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exhibited at the Royal Academy between 1784
and 1789 were :

The Fleet in Port Royal Harbour. 1785.

View of the City of Quebec. 1786.

Breaking the French Line, Lord Rodney's Action. 1787

Fire at Kingston, Jamaica. 1783.

126



ELLIS, EDWIN, a well-known landscape and
marine painter. He was a native of Nottingham,
where he was born in the year 1841. As a lad of
fifteen he worked in a lace factory there for five
years at lace-designing, but the occupation proved
utterly uncongenial to him, and his life-efl'orts were
subsequently devoted to art. He had the benefit
of whatever instruction Henry Dawson could give
him, and afterwards went to France to complete
his artistic education. The principal part of his
canvases were seascapes ; and the power of his
brush in depicting these was universally acknow-
ledged. He became a member of the Society of
Royal British Artists and exhibited the utmost
ind'ustry ; and his sudden death on April 19,
1895, cut short a career that had as yet never
realized its full promise. One of his early water-
colours, full of power, was the picture entitled ' Off
Flamborough Head,' which showed the wreck of
a schooner in an easterly gale. This canvas is
now in the collection of Mr. Gilbert Moss, at
Aigburth, near Liverpool ; and some eighty-four of
his pictures were exhibited at the Nottingham Art
Museum in 1893 ; amongst them, ' After Three
Days' Gale,' with its turbulent sea and flying clouds ;
and also his ' Full Summer,' showing the great
white Yorkshire cliffs glistening in the sunlight.

ELLIS, JOSEPH F., a marine painter, born in
Ireland about 1780, came to London about 1818,
and exhibited a few pictures at the Royal Academy
and the British Institution. He is, however, chiefly
to be remembered by his clever imitations of
Canaletto's works, which were palmed off on the
public as originals by an unscrupulous picture-
dealer, into whose hands, through misfortunes, he
fell. He died at Richmond, in Surrey, in 1848.

ELLIS, WILLIAM, a landscape engraver, was born
in London in 1747. He executed some plates in
conjunction with William Woollett, whose pupil he
had been ; and there are several charming prints,
mostly landscapes, by him from the designs of
Paul Sandby and Thomas Hearne, as well as five
views of the ' Battle of the Nile,' in aquatint, after
William Anderson, published in 1800. The year of
his death is unknown.

ELLYS, JOHN, a portrait painter, was born in
1701. He studied under Thornhill and Schmutz,
and was a follower of Van der Banck, to whose
house and connection he succeeded. Besides hav-
ing a large practice, he held the two crown appoint-
ments of tapestry-weaver and keeper of the lions.
In 1755 he was a member of the committee for
the foundation of an Academy. Amongst his
portraits are :

Lord 'WTiitworth, the diplomatist. (At Knole Park.)
Figg, " the mighty combatant."

ELMER, STEPHEN, a painter of dead game and
objects of still-life, was elected an Associate of
the Royal Academy in 1772, the year of his first
exhibition, and resided principally at Farnham in
Surrey, where he died in 1796. He represented
subjects of still-life with great fidelity, and with a
very spirited pencil. His son practised in Ireland
at the close of the century.

ELMORE, ALFRED, an historical and genre
painter, was born at Clonakilty, in the county of
Cork, on the day of the battle of Waterloo, June
18th, 1815. His father was a retired army surgeon,
who when his son was about twelve years of age
removed to London, where young Elmore began
his career by drawing from the antique in the
British Museum. In 1832 he entered the schools



