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Study for a Head of Christ.

At South Kensington.
Head of a Cardinal. 1844.
Cupid sheltering Psyche. 1823.
The Deluge (a nude female figure). 1815.

In the National Gallery of Scotland.
Series of three pictures illustrating the Deliverance of

Bethulia by Judith. 1827-31.
Benaiah, one of David's Mighty Men.
The Combat Woman pleading for the Vanquished.

1825. Exhibited in 1844.

In the Royal Institution, Manchester.
Ulysses and the Sirens.

ETZDORF, CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH, a landscape
painter, and the younger brother of Johann Chris-
tian Etzdorf, was born at Posneck, in the duchy 01
Saxe-Meiningen, in 1807. He was educated in art at
the Munich Academy, and at first practised porcelain
painting, but afterwards devoted himself to land-
scapes, in which he followed much the same style
as his brother, producing forest scenes, rocky
valleys, and winter pieces. After his brother's
death he returned for a while to Posneck, but
afterwards took to the business of tanning, and
settled first in Kissingen and finally in Wurzburg,
where he died in 1858. Besides his paintings he
has left eighteen etchings of landscapes, mostly
after his brother, and one lithograph.

ETZDORF, JOHANN CHRISTIAN MICHEL, a German
landscape painter, was born at Posneck, in the
duchy of Saxe-Meiningen, in 1801. He studied
landscape painting in Munich and its environs, and
displayed an especial talent in representing gloomy
forests, taking as his models the works of Ruisdael
and Van Everdingen. He visited Norway, the
North Cape, Sweden, Iceland, and England. One
of his best paintings is in the Modern Gallery at
Munich ; it represents a ' Forge by the side of a
Waterfall.' He died at Munich in 1851.

EUMARDS, of Athens, the foremost of the early
Greek painters, flourished about B.C. 540-500. He
appears to have introduced a degree of chiaro-
scuro into his pictures, which would seem to have
been not all monochrome. It is stated that he was
also the first to distinguish the male from the female
figure, and to denote age and disposition in the
depicting of his characters.

EUPHRANOR, who was born on the Isthmus of
Corinth, but resided at Athens, is stated to have
lived from B.C. 375 to 335, and to have studied
painting in the school of Aristeides. His chief
works were in a porch in the Cerameicus at Athens.
On the one side were the ' Twelve Gods,' and on
the opposite side, 'Theseus, with Democracy and
Demos,' in which picture Theseus was represented
as the founder of the equal polity of Athens. In
the same place was his picture of the ' Battle be-
tween the Athenian and Boeotian Cavalry at
Mantineia,' containing portraits of Epaminondas
and of Gryllus, the son of Xenophon. He also
excelled as a statuary, both in marble and metals.
He gave a peculiar dignity to his heroes, and Pliny
extols him for an exact symmetry in his pro-
portions. His picture of Theseus so satisfied him
that in comparing it with one of the same hero
painted by Parrhasius, he exultingly observed, that
" the Theseus of Parrhasius appeared to have been
fed on roses, and his with flesh."

EDPOMPDS, who flourished about B.C. 400-380,
134



founded the school of Sicyon upon his own princi-
ples as opposed to the softness of the Ionian school.
The 'Victor in the Gymnastic Combat' is one of
his best works. Pamphilus, the master of Apelles,
was his pupil.

EUSEBIO DI SAN GIORGIO, a painter of Perugia
in the early part of the 16th century, was a scholar
of Perugino, and painted for churches. His works
are imitations or copies after Raphael. A fresco
of the Archangel Michael, formerly in the Palazzo
Gualtieri at Orvieto, and now in the Leipsic
Museum, and which has been ascribed to Signor-
elli, is probably by Eusebio.

EUXENIDAS, an ancient Theban painter, who
flourished about B.C. 400 or 380, was the master of
Aristeides, but little else is recorded respecting
him.

EVANS, GEORGE, a portrait painter, who flourished
about the middle of the 18th century, was a mem-
ber of the Incorporated Society of Artists, where
he exhibited. He died before 1770.

