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1434. John Aruolfini and wife. National Gallery.

1436. The B. Virgin and Child, S. Donatiau and Canon
G. de Pala, protected by S. George. ruyes.

1436. Jan De Leeuw, goldsmith. J'ienita.

1437. S. Barbara. Antwerp.

1439, January 31. Head of Christ. Berlin.
1439, June 17. Portrait of his wife. Bruges.

1439. The Virgin and Child by a fountain. Antwerp.

1440. N. de Maelbeka. Provost of S. Martin's, Ipres,
kneeling before the B. Virgin and Cbild ; unfinished.
Kessel-Loo, near Louvain.

The Annunciation (Saint Petersburg), the B. Virgin
and Child enthroned (Frankfort), a portrait of Bald-
win de Lannoy (Berlin), and the B. Virgin and
Child, S. Katherine, the donor protected by S.
Michael, and the Annunciation (Dresden), are also
certainly by John.

Portiaits of a man wearing a tau cross and holding

Einks (Berlin), and of Chancellor Eolin kneeling
efore the Virgin and Child (Paris), are attributed
by some to Jan, by others to Hubert.

Crowe and Cavalcaselle, 'The Early Flemish Painters,'
1872; O. Set-k. ' Kritische Betrachtungen iiber den
Genter Altar,' 1889 ; L. Kaemmerer, 'Hubert und Jan
van Eyck,' 1890 ; O. Seeck, ' Die charakteristischen
Unterschiede der Cruder van Eyck,' 1899 ; Voll, ' Die
Werke des Jan van Eyck,' 1900. The above are the
latest volumes on the Van Eycks. There have been
articles since in the ' Revue de 1'Art Chretien,'
'Zeitschrift fur bildende Kunst,' 'Nineteenth Cen-
tury,' ' Gazette des Beaux Arts,' and 'Athenaeum.'


EYCK, LAMBERT VAN. The name of Lambert
van Eyck occurs in the accounts of the Duke of
Burgundy ; he was a brother of Hubert and Jan.

EYCK, MARGARET VAN. It is known that the
Van Eyck brothers had a sister named Margaret,
who is said by old writers to have been an excellent
painter ; but no works can with any certainty be
assigned to her, though her name is often to be
met with in catalogues. She died before Jan. and

LO t


was buried, like her brother Hubert, in St. Bavon
at Ghent.

E YCK, NICOLAAS VAN, -who was born at Antwerp
in 1627, and died in 1677, painted cavalry en-
counters and camp scenes. In the Vienna Gallery
is a picture by him of 'Troops quartered in a
Village,' and in the Lille Museum is an equestrian
portrait. He is presumed to have been a brother
of Gaspar van Eyck.

torical painter, was bom at Brussels in 1809, and
studied under Navez, obtaining the first prize
at the Brussels Academy in 1835. He died at
Schaerbeek, near Brussels, in 1853. Amongst his
works are the following :

Abundance. (In the possession of the Queen.)
St. Sebastian.
The Crown of Thorns.

Parmegiano at the Sacking of Rome. (Brussels Mu-

Descent from the Cross. (Brussels Museum.)
Tobit restoring his Father's Sight.
St. Cecilia.




EYNDEN, FBANS VAN, born at Nymegen in
1694, studied under Elias van Nymegen at Rotter-
dam. Aided by the counsels of Chevalier Van der
Werf, he painted Arcadian scenes, which he exe-
cuted in the manner of Jan van Huysum, but not
with equal perfection. His skies and distances are
serene and delicate, and the clouds illumined hy
the sun are pleasingly reflected in the waters. His
scenes are skilfully varied, and the different kinds
of trees characterized with a neat and masterly
touch ; his figures also are well painted, and dis-
posed with judgment. He seldom signed his pic-
tures, unless required to do so by the purchaser
He died at Nymegen in 1742.

EYNDEN, JACOBDS VAN, a nephew of Frans van
Eynden, born at Nymegen in 1733, studied art
under his father, and painted principally water-
colour pictures of flowers, fruit, animals, and
views of towns. He, however, devoted a large
portion of bis time to science. He died at
Nymegen in 1824.

EYNDEN, ROELAND VAN, the younger brother of
Jacobus van Eynden, was born at Nymegen in
1747, and died at Dordrecht in 1819. Like bis
brother he devoted but a portion of his time to
painting, and is principally known by his works
on art and artists, of which the most important is
the ' Geschiedenis der Vaderlandsche Schilder-
kunst,' written in conjunction with Van der
Willigen, and published in 1816-1842.

painter and engraver, was born at Antwerp in 1605,
and died there in 1679. He was a pupil of Adam
van Oort. and painted portraits ; but he is better
known as an engraver. He executed several plates
after Rubens, Cornells Schut, and other painters of
the Flemish school ; and some of the prints for
the Teniers Gallery. They are engraved in a slight,
dark style ; and his drawing, though not very cor-
rect, is bold and masterly. Among other prints by
him are the following:

The Adoration of the Magi.
The Resurrection.