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



of the Royal Academy, and in 1834 exhibited
there his first picture, a ' Subject from an Old
Play.' After this he went abroad, visiting Paris,
Munich, Venice, Bologna, Florence, and ultimately
Rome, where he remained for two years. He
returned home in 1844, and in that year exhibited
his ' Rienzi in the Forum,' which attracted much
notice, and with 'The Origin of the Guelph and
Ghibeline Quarrel in Florence,' exhibited in 1845,
secured his election aa an Associate in the latter
year. His next popular picture was ' The Inven-
tion of the Stocking Loom,' exhibited in 1847,
and engraved for the Art Union of London. In
1857 Elmore was elected a Royal Academician, and
painted as his diploma work a subject from the
" Two Gentlemen of Verona." But the best picture
which he ever painted was that which he exhibited
in 1860 of ' The Tuileries, 20th June, 1792,' repre-
senting the terrible scene of Marie Antoinette as-
sailed in her own palace by the revolutionary mob.
One of the most impressive pictures which he ex-
hibited after this was ' _Within the Convent Walls,'
in the Academy Exhibition of 1864. He painted
chiefly pictures of romantic incident, the subjects of
which were occasionally drawn from his own fancy,
but oftener derived from fiction or poetry. His
greatest successes, however, were won in historical
painting. Elmore died at Kensington, January
24th, 1881, and was buried in Kensal Green Ceme-
tery. Besides the pictures above mentioned, the
following are his principal works:

The Martyrdom of St. Thomas a Becket. 1840. Painted
for Daniel O'Connell, and now in St. Andrew's Roman
Catholic Church, Dublin.

The Novice. 1843.

The Fainting of Hero. 1846.

The Deathbed of Bobert, King of Naples. 1848.

Eeligious Controversy in the time of Louis XIV. 1849.

Griselda. 1850.

The Emperor Charles V. at Yuste. 1856.

An Incident in the life of Dante. 1858.

Marie Antoinette in the Temple. 1861.

The Invention of the Combiug Machine. 1862.

Lucrezia Borgia. 1863.

On the Brink. 1865.

After the Expulsion. 1873.

Mary, Queen of Scots, and Darnley, at Jedburgh.
1877.

Lenore. 1871.

ELSASSER, FRIEDEICH AUGUST, a painter of
landscapes and architectural views, was born at
Berlin in 1810, and studied at the Academy of that
city under Blechen, whose influence on art was at
that time very great. In 1831 he went to Italy,
and in 1834 and 1835 he visited Sicily. Among
his choicest works are : ' The Forest of Calabria,
' The Interior of a Church at Palermo,' ' A View of
the Ruins at Rome,' &c. The King of Prussia
sent him the Order of the Red Eagle, and granted
him a pension for life, which he did not long enjoy,
as he died at Rome in 1845. His brothers, HEINRICH
and JULIUS ELSASSER, were also landscape painters.
The latter -was born at Berlin in 1815, and died at
Rome in 1859.

ELSEVIER, AERNOUT, a Dutch painter of land-
scapes and conflagrations, was born about 1575 at
Douai, but his parents removed to Leyden in 1580.
He died after 1629.

His son, Louis ELSEVIER, who was also a painter,
was born at Leyden in 1615, and died at Delft in
1675.

ELSHEIMER, ADAM, (ELSHAIMER, Or ELZHEIMER,)

a German painter, was probably born at Frankfort
in 1574, but the dates of his career are differently



reported. He was the son of a tailor, and waa
placed at an early age under the care of Philipp
Uffenbach, who, though a reputable artist, was
soon surpassed by his disciple. Finding no
further means of improvement in his own country,
Elsheimer went to Rome, where he studied the
works of the great masters, and in a short time
his pictures, which were very distinct from the
works of all of his contemporaries, were held in
general estimation. He was fond of landscapes
with figures of such importance that the land-
scape interest is subordinated to that of the in-
cident represented. His pictures were small and
finished with the greatest perfection and detail,
a quality then entirely new in Italy, especially
when studied with extreme fidelity to nature. His
power over light and shade was nearly as great as
that of Rembrandt, who, in the next generation,
followed out the same characteristic of intense
chiaro-scuro. Elsheimer delighted in torchlight,
moonlight, and the dusk of evening, all of which
effects he represented with greater excellence than
had before been accomplished. He possessed so
extraordinary a memory, that it was sufficient for
him to have looked at an object or scene once
to draw it with the most surprising precision.
The extreme patience and labour with which he
finished his pictures was such, that the prices he
received for them never sufficiently repaid him for
the time spent upon them. If the unfortunate
painter had been paid for them a fourth part of
what they have since produced, he might have
lived in affluence instead of the state of indigence
and distress in which he passed the greater part
of his life. As it was, he was cast into prison,
although a man of irreproachable habits, and this
preyed upon his mind. His only benefactor was
Count Goudt, who purchased some of his choicest
pictures, and has engraved seven of them in a
highly-finished manner, well adapted to their style.
Elsheimer is perhaps better known by these en-
gravings than by his own pictures. ' Ceres drink-
ing from the Witch's Goblet,' ' Jupiter and Mer-
cury in the home of Baucis,' ' The Flight into
Egypt,' 'Tobit and the Angel going home,' are
among the number. The copperplate of the last
named fell into the hands of Rembrandt, and was
partly erased and altered by him into another
subject. The elder Teniers, as well as Rembrandt,
studied carefully the works of Elsheimer. He died
in Rome in 1620. The following works by him
are in public galleries :