EVANS, RICHARD, a copyist, was employed for
some time by Sir Thomas Lawrence to fill in the
background and draperies of his pictures. He for
many years resided in Rome, where he copied pic-
tures by the old masters, besides painting some
original portraits, and also attempting fresco-
painting. He died at Southampton in 1871, aged
87. The copies in the South Kensington Museum
of the Raphael arabesques are by him ; as are also
the following portraits in the National Portrait
Gallery :

Sir Thomas Lawrence ; after Lmcrence.
Lord Thurlow ; after the same.
Thomas Taylor, the Platonist.

EVANS, WILLIAM, known as " Evans of Eton,"
a landscape painter in water-colours, was born
at Eton in 1798, and succeeded his father as
professor of drawing at Eton College in 1818. In
1828 he was elected an associate, and in 1830 a
member, of the Water-Colour Society, where he
continued to exhibit till 1875. In his later years
he suffered much from a fractured jaw, and died
at Eton in 1877. Amongst his best works are :

Llanberis. 1828.

Barmouth. 1828.

Ferry on the Tay.

Burnham Beeches.

Doune Castle.

The Gleam of Hope.

Mill at Droxford. {South Kensington Museum.')

EVANS, WILLIAM, an engraver and draughts-
man, who flourished in the early years of the 19th
century, assisted Benjamin Smith, and made draw-
ings for Cadell's and Boydell's publications. He
drew for Cadell's ' Gallery of Contemporary Por-
traits ' (1822), and engraved some plates for the
Dilettanti Society's ' Specimens of Antient Sculp-
ture.' His portrait of James Barry, R.A. (drawn
in chalk for the 'Gallery of Contemporary Por-
traits ') is in the National Portrait Gallery.

EVANS, WILLIAM, a landscape painter in water-
colours, known as " Evans of Bristol," was born
in 1811. He lived for many years at an isolated
spot in North Wales, where he had abundant
opportunity of depicting the rough mountain
scenery in which he excelled. He became in
1845 an Associate of the Water-Colour Society,
and after 1852 he spent much time in Italy. He
died in London in 1858.

EVELYN, JOHN, who was born at Wotton, in
Surrey, in 1620, was an English gentleman who



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



claims a place among the amateur artists of his
country, as the engraver of five small plates of his
journey from Rome to Naples, which were
etched in Paris in the year 1649. They bear T|f
the annexed monogram. He etched likewise JjjJ/i
a view of his own seatatWotton, and another
of Putney. Evelyn was the author of one of the
earliest English publications on the subject of
engraving, entitled ' Sculptura,' published in 1662.
He died in London in 1706.

EVENEPOEL, HENRI, a young Belgian artist,
whose early death at Paris in his twenty-seventh
year cut short a career of great promise. The son
of a musician, Evenepoel studied at first in
Brussels, and subsequently in Paris, his debut
being made at the Salon in 1895, with certain
portraits which created a positive sensation in the
Parisian art world by their vigour and their almost
brutal sincerity of touch. The young artist's work,
however, with each succeeding year lost those
qualities of exaggeration and grossness which
detracted from its merit, as his later portraits,
exhibited at the Salon, amply proved. Passing
from portraiture to the presentment of figures
either in natural or artificial light, the artist pro-
duced several important works, such as his ' Moulin
Rouge,' 'Folies Bergeres,' 'Fete des Invalides,'
&c. He died in Paris, December 30, 1899. p.p.

EVENOR, an eminent painter of Ephesus. who
flourished about B.C. 420, was the father and
instructor of Parrhasius.