The Virgin and Child, with St. Bonaventure and Rubens

as St. George.

St. Gregory, surrounded with emblematical figures.
The Four Doctors of the Church, with St. Clara holding

the Sacrament.
St. Christopher.

The Virgin with the Infant Christ, seated in a bower
St. Peter and St. Paul.
The Judgment of Cambyses.
Peace and Prosperity.

The Assumption of the Virgin ; after Cornells Schvt.
The Trinity ; after the same.
The Martyrdom of St. George ; after the same.
St. Anne ; after the same.
The Risen Saviour ; after the elder Palma.
St John the Baptist ; after the same.
The Dead Christ ; after the younyer Palma.
The Ascension ; after the same.

EYRE, JAMES, a landscape painter, was born at
Derby in 1802. and received instruction from
Creswick and De Wint. He died in 1829.

EZPELETA, , a painter of Aragon, who ex-
celled in miniatures and illumination, was born at
Alagon, and died, aged 60, about the middle of the
16th century, at Saragossa, where he illuminated
with great delicacy many choir-books for the

a scholar of Antonio Palomino, flourished in the
early years of the 18th century. A specimen of
his skill in landscape is in the Madrid Gallery;
it represents ' Neptune with Tritons and Nereids,'
on a wooded sea-shore. He produced a series of
Saints for the church of San Felipe Neri at Madrid,
and various works for the palace of Buenretiro.


scape and genre painter, born at Brussels in 1782,
was first instructed by his father, but in 1799 he
went to Antwerp, and studied under Ommeganck.
He afterwards established at Brussels a china
manufactory, and abandoned painting on canvas
for painting on porcelain. He also etched upwards
of a hundred plates of landscapes and animals,
some after his own designs, and others after Om-
meganck, De Roy, and Van Assche. He died in

FABER, JOHAN, the elder, was one of the first
artists who worked in mezzotint. He was born
at the Hague about the year 1660, and came to
London about 1687, where he executed a consider-
able number of plates after his own designs. He
died at Bristol in 1721. The following are his best
works :

The Portraits of the Founders of Colleges at Oxford

and Cambridge.

The Heads of the Philosophers ; after Subens.
Dr. John Wallis, the mathematician ; after Kneller.
Humphrey Lloyd, of Denbigh, antiquary. 1717.

FABER, JOHAN, the younger, who was bom
in Holland in 1684, was instructed by his father,
Johan Faber the elder, and by J. van der Banck.
He greatly surpassed his father as a mezzotint
engraver, and was esteemed the ablest artist of his
time in that branch of art, after John Smith. He
died in London in 1756. Among his 165 plates,
which are executed in a bold and free manner,
there are .


In Indian ink and pencil} [De Pass Collection



The Beauties of Hampton Court ; after Kneller.

The Forty-eight Portraits of the Members of the Kat-

Cat Club ; after the same.

Charles II. in his robes, seated ; after Lely. 1750.
Edmund Halley ; after Murray. 1722.
A Man playing the Guitar ; after F. Hals. 1754.
Ignatius Loyola ; after Titian. 1756.
The Children of Frederick, Prince of Wales; after

Du Pan.

Caroline, Queen of George II. ; after J. van der Sanck.
Sir Isaac Newton ; after the same. 1726.
Michael Eysbrack, sculptor ; after the same.
Enoch Seeman, painter ; after the same.
George Lambert, landscape painter ; after the same.

FABER, JOHANN, a landscape painter, was born
at Hamburg in 1778, and died in the same city in
1846. He worked originally at historical subjects,
and painted the altar-piece, ' Suffer Little Children
to come unto Me,' for St. Catharine's Church at
Hamburg. On his journey to Italy in company
with J. A. Koch and Reinhardt, he was induced to
adopt landscape painting, in which line he is best
known. The Berlin Gallery contains a ' View of
the Capuchin Monastery, near Naples,' by him

painter, was born at Gottleube in 1772, and died
at Dresden in 1852. There are two landscapes by
him in the Dresden Gallery, one in the Harz
mountains, and the other in the Tyrol.

