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a master in the Dublin Art School. He died,
through a fall from his horse, in the county of
Wicklow, in 1771.


ENSLEN, JOHANN KARL, a German landscape
painter, who was born in 1759 and died in 1849,
was well known in his time for his panoramas,
which were the first introduced into Germany.

ENSLEN, KARL GEORO, an Austrian painter,
born at Vienna in 1792, studied in the Academy of
Berlin. He travelled in Italy, Sweden, Norway,
and Denmark, and his panoramas give proof of a
knowledge of excellent linear and aerial perspec-
tive. He died at Lille in 1866. There is a view
of the ' Bay of Naples ' by him in water-colours in
the Lille Museum.


ENSOM, WILLIAM, a line-engraver, was born in
1796, and died at Wandsworth in 1832. He en-
graved 'Christ blessing the Bread,' after Carlo Dolci,
' St. John in the Wilderness,' after Carlo Cignani,
and several plates for the Annuals, of which the
best are those in the ' Bijou ' of George IV. and
Lady Wallscourt, after Sir Thomas Lawrence.

EPINAT, FLEURY, a painter of historical sub-
jects and landscapes, born at Montbrison in 1764,
imitated his master David, with whom he went to
Rome. He died at Pierre-Seise in 1830.


ERASMUS, DESIDERIUS, the eminent scholar,
born at Rotterdam in 1467, painted in 1484 a picture
representing ' Christ on the Cross, with Mary and
St. John.' This work, which is little known, is in
the style of the old Dutch masters, and is in the
convent of Emaus, called Steyne, near Gouda. He
died at Basle in 1536.






EREDI, BENEDETTO, an Italian engraver, was
born at Florence in 1750. He engraved, in con-
junction with J. B. Cecchi, nine plates of the
Monument of Dante, with his portrait. There are
also by him the following plates :


Luca Cambiaso, Genoese painter ; after a picture by


Federigo Zucchero ; after himself.
Angelo Bronzino ; Florentine painter.
Annibale Carracci.


The Transfiguration ; after Raphael.
The Adulteress before Christ; after Angelo Bronzino.
The Death of Lucretia ; after Luca Giordano.



Nuremberg in 1795, was instructed byZwinger and
Gabler, and afterwards went to Vienna and Rome.
Among the hundred and eighty-five plates which he
etched are several landscapes and views of con-
siderable merit. He committed suicide at Rome in

ERLINGER,GEORG,a printerand wood-engraver,
was working at Augsburg in 1516, and at Bamberg
from 1519 till his death in 1542. Among his wood-
cuts, which are very scarce, is one of ' Christ on
the Cross.'

ERMELS, JOHANN FRANZ, a German painter and
engraver, a pupil of Holtzman, was born near
Cologne in 1641. He resided at Nuremberg, and
painted for the church of St. Sebald in that city
a picture of the ' Resurrection ' ; he was more suc-
cessful, however, as a painter of landscapes, in
which he imitated the style of Jan Both. He died
at Nuremberg in 1699. In the Sta'del Gallery at
Frankfort is a ' Landscape ' by him, with figures
by J. H. Roos ; and in the Vienna Gallery is a
'Landscape with Fishermen' by him. A 'Land-
scape ' is also in the Milan Gallery. There are by
him a few etchings of landscapes, after Waterloo,
Breenbergh. &c., executed with spirit and taste.

ERRANTE, GIUSEPPE, born at Trapani, in Sicily,
in 1760, studied at Palermo and Rome, and was
employed in the Caserta Palace, Naples. On
account of his political opinions he was obliged to
remove to Milan, and afterwards established him-
self at Rome in 1810. Besides historical subjects,
ae painted portraits, in which he was especially
successful. He died at Rome in 1821.

ERRAR, (or ERRARD,) JOHAN, an artist, who
3ourished at Liege about 1670, etched landscapes
after Waterloo.