EVERD1NGEN, ALLART VAN, the younger
brother of Cesar van Everdingen, was born at
Alkmaar in 1612. He studied successively under
Roeland Savery and Pieter Molyn, both of whom he
greatly surpassed, and excelled in painting rocky
landscapes. The talents of Van Everdingen were
not, however, confined to subjects of that descrip-
tion ; he painted sea-pieces and storms with sur-
prising effect, and represented the tempest-tossed
waves with awful and terrific fidelity. In a voyage
which he made to the Baltic, he was shipwrecked
on the coast of Norway, where he was under the
necessity of remaining some time, until the vessel
was repaired. He employed this interval in making
sketches of the romantic wilds of that uncultivated
country, which furnished him with admirable sub-
jects for his pictures, in which the grand forms of
his rocks, and the picturesque effect of his water-
falls, are drawn with a taste, and painted with
a spirit, that entitled him to the appellation of
'The Salvator Rosa of the North.' His colouring
is simple and pure, his touch broad and facile, and
it is evident that every object in his pictures was
studied immediately from nature. The small
figures with which he embellished his landscapes
are correctly drawn, and very neatly touched. The
admirers of etchings are indebted to this excellent
artist for a number of plates executed in a free and
masterly style. His prints of landscapes amount
to about a hundred, of which eight of the largest
and most finished are very fine. He also engraved
a set of fifty-seven small prints for Gottsched's
translation of ' Reynard the Fox,' published in
1752. He sometimes signed his plates with his
name, sometimes with the initials A. V.
E., and at other times with the annexed
monogram. He died at Amsterdam in
1675.

Amsterdam. Museum. Norwegian Landscape.

Landscape.

..IT lin . Gallery. Norwegian Waterfall.



Gallery.



Berlin.

Cassel. Gallery.

Copenhagen. Gallery.



Darmstadt. Gallery.
Gallery.



Dresden.



Lille.

London.

Munich.


Paris.



Museum.

Bute Coll.

Gallery.


Louvre.



1656.



Norwegian Hilly Landscape.
A Castle by a River.
Woody Landscape.
Eocky Landscape. 1648.
River and Rocks. 1647.
And three others.
Waterfall.
A Rocky Valley.
Stag-hunt. 1643.
Four Landscapes.
Frankfort. Stddcl Jnst. Stormy Sea,

Landscape with Mill.

Northern Landscape.
Cascade. 1660.
View in Norway.
Landscape with Waterfall.
Stormy Sea-coast.
Landscape.

Landscape.

EVERDINGEN, CESAR VAN, born at Alkmaar
in 1606, was a scholar of Jan van Bronkhorst. He
painted historical subjects and portraits, and was
also an eminent architect. In 1632 he became a
member of the Guild at his native place, and in
1651 of that at Haarlem. One of his most
esteemed works was in the principal church of
Alkmaar, representing the 'Triumph of David.
He gained great reputation by a picture he painted
of the Portraits of the Company of Archers, for
their hall of assembly. He died in 1679.
His works are signed with the initials
C. V. E.,OT with the monogram annexed.
An important work by him (signed with his mono-
gram and dated 1652) is in the Hague Gallery. It
represents ' Diogenes in the market-place of Haar-
lem seeking an honest man,' and contains portraits
of the Steyn family of Haarlem.

EVERDINGEN, JAN VAN, the youngest of the
three brothers of the name, was born in 1625, and
died in 1656. He was instructed by his brother
Cesar, but painted only for amusement, being by
profession an advocate.

EVERITT, ALLEN EDWARD, a clever archae-
ologist, who executed water-colour drawings of
mediaeval remains both in England and on the
Continent. He was Hon. Sec. of the Royal Society
f Artists of Birmingham from 1858 to 1882, and
died in that year, aged fifty-eight.

EVERSDYCK, CORNELIS WILLEMSZ, was a por-
trait painter of Goes, who died there in 1649. In
the Rotterdam Museum are three pictures by him,
representing Officers and Members of the Company
of Archers, called " Edele Voetboog," at Goes ; two
of which are dated 1616 and 1624.

EVERSDYCK, WILLEM, the son of Cornells
Eversdyck, flourished at Goes about the year 1660.
He was a portrait painter, and several of his por-
traits were engraved by Houbraken. A picture of
Officers and Members of the Company of Archers,
called " Edele Voetboog," at Goes, by him, is in
the Rotterdam Museum.

