent was exercised in a rather peculiar
field of study, comprising strictly historical in-
cidents, and passages from classic fable. In the
former class of -subjects he stands quite alone ; in
the latter, he, in some sense, occupied the same
ground as that in which Newton and Leslie fre-
quently laboured ; but his treatment of the latter
class of subjects is more fanciful than that of
either of those artists, whilst in subjects more
properly considered as inventive, a philosophic
spirit, somewhat melancholy in tinge, is observable,
which they do not display. His principal works are :

A Spanish Girl. 1838.

Laugh when you can. 1S39.

Scene from " Henry IV." 1840.

Scene from " Le Diable Boiteux." 1844. (National

GaUerii. )

Buckingham rebuffed. 1S46.
The Wooing of Kathariua. (" Taming of the Shrew.")


Luctntio and Bianca. (" Taming of the Shrew.") 1847.
Queen Elizabeth discovers she is no longer young.

Henrietta Maria in distress relieved by Cardinal de

Eetz. 1849.



Peter the Great sees Catharine, his future Empress, for

the first time. 1850.

Pepys's Introduction to Nell Gwynne. 1851.
The Life and Death of Buckingham. (Two pictures.)


The Knighting of Esmond. 1858.
Past and Present. (Three pictures.) 1858.
The Night before Naseby. 1859.
Madame de Maintenon and Scarron. 1859.
The Taming of the Shrew : Dinner scene : Katharine

and Petruchio. (His last picture. ) 1860

EGGERS, JOHANN KARL, a German historical
painter, born at Neu Strelitz in 1790, was in-
structed by Matthai at Dresden. He discovered
the old mode of fresco-painting, and was em-
ployed in the Vatican at Rome, where he painted
in the Braccio Nuovo. Subsequently he painted
under the direction of Cornelius in the Museum
at Berlin. Some of his oil-paintings are of con-
siderable merit. He died in his native town in

EGGERT, FRANZ XAVER, a German painter upon
glass, was born at Hochstadt on the Danube in
1802, and studied decorative painting at Augsburg
and Munich ; but he afterwards devoted himself en-
tirely to glass-painting, in conjunction with Ain-
miiller, Hammerl, and Kirchmair, and endeavoured
to raise that art from its long decline. He especi-
ally distinguished himself by the magnificence of
his ornamentation. His best works are in the new
church of the suburb Au at Munich, in the
cathedrals of Cologne and Ratisbon, and in several
churches at Basle, Constance, &c. He died at
Munich in 1876.

EG1NTON, FRANCIS, an English painter upon
glass, was born in 1737. He was brought up at
Handsworth, near Birmingham, and from 1784 to
1805 he contributed greatly to the advancement of
the art. Among his best works are to be noted the
' Resurrection ' in Salisbury Cathedral and in Lich-
field Cathedral; the ' Conversion of St. Paul' in St.
Paul's, Birmingham; 'Christ bearing the Cross'
in Wanstead Church ; and ' Solomon and the Queen
of Sheba ' at Arundel Castle. Besides these there
are windows by him in St. Asaph Cathedral,
Fonthill Abbey, and Magdalen and All Souls'
Colleges in Oxford. He died at Handsworth in

EGLEY, WILLIAM, a miniature painter, was born
at Doncaster in 1798. His first employment was
in a publisher's office in London, in the course of
which occupation he found time to practise paint-
ing, of which he had been fond from an early age.
After a short time he determined to follow portrait
painting as a profession, and in 1824 two of his
pictures were exhibited at the Royal Academy,
one of them being the portrait of Yates, the actor.
From this time he was a very constant exhibitor,
painting a great many portraits of members of well-
known English families, besides several foreigners
of distinction. One of his latest works was a por-
trait of Foley the sculptor, which was exhibited at
the Royal Academy in 1868. His death occurred
in London in 1870. His miniatures were very
carefully finished and pure in colour; and he was
especially successful in his treatment of children.

EGLOFFSTEIN, JULIE VON, Countess, canoness
of Hildesheim, born in 1792, was an amateur artiat
of much ability. She was one of the most beau-
tiful and gifted women at the court of Weimar,
and many of Goethe's poems bear witness to the
lively interest which he took in her artistic develop-
ment. She painted several portraits, including


those of the Grand-Duchess of Saxe- Weimar and
of Queen Theresa of Bavaria. Among works of
different character are ' Shepherds in the Roman
Campagna," painted in 1835, 'Hagarin the Wilder-
ness,' 'The Exposure of Moses,' ' Italian Popular
Life,' and others, some of which are in the posses-
sion of the Emperor of Russia and of Queen
Victoria. She died in 18G9.

EGMONT, JUSTUS VAN, was born at Leyden in
1602. He was in 1615 a pupil of Gaspar van den
Hoeck, but was afterwards sent to Antwerp to be
educated in the school of Rubens, whom he assisted
in several of his works, particularly those relating
to the life of Mary de' Medici, which he painted
for the Luxembourg Palace. On leaving the
academy of Rubens he went to Paris, where he
was appointed painter to Louis XIII. and after-
wards to Louis XIV., and executed several con-
siderable works in conjunction with Simon Vouet.
Van Egmont was one of the twelve elders at the
establishment of the French Academy of Painting
and Sculpture, in 1648. He died at Antwerp in
1674. In the Vienna Gallery there is a portrait
by him of the Archduke Leopold Wilhelm, and
two others of Philip IV. of Spain. The Hague
Gallery has a portrait of Louis XIV. by him.
Portraits of Algernon Sydney by him are in the
National Portrait Gallery, and at Penshurst, the

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