ERRARD, CHARLES, a French painter and archi-
tect, was born at Nantes about 1601, and is better
vnown as one of the chief founders and directors
of the Academy at Paris than as a painter and
jngraver. He studied in Italy, where he also spent
the greater part of his life. In 1635 he was admitted
a member of the Academy of St. Luke, and in 1665
was made director of the French Academy at Rome,
where he died in 1689.

ERRI, CAMMILLO, of Modena, is known only by
a picture of ' St. John the Baptist Preaching,' with
the date 1577, in the Modena Gallery.


ERTINGER, FRANZ, a German engraver, is said
by some to have been born at Colmar, by others


at Wyl in Swabia, in the year 1640. He resided
chiefly at Paris, where he engraved several plates,
which are not without merit, and where he died in
1700. His best prints are the following:


J. F. de Beughem, Bishop of Antwerp.
Niccolo Macchiavelli.
Gabriel du Pinau.


The History of Achilles, in eight Plates ; after Rubens ;

the same subjects have been since engraved by Baron.
Twelve Prints from the Metamorphoses of Ovid ; after

the miniatures of Joseph Werner.
Ten Plates of the History of the Counts of Toulouse ;

after Raymond de La Faye.

The Marriage at Cans in Galilee ; after the same.
A set of Friezes of Bacchanalian subjects ; after the same.
Several Views of Towns ; after Van der Meulen ; some

of them in the manner of Callot.

ERVEST, JAKOB, a scholar of Adam Elsheimer
painted marine subjects, and naval combats.

ES, JACOB VAN, (or ESSEN,) a Flemish painter,
was born at Antwerp in 1606. He was very suc-
cessful in the art of reproducing still-life, but
more especially fish, which he painted with an
almost deceptive similarity to nature. His master-
pieces are two 'Fish Markets,' in the Vienna
Gallery, with figures by Jordaens. The Madrid
Gallery also has two pictures of fish and a fruit
and flower piece by Van Es. The Sta'del Gallery
at Frankfort has a fish-piece by him. In the Ant-
werp Museum is a good example of his still-life
subjects, formerly in the Episcopal Palace, and in
the Lille Museum is a picture of 'Oysters and
Fruit,' which was formerly in the Abbey of Cysoing.
He died at Antwerp in 1665-66.

ESBRAT, NOEL RAYMOND, a landscape and
animal painter, was born in Paris in 1809. and
died there in 1856. He was a pupil of Guillon-
Lethiere and of Watelet, and from 1844 sent
pictures to various exhibitions.

ESCALANTE, JUAN ANTONIO, a Spanish painter,
born at Cordova in 1630, was a scholar of Francisco
Rizi, but he adopted the style of Tintoretto, as
well in colouring as in composition. Several of
his works in the churches of Madrid are highly
commended by Palomino. In the church of San
Miguel is a graceful picture of ' St. Catharine ' ;
nd in the church of the Espiritii Santo is an
altar-piece of the ' Dead Christ,' with other figures,
painted in the style of Titian. A similar picture
in the Dresden Gallery is ascribed to him. The
Hague Gallery has a ' Gipsy Woman telling an
Officer's fortune.' In the Madrid Gallery are two
works by him, ' A Holy Family,' and ' The Infant
Christ and St. John ; ' and in the Hermitage, St.
Petersburg, ' St. Joseph and the Infant Christ.' He
died at Madrid in 1670.


ESCHINI, ANGELO MARIA, a painter and engraver,
flourished at Modena in the 17th century: by him
more than one excellent plate representing the
' Virgin ' is known.


ESCOT, CHARLES, French painter and pastd-
liste ; born 1836. Excelled as a portrait painter,
and has left a large number of portraits that show
breadth and vigour of draughtsmanship and vivid
intensity of colouring. His house at Gaillac was
a veritable museum, the main attraction in this
being some thirty copies of ' La Tour.' Escot had


delayed his intention of bequeathing this interesting
collection to the Museum of Albi, but his death
occurred at Gaillac (Tarn) on May 5th, 1902,
before he had been able to express his wish in
proper legal form.