EVRARD, PERPETE, a painter of portraits and
miniatures, was born at Dinant about the middle
of the 17th century, and was employed at several
foreign courts. He died at the Hague in 1727.

EWBANK, JOHN WILSON, a landscape painter,
was born at Darlington in 1799. Intended for the
Roman Catholic priesthood, he was sent to Ushaw
College, but, absconding, he apprenticed himself
to a house-painter in Newcastle, whence he was
taken to Edinburgh by Coulson. a decorator _ of
considerable ability: he afterwards received in-
struction from Alexander Nasmyth. He became
one of the foundation members of the Royal
Scottish Academy in 1826, and about that time

135



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



produced some works of a larger character, such
as ' George IV. at Edinburgh Castle,' ' The Entry
of Alexander the Great into Babylon,' ' Hannibal
crossing the Alps,' ' View of Edinburgh from
Inchkeith,' &c. He passed the last ten or twelve
years of his life in Sunderland, where through
intemperance he fell into great misery and want,
and died in 1847. His sea and shore views were
admirable in their simplicity, while their aerial
effect has seldom been surpassed. A ' Canal Scene
with Shipping' is in the National Gallery of
Scotland.

EWODTZOON, JAN, a Dutch wood-engraver,
who flourished at Amsterdam in the first half of
the 16th century, executed many of the designs
of Cornelis Teunisse or Antoniszoon, of which
' Mucius Scaevola,' a ' Woman mounted upon an
Ass,' and an ' Allegory upon the Flight of Time,'
bear his signature, and the two last the dates 1536
and 1537.

EXIMENO, JOAQUIN, a Spanish artist, born at
Valencia in 1674, painted fruit, flowers, birds,
fish, and objects of still-life, which he repre-
sented with great fidelity. He died in 1754. His
works are classed by Cean Bermudez with those
of his father, who bore the same Christian name,
and in conjunction with whom he painted. Their
pictures were much esteemed by amateurs of the
time, and four of large size are in the church of
Our Lady of the Pillar at Valencia.

EXSHAW, CHARLES, an historical painter and
engraver, was born at Dublin in the early part of
the 18th century. He studied at Rome, Amsterdam,
and probably in Paris, and engraved portraits of
the Van Loo family, but about 1758 he came to
London and endeavoured to start a drawing aca-
demy. He died in 1771. His prints are chiefly
imitations of the works of Rembrandt, and are not
without merit. Among other plates the following
are by him :

A Bust of an old Man, with a round hat ; after Rem-
brandt. 1758.

A Head of an old Man, with a beard ; after the same.
1758.

Joseph and Potiphar's "Wife ; after the same.

St. Peter's Bark in the Storm ; after the same.

A Girl carrying a Basket of Cherries, with two Boys,
each having a Gun ; after Rubens.

EYBEL, ADOLF, a German painterof historical and
genre subjects and of portraits, was born at Berlin
in 1808. He studied at the Berlin Academy, and
under Professor Kolbe, as well as in Paris under
Delaroche. One of his most noted pictures repre-
sents ' Richard Coeur-de-Lion with his Court listen-
ing to Blondel's Song.' He died at Berlin in 1882.
The following works by him may also be men-
tioned :

A Gleaner.

The Battle of Fehrbellin.

Scene from Sir "Walter Scott's ' Woodstock.'

Scene from ' Faust.'

A Wine Party.

EYBL, FRANZ, an Austrian portrait and genre
painter, was born at Vienna in 1806, studied in the
Academy of his native city, and became a member
of it in 1843. He died in 1880. He was for some
time custodian of the Belvedere Gallery, which
possesses two characteristic works by him :

An old Austrian Peasant "Woman leaving Church.

1847.
An old Beggar, in a mountainous landscape. 1856.

EYCK, GASPAR VAN, a Flemish painter of marine
136



subjects and sea-fights, was born at Antwerp about
the commencement of the 17th century, and was
received into the Guild of St. Luke in 1632. He
died in 1673. Three pictures by him are in the
Madrid Gallery.