Oassel. Gallery. Meeting of Elias and Obadiah.

Dresden. Gallery. Flight into Egypt.
Dulwich. College. Susannah and the Elders.
Florence. Uffizi. His own Portrait.
Apostles.

Two Landscapes.
Frankfort. Slti-Iel. Paul and Barnabas at Lystra.

Bacchus and the Nymphs of Nysa.

Hague. Museum. Two Italian Landscapes.

London. Nat. Gallery. Martyrdom of St. Lawrence.
Madrid. Gallery. Ceres in the house of Becubus.

Munich. Gallery. Martyrdom of St. Lawrence.

" Triumph of Christianity.

Burning of Troy.

Flight into Egypt.

St. John the Baptist preaching.

Paris. Luurre. The Flight into Egypt.

The Good Samaritan.

Petersburg. Hermitage. St. John tne Baptist in the Desert.

A Forest.

Rome. Sciarra Pal. Keturn of the Prodigal Son.
Vienna. Gallery. Kest on the Flight into Egypt.



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP



ELSHEIMER, JOHANN, a brother of Adam
Elsheimer, was born at Frankfort in 1593, and died
previous to 1636. About 1632 he painted 'The
Story of Virginia,' now on the Imperial Staircase
in the Roraer at Frankfort.

ELSHOLTZ, LDDWIG, a German painter of
genre subjects and battles, born at Berlin in 1805,
studied in the Academy of his native city, and
afterwards in the studio of Franz Kriiger, the
painter of horses. His best work is ' The Battle of
Leipsic,' painted in 1833, and now in the posses-
sion of the German Emperor. He died at Berlin
in 1850. In the Berlin National Gallery is ' The
Beginning of the Fight,' dated 1834.

ELST, PIETEB VAN DEE. See VAN DEE ELST.

ELSTER, GOTTFEIED RUDOLF, an historical
painter who worked for some time at Dusseldorf,
executed a number of religious pictures, among
which are a ' Holy Family,' in the possession of the
Prince of Hohenzollern, and some cartoons for the
Zionskirche at Berlin. He died in that city in 1872.

ELSTRACKE, REGINALD, an engraver who
flourished in England about the year 1620, worked
chiefly for the booksellers, and his plates are almost
entirely confined to portraits. These are more
sought after for their scarcity and their connection
with English history, than for their merit as en-
gravings. He also engraved the title-page and
several of the portraits for Holland's ' Baziliwlogia.
A Booke of Kings. Seeing the true and liuely
Effigies of all our English Kings from the Con-
quest vntill this present.' The following portraits
are by him :

James I.

Queen Elizabeth.

Mary, Queen of Scots. One of hi a best prints.

The same, with Lord Daruley.

Thomas Howard, Earl of Suffolk.

Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex.

Gervase Babiugtou, Bishop of Worcester.

Sir Julius Caesar, Master of the Rolls.

Sir Thomas More.

Sir Philip Sidney.

Thomas Sutton, founder of the Charter House.

Edmund, Lord Sheffield.

John, Lord Harrington.

William Knollys, Viscount Wallingford.

William Cecil, Lord Burghley.

Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden.

Richard Wkittington.

ELTZ, JOHANN FEIEDEICH VON, born in 1632, was
one of the first artists who worked in mezzotint.
His works are now rare ; examples of them are an
'Ecce Homo,' after Albrecht Diirer, and a portrait
of Johann Philipp von Schonborn, Elector of
Mayence, after Th. C. von Fiirstenberg. He died
at Mavence in 1686.

