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latter painted at Brussels in 1663.


painter, was born in the steppes of the Kalmyks
about 1776, and died at St. Petersburg in 1851. A
'Holy Family' and the 'Scourging of Christ' by
him are in the Hermitage at St. Petersburg.

scape painter, was born at Frankfort in 1804, and
studied under Schirmer at the Diisseldorf Academy.
He died at Munich in 1842.

EHNLE, ADRIAEN JAN, a Dutch painter of his-
torical and genre subjects, was born at the Hague
in 1819, and studied under C. Kruseman. He died
in 1863. Among his works are ' Cornelis de Witt
at Dordrecht ' and ' The Reception of a Child at the
Orphan House at Haarlem.'

architectural painter, was born at Antwerp in 1630.
He was received into the Guild of St. Luke in
1662, under the name of Van Aerdenberch. It
has also been written Hardenberg, Eerdenborch,
Aerdenborch, Aremberch, &c. He probably died
about 1675. He painted the architecture in
a picture by H. van Minderhout, representing
' Caricina before the King of Ethiopia,' which was
presented by Van Ehrenberg in 1666 to the Guild
of St. Luke, and is now in the Antwerp Museum,
and in another by Biset, of 'William Tell,'
formerly in the possession of the Guild of St.
Sebastian at Antwerp, but now in the Brussels
Gallery. The landscape part is by Hemelraet.
In the Munich Gallery is an ' Interior of an Art-
Collector's Gallery,' in which the architecture is
by Van Ehrenberg, the figures by Gonzales Cocx
and Jordaens, and in the Vienna Gallery is the
'Interior of a Church ' by him. dated 1664. Van
Ehrenberg added the architecture to the large
picture in the Hague Gallery of the ' Interior of a
Picture Gallery,' in which Gonzales Cocx put the
figures and accessories, and the paintings are by
the hands of various artists.



EHRET, GEORG DIONYSIUS, a German botanical
draughtsman and engraver, was born at Baden
in 1710. After working for Jussieu in France, he
settled in England in 1740, and supplied the illus-
trations for Trew's ' Plantse Selectee,' and Brown's
'History of Jamaica.' He also painted a large
botanical collection for the Duchess of Portland.
He died in 1770.

EIBNER, FRIEDRICH, a German painter of archi-
tectural subjects, was born at Hilpoltstein in 1826.
He studied after the works of Heinrich Schonfeld,
and travelled in Bavaria, and afterwards in Ger-
many, France, Upper Italy, and Spain, making a
large number of water-colour drawings of the
places he visited. The Album for the Prince
Metschersky, with whom he travelled in Spain in
1860-61, may be considered his best work. He
died at Munich in 1877.

graver, was born at Berlin in 1804. He studied
engraving first under Buchhorn ; and then went,
in 1827, with a grant from the government, to
Paris, where he received instruction from Forster,
and later to Parma, where he studied for three
years under Toschi. He subsequently visited Flor-
ence, Rome, Naples, Venice, and Milan. On his
return in 1833 he became a drawing-master in
a government school. He died at Berlin in 1877.
Eichens engraved some of Kaulbach's frescoes in
the Berlin Museum, and also his ' Shakespeare
Gallery.' Among his prints are the following :

Madonna ; after Steinbrtick. 1833.

Adoration of the Kings ; after Raphael. 1836.

The Magdalen ; after Domenichino. 1837.

Madonna ; after Rajfaellino del Garbo. 1839.

Portrait of Mendelssohn ; after Hildebrandt. 1840.

The Vision of Ezechiel ; after Raphael. 1841.

Frederick the Great as Crown Prince ; after Feene.


' Come here ' ; after Begas. 1847.
The Woman taken in adultery ; after Pordenone.