EYCK, HUBERT VAN, if not the greatest, at least
one of the greatest artists that ever lived, was the
eldest of three brothers, born, according to Van
Mander, at Maaseyck in the Duchy of Limburg,
about the year 1366. Very little is known of his
history. He probably learned his art at Maas-
tricht; having served his apprenticeship, he appears
to have travelled and to have visited the borders
of the Mediterranean and the north of Italy be-
fore settling in Ghent early in the 15th century.
The treasurers of the municipality in 14245 paid
lu'm 6s. for a couple of sketches he made by order
of the magistrates, who in the following year
visited his works and tipped his apprentices. He
died on September 18, 1426, and was buried in
the church of St. John now the cathedral. His
brothers, who were not burghers of Ghent, had as
strangers to pay duties to the town on his pro-
perties which they inherited. Bequests of paint-
ings by Hubert occur in wills of the years 1413
and 1426. The following pictures are admitted by
competent critics to be by him :

1. The three Marys at the Sepulchre. Richmond, Sir
F. Cook.

2. Christ on the Cross, the Blessed Virgin and Saint
John. Berlin Museum.

3. The Blessed Virgin and Child, Saint Anne and F.
Herman Steenken, vicar of the Charterhouse of
Saint Anne ter IFoestine, near Bruges, from 1402 to
1404, and from 1406 until his death, April 23, 1428.
Paris, Baron G. Rothschild.

4. The Blessed Virgin and C hild standing before a hedge
of roses ; lost. A fifteenth-century copy in the
Berlin Museum.

5. The Fountain of living waters ; lost. A late fifteenth-
century copy in the Pi ado Museum, Madrid.

6. Portrait of a young man. Herrmaiuistadt.

7. The Vision of Saint Francis of Assisi. Pennsylvania,
J. G. Johnson, Esq. An enlarged copy in the Turin
Gallery.

8. Kobert Poortier protected by Saint Anthony; the
angel Gabriel on the outer side. Dexter shutter
of an altar-piece. Copenhagen Museum.

9. The polyptych of the Adoration of the Lamb, painted
for Jodoc Vyt, with the exception of the panels, on
the face of which are the figures of Adam and Eve.
Ghent Cathedral, and Berlin Museum.

The cypress, the stone pine, the great palm, the olive
and the orange are all found in No. 9 ; the two first
in No. 2 ; the cypress, the great palm and the orange
in No. 4 ; the palmetto in 1, 2, 7 and 8. The landscapes
in Nos. 1, 2, 3, 8 and 9 are artificially composed, not
realistic renderings of nature. The architecture in
3, 5 and 1 is scenic, not constructive; and in 1, 2 and
3 Southern, not Netherlandish. -ft-. H. J. W.

EYCK, JAN VAN, born at Maaseyck after 1380,
is said by Van Mander to have been about twenty
years younger than his brother Hubert ; his state-
ment to this effect, however, was probably only
founded on their two portraits on one of the side-
panels of the Ghent altar-piece. In these portraits
Hubert looks almost an old man, and Jan quite
young. The Duchy of Limburg seems to hare had
an early repute as a seat of art, and one I'ol van
Limburg, who was in the service of Jean de
Berri from 1400 to 1416, is known to us as an
excellent miniaturist. According to tradition the
Van Eycks sprang from an artistic family, but
nothing is known of their father. It is probable
that it was while Jan was living with his brother
that the new method of oil-painting was invented,