ELVEN, TETAB VAN. See TETAE VAN ELVEN.

ELYAS, MATHIED. See ELIAS.

ELZHEIMER, ADAM. See ELSHEIMER.

KM I'.DE, VON DER. See VON DER EMBDE.

EMELHAET, PHILIPPUS AUGUSTUS. See
HEMKLRAET.

EMES, JOHN, a water-colour landscape painter,
practised about the end of the 18th century, and ex-
hibited at the Royal Academy in 1790 and 1791.
He also engraved Jeffereys' ' Destruction of the
Spanish Batteries before Gibraltar.'

EMLER. BIINAVENTURA, an Austrian artist, was
born in 1831, and studied at the Academy of
Vienna. He became celebrated by his illustrations
to the 'Divina Commedia' of Dante, and died in
1862.

128



EMMANUEL, a Greek priest and painter, is the
author of a picture in the Byzantine style in the
National Gallery, London. It represents ' St.
Cosmo and St. Damian receiving the Divine Bless-
ing,' and is signed x 'P 'E/i/iovotnjX ifptwc TOV r^avc
('the hand of Emmanuel, priest of Tzane '). It is
suggested, in the catalogue, that this Emmanuel
may be identical with the Emmanuel mentioned
by Lanzi, who lived at Venice in the 17th century,
and executed a painting dated 1660.

EMMANUELLO DA COMO, Fra. See COMO.

EMMETT, WILLIAM, an engraver who flourished
about the year 1710, among other prints engraved
a large view of the interior of St. Paul's Cathedral,
which is executed in a neat, clear style ; as well
as three exterior views of the same edifice.

EMPIS, CATHERINE EDHEE SIMONIS. See SIMONIS-
EMPIS.

EMPOLI, JACOPO DA. See CHIMENTI.

ENDER, JOHANN NEPOMUK, an Austrian historical
and portrait painter, was born at Vienna in 1793.
lu 1829 he became a professor in the Academy of
his native city, where he died in 1854. He is dis-
tinguished for his oil-paintings and water-colour
drawings, and a ' Madonna and Child ' by him is in
the Vienna Gallery. His son, Eduard Ender, is a
well-known Viennese painter of historical and
genre subjects,

ENDER, THOMAS, an Austrian landscape painter,
the twin brother of Johann Nepomuk Ender, was
born at Vienna in 1793. From the age of twelve
he studied in the Academy of Vienna, where, in

1816, he obtained the grand prize for painting.
In 1836 he was appointed a tutor, and afterwards
professor of landscape in the Academy. Through
the patronage of the Archduke John and Prince
Metternieh, he accompanied, as draughtsman, the
scientific expedition sent by Austria to Brazil in

1817, and made a collection of seven hundred draw-
ings, which are now at Vienna. Three views by
him are in the Vienna Gallery. He died in Vienna
in 1875. In the Berlin National Gallery is his
' Italian Wood Chapel.'

ENDLICH, PHILIP, a Dutch engraver, was born
at Amsterdam about the year 1700. He was a
pupil of Bernard Picart, and was chiefly occupied
on portraits, among which are the following :

Hendrik, Count of Moens.

John Taylor, a celebrated oculist. 1735.

Juan Felipe d'Almeria, Governor of the Isle of St.
Martin.

Jan Gosewyn E. Alstein, ecclesiastic of Amsterdam.
1738.

Jan Noordbeck ; the same.

Pieter Hollebeck ; the same.

Leonard Beels ; the same.

ENDRES, BERNHARD, was born at Owingen, in
Baden, in 1805, and studied genre and historical
painting at the Academy of Munich. Two of his
works are in the Gallery at Carlsruhe, the portrait
of Pope Julius II., after Raphael, and 'Christ
bearing the Cross.' He died in 1874.

ENDTER, SUSANNA MARIA. See SANDBABT.

ENGEL, KABL, a German painter, was born in
1817 at Londorf, and died in 1870 at Rodelsheim.
The Darmstadt Gallery has a 'View of the Studio
of the Sculptor Scholl,' by him.