EICHHORN, ALBERT, an architectural and land-
scape painter, was born at Freienwalde-on-the-Oder
in 1811, and studied under Tempeltei and Biermann
at Berlin. In 1840 he visited Italy and Greece,
where he made numerous sketches, which after-
wards served him for the subjects of his paintings.
Among his works, which are chiefly in the posses-
sion of the German Emperor, may be mentioned,
' Taygetus,' ' The Temple of Pheigalia,' ' St. Peter's
at Rome,' 'The Temple of Corinth,' 'The Cam-
pagna,' &c. He died by suicide at Potsdam in

EICHHORN, HANS, a printer and wood-
engraver of the 16th century, was employed by
the Elector Joachim II. He died at Frankfort
in 1583.

EICHLER, GOTTFRIED, an historical and por-
trait painter, was born at Augsburg in 1677. He
studied under Johann Heiss, but went afterwards
to Rome to improve under Carlo Maratti. His
'Last Supper,' in the church of the Franciscans at
Augsburg, gives ample proof of his talent. He
died in 1759.

Augsburg in 1715, was a portrait painter and
engraver in line and mezzotint. He died in 1770,
leaving a son, MATHIAS GOTTFRIED EICHLER, also
an engraver, who was born at Erlangen in 1748,
and died at Augsburg in 1818.

EICK, MARTIN VAN, a Dutch painter, was a
native of Remerswaal in Zealand. He flourished

during the first half of the 16th century, and was
a contemporary of Pieter Aartsen.

EIGNER, ANDREAS, who was born at Diedldorf,
Upper Palatinate, in 1801, distinguished himself
as a painter and a restorer of old pictures. He
successfully employed alcoholic vapours, and a
varnish of his own invention, to protect paintings
against the destructive influence of the atmo-
sphere. He was chiefly employed in the Galleries
of Munich, Augsburg, Stuttgart, Carlsruhe, Basle,
and Solothurn. He died at Augsburg in 1870.

German painter, about whom we have no details.
There is by him in the cathedral of Halberstadt a
triptych, representing the ' Crucifixion,' dated 1508.

man painter and engraver, born at Ratisbon in
1597, painted portraits, landscapes, still-life, and
historical subjects. He died at Nuremberg in 1660.

German draughtsman and engraver, was born at
Ratisbon in 1638. He was instructed by his father,
and resided at Nuremberg, where he died in 1705.
He engraved some plates for Sandrart's 'Academia,'
and some small etchings of ruins, buildings, and
vases, ornamented with figures, which have con-
siderable merit. He was also a mathematician and
astronomer, and published in 1701 ' Iconographia
nova contemplationum de Sole.'

EIMMART, MARIA CLARA, a daughter of Georg
Christoph Eimmart the younger, was a designer
and engraver. She was born in 1676, and usually
worked with her father. She married the astrono-
mer, J. H. Muller, and died at Altdorf in 1707.

EINSLE, ANTON, an Austrian portrait painter,
was born at Vienna in 1801. He studied at the
Academy of that city, and was largely patronized
by the court and nobility. He died in 1871.

draughtsman, painter and engraver. He was born
at Valenciennes on August 7, 1720. His father,
Frans Eisen, and his mother, Marguerite Guisne,
had eight children, Charles was the third. The
boy's first drawing-master was his father, who
greatly developed his son's talent for designing
and his taste for engraving. In 1741 he went to
Paris, and in the following year entered the studio
of Le Bas. His talent and his sparkling wit gamed
him admission to the court, where he became
painter and draughtsman to the King, and drawing-
master to Madame de Pompadour. The King
appointed him Court painter. He worked assidu-
ously, and with marked success, taking his in-
spirations direct from nature, but adding some-
thing of the ideal, after the manner of Watteau
and Boucher. His work was as various in kind
as it was attractive in quality. Large compositions,
decorative panels, copies of statues and fountains,
studies of the nude and portraits, exercised his brush,
his pencil, and his graver ; as well as lovely
designs for furniture, costumes, and all sorts of'
pretty things a la, mode. His vignettes were
marked by unusual delicacy and grace. Almost
all tlie more important books published in France
in his time contain his exquisite plates ; and their
bindings testify to his good taste. Baudicour
relates that " he engraved with a light point and
with striking originality." He was never received
at the Royal Academy, but the Academy of St.
Luke opened wide its doors to him, and from 1751
to 1774 he passed through the various grades of
member, Professor, Councillor and Rector. He



was also a member of the Academy of Fine
Arts at Rouen. In 1777 he quitted Paris suddenly,
having displeased Mme. de Pompadour, as some
say, and settled at Brussels with his wife ; and
he died there on January 4, 1778. Among his
pictures were :