ESKILSSON, PETER, a Swedish genre painter,
was born in 1820, in the Billeberga parish, Schonen.
He was at first an under-officer in the Gota artillery
regiment, and then a book-keeper at Goteborg;
but by the assistance of a friend he was enabled in
1853 to go to Dusseldorf, where he studied under
Tidemand. In 1859 he was compelled for a time
to become a photographer at Stockholm, but he
afterwards illustrated Bellman, depicting the
Swedish popular life with great humour. He
became an associate of the Academy in 1866, and
died at Bremo, near Sigtuna, in 1872.



ESPINAL, JUAN DE, a Spanish historical painter,
was a native of Seville. He was the son and pupil
of Gregorio Espinal, who was also a painter, but
he afterwards entered the school of Domingo
Martinez, whose daughter he married. He was
chosen director of the School of Design which
Cean Bermudez and other lovers of art established
at Seville. Cean Bermudez says that he possessed
more genius than any of his contemporaries, and
but for his bad training and indolence would have
been the best painter whom Seville had produced
since the time of Murillo. A visit to Madrid late
in life made apparent his misspent time, and he
returned saddened and abashed to Seville, where
he died in 1783. His chief works were scenes
from the life of St. Jerome, painted for the monas-
tery of San Geronimo de Buenavista, and now in
the Seville Museum, and some frescoes in the
collegiate church of San Salvador.

ESPIN^S, BENITO, a Spanish flower painter, the
son of Josef Espin6s, was a native of Valencia.
He was appointed director of the Royal Academy
of San Carlos in Valencia in 1787, and died about
1817. Nine of his flower-pieces are in the Madrid
Gallery, whilst others are in the Museum of
Valencia, and in the Escorial.

ESPIN6S, JOSEF, a Spanish painter and engraver,
born at Valencia in 1721, studied painting under
Luis Martinez and Evaristo Munoz. He painted
for the convent of the Servites of the Foot of
the Cross, in Valencia, pictures of ' Our Lady of
Sorrows ' and of the founders of that order. He
engraved in line several prints of saints, and died
at Valencia in 1784, leaving a choice collection of
prints, drawings, and books.

historical painters, who dwelt at Burgos in the
early part of the 16th century, were brothers, who
usually worked together. In 1524, together with
Cristobal de Herrera, they gilded and decorated
with paintings the Lady chapel of the cathedral at

painter, born at Valladolid in 1562, was the father
of Jacinto Geronimo de Espinosa. He married
in 1596 Aldonza Lle6, at the Valencian town of
Cocentayna, where he resided for many years.
In 1600 he painted pictures of ' St. Lawrence' and
'St. Hippolitus,' and in the following year 'SS.
Sebastian and Roch,'for the church of Cocentayna.
These works were afterwards displaced, and passed
into the hands of one Andreas Cister, a scrivener.



In 1604-7 he executed, in conjunction with a certain
Jayme Terol, a scholar of Fray Nicolas Borras,
the pictures for the high altar of St. John the
Baptist's Church, at the town of Muro. Finally
taking up his abode at Valencia, he died there
about 1630.

scholar of Geronimo Rodriguez de Espinosa, was
born at Cocentayna, in Valencia, in 1600. He
studied also under Francisco Ribalta, and went
afterwards to Italy, where he acquired a boldness
of design and a vigour of colouring that resemble
the style of Guercino. His best pictures are in the
churches at Valencia, particularly in San Esteban,
and in the chapel of San Luis Bertran in Santo
Domingo. The principal altar-piece in the church
of the Carmelites is by this master, representing
the 'Transfiguration.' He died at Valencia in 1680.
Among his works are the following :

Dresden. Gallery. St. Francis of Assisi.
Madrid. Gallery. Mary Magdalen praying.

" Christ at the column.

St. John the Baptist.