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PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



or rather, it should be said, that the unsatisfactory
methods of oil-painting previously known were
brought to perfection by them. It is difficult to
determine exactly in what the Van Eyck discovery
really consisted, for it is certain that a process of
mixing oil with colour was known at a much
earlier date. It was even described by the monk
Theophilus in his treatise, 'tractatus Lombardicus
qualiter temperantur colores,' written in the llth
century, and sculptured reliefs and statues were
constantly painted with oil-colours in the Nether-
lands long before the 15th century. But the
process invented by the Van Eycks must evidently
have solved some difficulty that had hitherto pre-
vented the successful application of oil-colour to
panel-painting, for their discovery was at once
eagerly welcomed by artists, and the greatest
anxiety evinced by the painters of Italy, as well
as by those of the Netherlands, to learn the secret
of their success. Vasari gives a graphic account
of the manner of the discovery, which in his first
edition he attributes solely to Jan, the name of
Hubert not being then known to him he just
mentions Hubert in the next edition ; other early
writers agree in ascribing the discovery to both
brothers, Hubert being at the time about forty
years of age, and Jan about twenty. With regard
to the discovery itself, it seems to have consisted
firstly in a varnish that was siccative without
being dark, and secondly in a liquid and colourless
medium that could be mixed with the colours, and
so do away with the necessity of using the old
coloured viscous varnish.

It is generally said that Van Eyck was in the
service of John of Bavaria, prince bishop of Lie'ge;
if so, after 1390 and before 1418, when that prince
resigned the bishopric, and seized the country of
Holland ; but of this there is no proof. The earliest
mention of him is in the accounts of the treasurers
of Holland, which show that he was engaged in
painting at the palace of the Hague from October
25, 1422, until September 11, 1424. John of
Bavaria died January 6, 1425, and on the 19th of
May following Van Eyck entered the service of
Philip duke of Burgundy at Bruges, by whom
he was appointed court painter and "varlet de
chambre," with a salary of one hundred pounds
per annum, and all the "honours, prerogatives,
franchises, liberties, rights, profits, and emolu-
ments thereunto appertaining." In August he
removed with his goods and chattels to Lille,
where he was no doubt employed on work for
the chapel of the duke's castle which had just been
restored. He took up his abode in a house be-
longing to Michael Ravary, clerk of the works of
the castle, where he resided until Midsummer 1428,
except when absent on secret journeys undertaken
at the duke's bidding. We are not told whither
he went, but for the two first he was paid 91 5s.,
and 360. On October 19, 1428, he sailed for Lisbon
with the embassy to the King of Portugal, his
mission being to paint the Infanta Isabella; during
his absence, besides stopping at Sandwich from
October 20 to November 13, and at Falmnuth from
November 20 to December 2, he visited Lisbon,
Arrayollos, Aviz, Compostella, Arjona and Cintra.
It is probable that he was sent on other journeys,
of which, owing to the destruction of the accounts
of expenditure during several years, we have only
mention of two : one, to Hesdin in 1431 ; the
other, a secret journey to foreign parts, for the
expenses of which he received 360. In addition



to his yearly salary he also received considerable
sums as gratuities. One of these was probably
connected with a transaction of a delicate nature
relative to a lady who became the mother of one
of the duke's mauy illegitimate children. In 1431
John bought a house and settled in Bruges. On
July 17 in that year the two burgomasters and
some other members of the town council went to
see certain of his works, when they gave his
servants a gratuity of 5s.gr. About this time Van
Eyck took to himself a wife ; to their daughter
Livina, born in 1434, the duke stood godfather, and
gave her as a present six silver cups weighing
12 marks which cost 96 l~2s.g. In 1435 John
polychromed six of the statues adorning the front
of the Town-house, together with the tabernacles
in which they stood ; for this work he received
28 V2s.g. He kept his office of Court painter
until his death, which took place at Bruges on
July 9, 1440. He was buried in the churchyard
of Saint Donatian, but by request of his brother
Lambert, on March 21, 1442, his body was removed
into the church and reinterred in the baptistery.
The following is a chronological list of paintings'
by Jan :

1421, October 30. Euthronement of S. Thomas of Can-
terbury ; entirely overpainted. Chatsworth.

1432. Nicholas Albergati, Cardinal of Saiiit Cross.
Vienna.

1432. The B. Virgin and Child. Ince Hall.

1432, October 10. Tiruotheus. National Gallery.

1432, October21. Portrait of a man. National Gallery.



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