Icarus and Daedalus; Salon, 1751 (piece de reception).
The Swing (signed and dated 1771) ; Bourg Museum.
Shepherd and Shepherdess; The Bird's Nrst ;
Villagers dancing ; Villagers resting ; Bordeaux

The last four are in Lancret's manner, and were
in the La Gaze Collection till 1829. The Museums
at Alengon and Bourg also have pictures by Eisen.
Of his etchings and designs the following were
most remarkable :

Sixty-eight designs hi black and red for ' Tales from La

Illustrations for an edition de luxe for 'Les Ferrniers

Generaux,' in black chalk on vellum (published at

Amsterdam in 1762, originally in the collection of the

Due oT Aumale).
Henri IV. et Gabrielle d'Estrees, black chalk and quill

pen, engraved by Mouchy, and exhibited in 1779 at

L']5cole des Beaux Arts in Paris ; perhaps Eisen's

Bacchus arriving at Naxos, and other mythological


Saint Mary nourishing Christ, and St. Jerome.
St. Eloy preaching (now in the church of St. Esprit,


Military Exercises. 1754.

Illustrations to Ovid's 'Metamorphoses.* 1767-70.
Illustrations to Voltaire's ' Henriade." 1771.
(These are exquisite vignettes in red chalk on cream


Diana and Endymion. 'J
Aurora. \-Salon, 1774.

Holy Family. }

At the British Museum and at the Victoria and
Albert Museum are many drawings, etchings by,
and prints after, C. D. J. Eisen.

EISEN, FRANZ, Belgian-French painter and
engraver. Born at Brussels 1695. His first art
lessons were learned in the churches and galleries
of his native city. He had a natural talent for
historical and genre painting. In 1714 he settled
at Valenciennes, where his talent was speedily
recognized. He painted important pictures for
the church of the Brigitines, for the high altar
of the Beguinage, and for the refectory of the
monastery of Vicoigne, and executed other similar
commissions in that city. He married Marguerite
Guisne,and had eight children Charles Domenique
Joseph being the third. In 1731 he married for a
second time Marie Frangoise Joseph Bulo, who
also bore him a child. Professional jealousies
arose which caused him to leave Valenciennes,
and he bent his steps to Paris, where he arrived in
1745. At the age of eighty-two he and his wife
were admitted into the Hospital for Incurables,
where he died in 1777.

EISENHOUT, ANTONIE, a Dutch painter and
engraver, flourished at Rome about 1590. He was
a native of Varnbourg, and was still livina: in 1619.
It appears that be has been miscalled 'Eisenhart'
by Christ, and that some of his works have been
ascribed to other masters. Brulliot refers to some
attributed to Luca Ciamberlano by Bartsch, which
he conjectures should be given to Eisenhout.

EISMANN, JOHANN ANTON, sometimes errone-
ously called LEISMANN, LISMANN, or LUIRMON, a
German painter of landscapes and battles, was born


at Salzburg in 1634. Without the help of a master
he bad acquired some ability in drawing, by copying
the prints and pictures to which he had access,
when he resolved to visit Italy for improvement,
and went to Venice, where his natural talent, as-
sisted by the study of the works of the best masters
of that school, soon asserted itself. Although he
painted battle-pieces and portraits, he was more
celebrated for his landscapes and seaports, which he
embellished with architecture, somewhat in the
style of Salvator Rosa. He died at Venice in 1698.
There are in the Dresden Gallery two ' Landscapes
with Ruins,' which are by him, and in the Vienna
Gallery is a ' Landscape with a Combat of Cavalry.'
He adopted his pupil, Carlo Briseghella, who took
the name of Eisznann, and painted the same class
of subjects as his master. Hence there is some
confusion in the accounts of both.