Valencia. Museum. Christ appearing to St. Ignatius

The Communion of St. Mary

St. Louis Bertrand on his bier.

ESPINOSA, JUAN DE, born at Puente de la
Reyna, in Navarre, was employed in 1653 to paint
twenty-four scenes from the life of St. Millan,
for the monastery of St. Millan de la Cogolla. He
executed twelve with some skill, and after his
death the work was completed by Fray Juan Rizi.

ESPINOSA, JDAN DE, a Spanish painter of fruit
pieces, flourished towards the end of the 17th and
the beginning of the 18th century. Nothing is
known of his life. Two examples of his art are in
the Madrid Gallery.

ESPINOSA, MIGDEL DE, of Saragossa, a painter
of good repute, was invited in 1654 by the
Benedictine fathers, to paint for their monastery
of St. Millan de la Cogolla. Amongst his works
executed at the expense of the brotherhood were
pictures of the 'Miracle of the Water turned
into Wine,' and the ' Miracle of the Loaves and

ESQUARTE, PABLO, a Spanish painter of the
latter part of the 16th century, who studied at
Valencia, but afterwards went to Venice and be-
came a disciple of Titian. He had a great talent
for portrait painting, and perhaps excelled in other
departments, as the Duke of Villa Hermosa em-
ployed him to ornament his palace and country

ESSELENS, JACOB, a painter of Amsterdam in
the 17th century, is said to have been a pupil of
Rembrandt, but his works do not corroborate the
assertion. His pictures represent villages on the
banks of rivers, woody landscapes, buildings with
magnificent fountains, stag-hunts, and shipping
pieces, painted in a clear tone of colour, and with
figures spiritedly touched. The dates of his birth
and death are not recorded. A picture of ' Figures
by a River,' signed with his name, is in the
Rotterdam Museum ; a ' Fishing Piece ' is in the
Copenhagen Gallery ; and in the Glasgow Corpora-
tion Galleries is a ' Rendezvous of a Hunting



ESSENBECK, J. VAN, was born at Rotterdam in


1627, and died in 1678 ; but no further details of
his life are recorded. In the Glasgow Corporation
Galleries is a ' Hawking Party ' attributed to him.
ESSEX, RICHARD HAMILTON, an architectural
water-colour painter, was born in 1802. He
became in 1823 an associate of the Water-Colour
Society, where he exhibited till 1836. His works
also appeared at the Royal Academy. He died
at Bow in 1855.

ESSEX, WILLIAM, a clever copyist in enamel
of landscape and figure subjects, both by old and
modern masters, first exhibited at the Royal Aca-
demy in 1818, and for the last time in 1862, having
been appointed miniature painter to the Queen in
1839. Towards the end of his life he painted a
few miniature enamels from the life. His death
occurred at Brighton, in 1869, at the age of 85. His
son, WILLIAM B. ESSEX, who was a portrait painter,
died at Birmingham in 1852, aged 29.

ESTEBAN. RODRIGO, was painter to Sancho the
Brave, King of Castile. No work of his is known
to exist, but an account of a payment of one
hundred maravedis from the privy purse in 1291-
92 is to be found in a MS. book of accounts in the
Royal Library at Madrid.

ESTENSE, BALDASSARE, of Reggio, who was
born about 1443, has been supposed to have been
an illegitimate scion of the house of Este, since no
mention of his father's name ever occurs in con-
temporary records, whilst he was called ' Estensis,'
and received unusual promotion and rewards from
the Dukes of Ferrara. He was a pupil of Cosimo
Tura, and was also a medallist. In 1469 he painted
the likeness of Borso I. , and was ordered to present
it in person to the Duke of Milan. From 1471 to
1504 he was a salaried officer at the court of
Ferrara, living first in Castel Nuovo, for which he
painted a canvas that has perished, and after-
wards in Castel Tedaldo, of which he was the
governor. In 1483 he painted the portrait of Tito
Strozzi, now in the Costabili Gallery at Ferrara.
His will, dated 1500, is in the archives of Ferrara,
but the exact date of his death is unknown.