ENGELBRECHT, CHEISTIAN and MAETIN, two
printsellers and engravers, who resided at Augs-
burg, flourished about the year 1721. Christian
Engelbreclit, conjointly with J. A. Pfeffel, engraved
some ornamental works for goldsmiths, after A.
Morrison ; and some views for the ' History of



GEORGE ENGLEHEART




[Collection of J. P. Morgan, Esq.
MISS BEDINGFELD




[Collection of A/r. George hlackey
MISS ANN PRITCHARD




[Collection of Mr. George Mackey

A GIRL
(NAME UNKNOWN)




[Collection of Air. George Mackey
MISS HESTER WOOLLEY



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Architecture,' published in 1721 by J. Hernhard.
Martin Engelbrecht engraved some plates after
Rugendas and other masters, and some illustrations
for Ovid's ' Metamorphoses.'

ENGELBRECHTSEN, CORNELIS, (or ENGEL-
BERTS,) the son of a wood-engraver, was born at
Leyden in 1468. The pictures of Jan van Eyck,
the alleged inventor of oil-painting, being at
that time the object of curiosity and admiration,
Engelbrechtsen applied himself to study the works
of that master, and is said by Van Mander to have
been the first artist of his country that painted in
oil. The paintings by this master which escaped
the troubles of that country were preserved with
great care in the church of Our Lady at Leyden.
They represented the 'Crucifixion,' the 'Descent
from the Cross,' ' Abraham sacrificing Isaac,' with
some small pictures of the ' Life of the Virgin ' :
these were well composed, and of a less
Gothic style of design than was usual at
the early period at which he lived. They
sometimes bear the accompanying mark.
His principal work was an altar-piece,
painted for the Epitaph of the family of Lock-
horst, in the church of St. Peter at Leyden, and
composed of a great number of figures represent-
ing the 'Adoration of the Lamb.' The National
Gallery has a ' Madonna and Child ' by him. The
Antwerp Museum has two double pictures by him :
the one, ' St. Leonard delivering prisoners,' and
'St. George;' the other, scenes from the life of
St. Hubert. A ' Crucifixion ' by him is in the
Munich Gallery. Engelbrechtsen died at Leyden
in 1533. He is thought to be identical with the
"Cornelis de Hollandere" who was free of the
Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp in 1492.

ENGELMANN, GOTTFRIED, a German litho-
grapher, who also painted in water-colours, was
born at Muhlhausen in 1788, and died there in
1839. He was a pupil of Sennefelder, the inventor
of lithography, and of C. von Mannlich, and he
introduced the art into France.

ENGELRAMS, CORNELIS, (or ENGHELRAMS,) a
Flemish painter, born at Mechlin in 1537, excelled
in painting historical subjects in distemper. His
best work, representing the ' Seven Works of
Mercy,' is in the cathedral of St. Rombout at
Mechlin. There are several of his pictures in
Germany, where he passed some years. At Ham-
burg, in the church of St. Catharine, is a large
altar-piece by him of the ' Conversion of St. Paul.'
He died at Mechlin in 1583.

ENGERTH, ERASMUS, an Austrian artist, who
was born at Vienna in 1796, studied at the
Academy of his native city, and afterwards in
Italy. On his return home he painted portraits
and historical pictures, and also made successful
copies from the great masters, but he subsequently
devoted himself exclusively to the art of restoring
paintings. He was keeper of the picture gallery
of the Belvedere, and died at Vienna in 1871.

ENGHELSZEN, CORNELIS. See VERSPRONK.

ENGLEHEART, FRANCIS, a line-engraver, born
in London in 1775, was a brother to George
Engleheart, the miniature painter. He learned
the art as an apprentice to Joseph Collyer, and
as an assistant to James Heath. His first inde-
pendent works were the illustrations to Akenside,
after Stothard, whose ' Canterbury Pilgrims' he had
a large share in engraving, and the illustrations
to Homer after Cook. He also engraved some of
Smirke's drawings for ' Don Quixote,' and several
VOL. IL K



plates for the 'Literary Souvenir,' 'Amulet,'
' Gem,' and other Annuals, among which is the last
portrait of Lord Byron, after W. E. West. He
died in 1849. Besides the works already named,
his best plates are :

Duncan Gray ; after Sir David Wilkie.
The Only Daughter ; after the same.
The Castle ; after Cook.
Sir Calepine rescuing Serena ; after Hilton.