Venice in 1679, the pupil and adopted son of
Johann Anton Eismann who at Venice had
formed a friendship with his father, Mattia Brise-
ghella painted landscapes, sea-pieces, and battles
in the style of his master. The Dresden Gallery
contains three cavalry lights and a battle-piece by
him. After the death of Eismann he appears to
have settled at Ferrara. He published in 1706 an
account of the paintings in the churches of that city.

EISSNER, JOSEPH, an Austrian engraver, was
born at Vienna in 1788. He studied under Schmut-
zer and afterwards under Leybold, and practised on
his own account from 1814. From 1822 he was
drawing-master at the Academy in the Neustadt at
Vienna, where he died in 1861. He etched a number
of plates, and engraved, along with other historical
subjects and portraits, the following works :

La Madonna della Sedia ; after Raphael.

The Praying Madonna ; after Sassoferrato.

Rembrandt's Mother ; after Rembrandt.

The Fall of the Angels ; after Luca Giordano.

EKELS, JAN, the elder, born at Amsterdam in
1724, was a scholar of Dirk Dalens, the younger.
He painted views of cities in the manner of Jan
ten Compe. His pictures are generally of a small
size, and are highly finished, with a good effect of
light and shade. He died at Amsterdam in 1781.

EKELS, JAN, the younger, a Dutch painter of
genre pieces and an imitator of the old masters,
especially of J. Molenaer, was born at Amsterdam
in 1759. Two pictures by him, one representing
' A young Man drawing,' and the other ' A Peasant
lighting a Pipe,' are in the Stadel Gallery at Frank-
fort. He died in 1793.

ALESSON, ) a lithographic artist, was born in
Sweden in 1791. He studied and practised his
art at Vienna, Munich, and Augsburg, but was
afterwards appointed by the King of Wiirtemberg
to be professor and director of the newly estab-
lished Lithographic Institute at Stuttgart. He
chiefly executed landscapes and architectural views
after Adam, P. Hess, and Wagenbauer ; but his
best plates are ' A Forest Scene,' after Waterloo ;
a 'Landscape,' after Wynants ; and 'Wiirtemberg
Stallions,' after R. Kunz. He produced some other
animal pieces, and also painted landscapes with
animals. He died at Stuttgart in 1821.

EKMAN, ROBERT WILHELM, a genre painter, was
born at Nystad in Finland in 1808, and died at
Helsingfors in 1873. He was educated at the
Stockholm Academy under Sandberg; and travelled
much, especially in Italy. His pictures consist of


scenes from northern life, christenings, peasants'
cottages, forest scenes, &c. Amongst them are :

An old "Woman with a Bible.
A Dutch Sailor Family.
Bobber Scene.

KLEYN HANSKEN (' Little John '), an historical
painter, was born at Elburg, near Campen, in
1500. He represented the figures in the manner
of Frans Floris, and also excelled in landscapes
and storms at sea. In Antwerp cathedral is his
picture of 'The Miraculous Draught of Fishes.'
In 1536 he was admitted into the Guild of St. Luke
at Antwerp. He died in that city in 1551.

ELDER, CHARLES, an historical painter, was born
in 1821. He exhibited at the Royal Academy
from 1845 till his death, which took place in
London in 1851. Amongst his works are:

Sappho. 1845.

Florimel imprisoned. 1846.

The Death of Mark Anthony. 1847.

Euth gleauing. 1848.

Rosalind. 1850.

Weary Travellers. 1851.

ELDER, WILLIAM, a Scottish engraver, resided
in London about the year 1680. He was one of
those who were employed by the booksellers ;
and we have a few portraits by him, among which
are the following :

His own Portrait, with a fur cap.

The same, with a wig.

William Bancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury.