ESTORGES, J., a French engraver of the 17th
century, who etched a plate in the style of Pietro
del Po representing ' Christ on the Mount of

ESTRADA, JOSE MARIA, an historical and genre
painter of Valencia, who died at Madrid in 1873.
He has left, among other pictures, ' Diana observ-
ing the sleeping Endymion,' ' An Eating-house,'
and the portrait of Count Villalobos.

ESTRADA, JUAN and IGNACIO, were two brothers,
who worked together as painters, though Ignacio
was also a sculptor. They were born at Badajoz,
Juan in 1717, and Ignacio in 1724, and were
instructed by their father, Manuel Estrada, but
Juan received three years' further tuition from
Pablo Pernicharo, at Madrid. Many of their pic-
tures are still to be seen in the churches of Valencia,
Ignacio having furnished the designs, and Juan
carried out the execution. Juan died at Badajoz
in 1792, and Ignacio in 1790.

a painter and engraver, the son of a German
father, was born at Madrid. He served in the
German body-guard under Charles II., and until it
was disbanded in 1701 by Philip V., upon which
he devoted himself entirely to the above branches
of art, which he had already pursued as an amateur.
He died at Madrid in 1710. He published a ' Philo-
sophy of War' in 1675, and 'The Italian and



Hanfsicinql photo\ ' National Galtery, London



Spanish Fencing-Master' in 1697, and both of these
he illustrated with engravings.

ETLINGER, GEORO, was a German engraver on
wood, who resided at Bamberg. There is by him
a wood-cut representing Bishop Blaize, enclosed
in a border ornamented with symbols of the Gospel,
and executed with great spirit.

ETTY, WILLIAM, the eminent painter, was born
at York, March 10,1787. "Like Rembrandt and
Constable," writes Etty, in an autobiography pub-
lished in the ' Art Journal ' in 1849, " my father
also was a miller." In 1798 he was apprenticed
to Robert Peck, a letter-press printer at Hull, as
a compositor, " to which business," he says, " I
served seven full years faithfully and truly, and
worked at it three weeks as journeyman ; but
I had such a busy desire to be a painter, that
the last years of my servitude dragged on most
heavily. I counted the years, days, weeks, and
hours, till liberty should break my chains and set
my struggling spirit free." In 1806 he was invited
to London by his uncle, William Etty, of the firm
of Bodley, Etty, and Bod ley, of Lombard Street.
William Etty was himself " a beautiful draughtsman
in pen and ink," and saw promise in the crude per-
formances of his young kinsman, and besides help-
ing him during life, left him a sufficient sum after
his death to enable him to pursue his studies.
Arrived in town, he tells us : "I drew from prints
or from nature, or from anything I could ; I was
made at home at my uncle's, I was furnished with
cash by my brother. My first academy was in a
plaster-cast shop, kept by Gianelli, in that lane
near to Smithfield, immortalised by Dr. Johnson's
visit to see ' The Ghost ' there." He soon received
a letter of introduction to Opie, who introduced
him to Fuseli, by whom he was admitted as a pro-
bationer in Somerset House. He entered the schools
of the Royal Academy in the same week as Collins ;
and Hilton and Haydon were amongst his fellow-
students. By his uncle's generosity, who paid one
hundred guineas for him, Etty, in July, 1808, be-
came an in-door pupil of Sir Thomas Lawrence,
then residing in Greek Street, Soho. Lawrence
frequently employed him to make copies of his
portraits, but had little leisure to give substantial
assistance to his pupil in his studies. When his
year of study under Lawrence was expired, Etty
painted from nature, and copied the old masters
in the British Gallery : this, he says, he found
easy, after copying Lawrence. He was also a
constant student in the Life School of the Royal
Academy, where his industry was indefatigable,
yet he never gained a medal. He ventured at one
time to send six pictures to the Academy exhibition,
but all were rejected ; this happened year after year
at the Academy, and at the British Gallery, but by
discovering his defects, and by great industry
in endeavouring to correct them, he at last con-
quered his bad fortune. In 1811 he was comforted
by finding one of his pictures, 'Telemachus rescuing
Antiope,' hung at the Royal Academy, and from
that time forward he always obtained an entrance
for some of his works at the Academy or the
British Institution. He painted portraits also at
this time, but chiefly occupied himself on classical
subjects. In 1816 he visited Paris and Florence,
but returned home in less than three months. In
1822 he went to Italy, visiting Venice, Florence,
Rome, and Naples, but it was in Venice that he
found the greatest attractions: "Venice, the
birth-place and cradle of colour, the hope and idol