ENGLEHEART, GEORGE, miniature painter to
George III., and brother to Francis Engleheart,
was born at Kew in 1750. As a lad he was sent
first to the studio of George Barret, R.A., hut did
not long remain with him, and soon became a
pupil to Sir Joshua Reynolds, many of whose
works he copied in miniature. In 1775 he com-
menced to practise for himself, and from that
time down to 1813 continued in constant work,
painting 4853 portraits of the notable persons of
his time, and exhibiting many at the Royal Academy.
In 1813 he retired with a comfortable fortune, and
left Hertford Street, Mayfair, where he had pur-
chased considerable property, for his country home
at Bedfont, Later on he resided with his son at
Blackheath, and there he died in 1829. His minia-
tures were of great beauty and are very highly
esteemed. He left behind him a Fee Book which
mentions the names of every person whom he
painted between 1775 and 1813.

See ' George Engleheart, 1 by G. C. Williamson,
London, 1902.

ENGLEHEART, HENRY, son of George Engle-
heart, born 1801, died 1885, a clever artist in
water-colour and in pencil. His architectural
drawings, mainly of foreign cathedrals, are of
great beauty and refinement, and resemble the
work of Prout.

ENGLEHEART, JOHN Cox DILLMAN, nephew
of George Engleheart and his pupil, was born in
1783. He was a very popular artist, and exhibited
157 works at the Royal Academy, and many
others at different exhibitions. His health failed
when ho was forty-four years of age, and he left
England for Italy. On his return, being in pos-
session of an ample fortune, he retired from his
profession, and settled first at East Acton and
then at Tunbridge Wells, where he died in 1862.
His works are notable for their brilliant colouring
and gorgeous effect, but some of his simpler por-
traits are of supreme beauty and full of character.

See ' George Engleheart,' by G. C. Williamson,
London, 1902.

ENGLEHEART, THOMAS, was a brother of
Francis Engleheart the engraver, and was chiefly
known for his wonderful sculpture in wax, many
examples of which he exhibited at the Royal
Academy. He was also, however, an expert
draughtsman, working with Flaxman for Josiah
Wedgwood, and his pencil drawings are of great
beauty and refinement. He was born in 1745, and
had two sons, Timothy and Jonathan, both en-
gravers. He Hied in 1786.

ENGLEHEART, TIMOTHY STANSFELD, a line-
engraver, a son of Francis Engleheart, was born
in London in 1803, and died there in 1879. He
engraved several plates for the ' Literary Souvenir,'
' Forget me not,' and other Annuals.

ENGLISH, JOSIAS, was an amateur engraver,
who resided at Mortlake, where he died in 1718.
He executed an etching of ' Christ with the Two
Disciples at Emmaus,' after Titian, and in 1654 a

129



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



set of small upright plates of the ' Gods and Demi-
gods. ' His best work is a spirited etching of a
half-length of a 'Man regaling,' after F. Cleyn.

ENGSTROM, WILHELM OSCAR, a Swedish animal
painter, was born in 1831, and died at Diisseldorf
in 1877.

ENHDBER, KARL VON, a genre painter, was born
at Hof, in Voigtland, in 1811. He was the son of
a civil officer, who when his son was eighteen
months old removed to Nordlingen. After study-
ing at the Munich Academy, he was at first
an animal painter ; he then worked at represent-
ations of the Thirty Years' War ; and only through
the study of the works of Metsu and Terborch
did he discover his true talent. He was admitted a
member of the Munich Academy in 1858, and died
at Munich in 1867. He excelled in characterizing
middle-class home life, with its pleasures and
troubles, and was gifted with natural humour,
which was the foundation of his delicate deline-
ation of character. To be mentioned amongst his
works are :

Berlin. Gallery. Return of the Munich Guards-

man. 1844.

Darmstadt. Gallery. Sessions Day in Bavaria.

Munich. Gallery. A Grandfather watching his

Grandson at play with toy
Soldiers.
,. A Carver in his Workshop.

ENNIS, W., an Irish historical and portrait
painter, was born in the first half of the 18th cen-
tury. He studied at Dublin under Robert West,
and afterwards in Italy, and subsequently became



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