John Pearson, Bishop of Chester.

Ben Jonson, prefixed to his ' Works,' 1692.

Sir Theodore de Mayerne, Physician.

Admiral Russell.

Sir Henry Pollexfen, Chief Justice of the Common


John Ray, Naturalist.
Richard Morton, M.D.
George Parker, Astrologer.
Charles Snell, Writing-master.

ELFORD, Sir WILLIAM, Bart., an amateur land-
scape painter, was born in Devonshire in 1747.
From 1784 he occasionally exhibited at the Royal
Academy, contributing landscapes, often with
effects of sunset and of shower. He was made a
baronet in 1800, and died at Totnes in 1837.
There is a landscape by him at Windsor Castle.

ELIAERTS, JEAN FRANgois, a Flemish painter
of animals, flowers, and fruit, was born in 1761 at
Deurne-Borgerhout, near Antwerp, in the Academy
of which city he studied. He passed his life in
France, but died at Antwerp in 1848. In the
Antwerp Museum is a flower-piece by him.

ELIAS, MATHIED, (ELYAS, or ELIE,) was born at
Peena, near Cassel, in 1658. His parents were
extremely poor, and he was employed when a boy
in attending cattle, in which humble situation he
was noticed by a painter of Dunkirk, named Philippe
Decorbehem, tracing objects on the ground. The
artist, struck with the singularity of the circum-
stance and the evident disposition of the boy, pre-
vailed on his mother to intrust him to his care.
After instructing him for some time he sent him
to Paris for improvement, where he met with em-
ployment, and resided several years. On the death
of Decorbehem, he settled at Dunkirk, and painted
some altar-pieces for the churches in that town and
its neighbourhood. He died at Dunkirk in 1741.

ELIZABETH, Princess, the third daughter of

George III., was born in London in 1770. She
married, in 1818, Frederick William Louis, Land-
grave of Hesse-Homburg, and died at Frankfort
in 1840. She was much attached to the arts of
design, and several of the productions of her pencil
were published, accompanied by the poetical
effusions of the minor bards of the day, under the
folio wing titles:

The Birth and Triumph of Cupid ; a poem, by Sir James

Bland Surges, Bart. 1796.
Cupid turned Volunteer; with poetical illustrations bv

Thomas Park. 1804.

The Power and Progress of Genius. 1806.
Six Poems illustrative of engravings by H. R. H. the

Princess Elizabeth. 1813.

_ ELKAN, DAVID LEVY, a lithographer and de-
signer of arabesques, born at Cologne in 1808,
studied at Diisseldorf, and became known by his
imitations and compositions in the style of the-
middle ages. He died in his native city in 1866.

ELLENRIEDER, MARIE, the best German female
painter of the first half of the 19th century,
was born at Constance in 1791. She learned the
rudiments of art from the miniature painter Einsle,
and in 1813 went to Munich, and studied under
Langer in the Academy there until 1820. After
having twice visited Rome, she became acquainted
with Overbeck, whose art-teaching she afterwards
followed. Soon after her return from Rome she
painted the ' Virgin and Child,' which is considered
her best work. Subsequently she painted altar-
pieces and portraits, and etched twenty-four plates
after Langer, Overbeck, Rembrandt, and Titian.
She died at Constance in 1863. A ' St. Felicitas '
by her is in the possession of the Queen.

ELLIGER, ANTHONIE, the son and pupil of the
younger Ottomar Elliger, was born at Amsterdam
in 1701, and died at Ede in 1781. He painted
historical, mythological, and allegorical pictures
upon ceilings and walls. His daughter, CHRISTINA
MARIA ELLIGER, was a portrait painter.

ELLIGER, OTTOMAR, the elder, born at Gothen-
burg in 1633, was the son of a physician, who,
finding in him a strong inclination for art, sent him
to Antwerp, at that time the residence of so many
able artists, where he became a scholar of Daniel
Seghers. He painted flowers and fruit in the
highly-finished style of his master, and attained
sufficient ability to be invited to the court of
Berlin, where he was appointed painter to William
Frederick, Elector of Brandenburg. The pictures
of this artist are almost entirely confined to
Germany, where they are held in considerable esti-
mation. Examples are in the Dresden Gallery and
in the Stadel Gallery at Frankfort. He died at
Berlin in 1679.