of my professional life." He studied in the aca-
demy there, and was elected one of its honorary
members. He returned to London early in 1824,
and in the same year exhibited ' Pandora formed
by Vulcan, and crowned by the Seasons,' which was
bought by Lawrence, and secured his election as
an Associate of the Royal Academy. He became
an Academician in 1828, and it was then suggested
to him that he should discontinue his practice in
the Life School, where he had been accustomed for
years to attend every evening during the session to
paint studies in oil from the living models, as it
was considered incompatible with the dignity of an
Academician to continue to take his place amongst
the students ; but he said he would rather decline
the honour of membership than give up his studies.
He resided in London from 1826 till 1848, when,
owing to failing health, he retired to his native city
York, where he died November 13, 1849. An ex-
hibition of Etty's works was held in the summer of
1849 at the Society of Arts, and his 'Life' by
Alexander Gilchrist was published in 1855. In
his autobiography Etty has himself pointed out
what he considered his greatest works. " My
aim in all my great pictures has been to paint
some great moral on the heart: 'The Combat,'
the beauty of mercy ; the three ' Judith ' pictures,
patriotism, and self-devotion to her country, her
people, and her God ; ' Benaiah, David's chief cap-
tain,' valour ; ' Ulysses and the Syrens,' the import-
ance of resisting sensual delights, or an Homeric
paraphrase on the ' Wages of Sin is Death ' ; the
three pictures of ' Joan of Arc,' Religion, Valour,
Loyalty and Patriotism, like the modern Judith ;
these, in all, make nine colossal pictures, as it was
my desire to paint three times three." Besides the
above-mentioned the following are his principal
works :

Sappho. 1811.

The Coral Finders. 1820.

Cleopatra's Arrival at Cicilia. 1821.

The Judgment of Paris.

Venus attired by the Graces.

The Wise and Foolish Virgins.

Hylas and the Nymphs.

The Dance described in Homer's Shield.

The Prodigal Son.

The Bevy of Fair Women. (Milton.)

The Bridge of Sighs, Venice.

The Destruction of the Temple of Vice.

The Rape of Proserpine.

La Fleur de Lis.

Adam and Eve at their Morning Orisons.

The Prodigal in the depth of his Misery.

The Prodigal's return to his Father and Mother.

The Origin of Marriage. (Milton.) Stafford House.


The Parting of Hero and Leander.

The Death of Hero and Leander.

Diana and Endymion.

The Graces : Psyche and Cupid.

Amoret freed by Britomart from the power of the

Zephyr and Aurora.

Robinson Crusoe returning thanks to God for his

In the National Gallery.

The Imprudence of Candaules, King of Lydia. 1830.

Window in Venice, during a Festa. 1831.

Youth on the Prow and Pleasure at the Helm. 1832.

The Lute-Player. 1833.

The Dangerous Playmate. 1833.

Study of a Man in Persian Costume. 1834.

Christ appearing to Mary Magdalen after His Resurrec-
tion. 1834.

II Duetto. 1338.



Female Bathers surprised by a Swan. 1841.
The Magdalen. 1842.

The Bather ' at the doubtful breeze alarmed.' 1844.

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