ELLIGER, OTTOMAR, the younger, the son of
Ottomar Elliger the elder, was born at Hamburg in
1666. After being instructed in the first elements
of the art by his father, he was sent to Amsterdam,
where he became a scholar of Michiel van Musscher,
a painter of small portraits and conversations, under
whom he studied a short time, but being ambitious
of distinguishing himself in a higher walk of art,
and the works of Gerard de Lairesse being then in
high reputation, he entered the school of that
eminent master, whose instruction enabled him in
a few years to dispense with further assistance
Elliger painted historical subjects in the style ol
De Lairesse, which were judiciously composed
and correctly drawn. Like his instructor, he wag
particularly attentive to propriety of costume, and



style of architecture. He was employed by the
Elector of Mayence, for whom he painted the
' Death of Alexander,' and the ' Marriage of Peleus
and Thetis. ' His principal works are at Amster-
dam, where he died in 1732. In the Vienna
Gallery is a ' Woman with Fruit ; ' in the Cassel
Gallery are ' The Feast of Cleopatra,' and ' The
Daughter of Herodias dancing ; ' and in the Bor-
deaux Museum is an 'Allegory,' all of which are
by him.

ELLINGER, Abbot of Tegernsee (10171048),
is stated to have illustrated a manuscript of Pliny
the Elder with figures of the animals described in
the text ; and in like manner the writings of other
authors. In the Munich Library there is an Evan-
geliarium with paintings by him.

ELLIOT, WILLIAM, an engraver, was born at
Hampton Court in 1727. He engraved several
landscapes, which were admired for their taste
and freedom, and of which the best are from the
paintings of the brothers Smith, of Chichester.
He died in London in 1766. We have by him
the following plates :

A Landscape with Cattle ; after Rosa de Tiwli.

A View near Maestricht, with Cattle ; after A. Cuyp.

A Landscape with the Flight into Egypt ; after Poelen-

A large Landscape ; after G. Smith.

A set of four Landscapes ; after G. and T. Smith.

A set of six plates of Horses ; after T. Smith.

Two Landscapes, Spring and Summer; after Van

Portrait of Helena Forman, the second wife of Eubens ;
after Rubens.

ELLIOT, WILLIAM, a marine painter, flourished
in the latter part of the 18th century. Amongst
his works are two pictures of the 'British Fleet'
(one dated 1790) at Hampton Court, and ' The
Loss of the Andromeda.'

trait painter, was born at Scipio, New York, in
1812. He began life as a clerk at Syracuse, but
devoted all his leisure time to drawing and paint-
ing, and about 1834 went to New York, where he
became a pupil of Trumbull. After practising for
about ten years in the western parts of the State he
(settled in New York, and is said to have painted
more than seven hundred portraits of eminent
people. His likenesses are remarkable for their
vigour and truth; indeed, that of Fletcher Harper
was sent to the Paris International Exhibition of
1867 as a typical example of American portraiture.
Among his best portraits are also those of Fitz-
Halleck Greene, the poet, James Fenimore Cooper,
Matthew Vassar, the painters Church and Durand,
Governor Morgan, and Colonel Colt. _ There are
among other works by him, ' Don Quixote,' ' Fal-
Btaff,' ' Andrew van Corlear the Trumpeter,' and
' The Head of Skaneateles Lake,' which is said to
have been the only landscape he ever painted.
Elliott died at Albany in 1868.

ELLIOTT, Captain ROBERT, R. N., an amateur
marine painter, lived in the latter part of the 18th
and the beginning of the 19th century. He made
many sketches during his travels, from which
Prout and Stanfield made drawings, and which
were published in 1830. Amongst the works he

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