FABER, PIEEEE, a French engraver, who resided
at Lyons about the year 1621. He was chiefly
employed by the booksellers, for whom he engraved
several plates, in a neat style, but without much

a German painter, was born at Stuttgart in 1780.
He first devoted himself to painting, but subse-
quently became a soldier, and as a lieutenant
served in the Russian campaign, which he after-
wards illustrated by his sketches in a work en-
titled, ' Blatter aus meinem Portefeuille im Laufe
des Feldzugs 1812,' published in 1831-44. His
most noteworthy paintings are, ' The Passage of
the Beresina,' a work of great merit, and ' The
Coffee-Houae at Wilna.' He died at Stuttgart in

FABER DU FAUR, OTTO, distinguished German
painter of battle-scenes, was born at Ludwigsburg,
in 1828, his father being a general in the Wurtem-
berg army with considerable artistic talent. This
the son inherited to the full, and after a brief term
of service, resigned his commission in order to
devote himself entirely to art. He studied at first
with Max de Kotzebue in Munich, and subse-
quently in Paris with Yoon, completing his train-
ing with Piloty, the famous historical painter.
He was soon destined to take a foremost place
among German artists. At the outset he took
Piloty as his pattern, and produced historical
pictures such as the 'Departure of Frederick V.
from Prague,' but soon felt the fascination of
scenes from the career of the great Napoleon.
The retreat from Russia provided him with numer-
ous episodes for historical treatment ; an interest-
ing example in water-colour is now in the Luxem-
bourg, representing 'The Passage of the Beresina.'
The Franco-German war of 1870 also furnished
him with subjects ; and his ' Battle of Champigny,'
' Battle of Woerth ' (at Hamburg), and above all
his 'Ambulance behind a Barricade' may rank
among his best and most representative work.
The charm of the East was not lost upon Faber

du Faur, who, as the result of his travels in Spain
and Morocco, brought back with him many vigorous
sketches of Oriental life, a curious example of
which was exhibited at the Salon in 1899, entitled
La Razzia.' His death occurred at Munich on
August 17, 1901. p.p,

JJ'ABIO, Pio, a painter of Udine, studied at
Rome, and in 1678 became a member of the
Academy of St. Luke. He afterwards returned to
his native place, where he painted several altar-

FABIUS, called PICTOR, a Roman artist, de-
scended from the celebrated family of the Fabii,
painted principally at Rome, and in B.C. 304
decorated the Temple of Salus on the Quirinal
Hill, with a representation probably of the battle
gained by Bubulus over the Samnites. His paint-
ings were preserved until the reign of the Emperor
Claudius, when the above temple was destroyed
by fire. They were probably held in little estima-
tion, as Pliny, to whom they must have been known,
neither acquaints us with the subjects, nor com-
mends the execution. The art of painting in its
rude and early forms was general in Italy, but was
founded on the Etruscan style, which never ad-
vanced beyond a flat polychromatic treatment. In
the fine arts Rome owes all to Greece, and in paint-
ing never acquired the individuality which she did
in the other arts. That painting was then little
respected by the Romans, and that the title of
'pictor' was not considered as an honourable dis-
tinction, but rather intended to stigmatize the
illustrious character who had degraded his dignity
by the practice of an art which was held in no
consideration, may be inferred from a passage of
Cicero, in the first book of his ' Tusculan Disputa-
tions ' : " An censemus si Fabio nobilissimo homini
laudatum esset quod pingeret, non multos etiam
apud nos Polycletos et Parrhasios fuisse." No
tradition of Roman painting exists earlier than the
time of Fabius, nor does his example appear to have
been followed by any of his contemporaries ; for
an interval of nearly a hundred and fifty years
occurs before any mention is made of another
Roman painter.

FABRE, FRANQOIS XAVIER, a French painter ot
historical subjects, portraits, and landscapes, was
born at Montpellier in 1766. He studied under
Jean Constou and under David, and obtained the
' grand prix ' in 1787. He was at Rome in 1793,
and afterwards went to Naples and to Florence,
where he resided for some years, becoming a
professor in the academy, and marrying secretly
(it is said) the Countess of Albany, after the death
of Alfieri. He returned, to Montpellier in 1826,
and there founded the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, of
which he became director. He was created a
baron in 1830. He died in 1837 at Montpellier,
bequeathing to that city the collections of pictures,
engravings, cameos, and books which form the
Museum which bears his name. Amongst his chief
works are :

Philoctetes at Lemnos.

Saul pursued by the Shade of Samuel.

The Judgment of Paris.

The Death of Milo.

Portrait of Alfieri. (Uffi:i. Florence.)

Portrait of the Countess of Albany. (Uffi:i, Florence.)

Neoptolemus and Ulysses taking from Philoctetes the

arrows of Hercules. (Louvre.)
The Death of Abel. (Jlfusie Falre, Montpellier.)
The Holy Family. (Musee Fabre, Montpellier.)
The Death of Narcissus. (Jlfuse'e Fabre, Montpellier.)



The Family of the Kings of Etruria, Dukes of Parma
1804. (Madrid Gallery.)

FABRE, PIERRE, an engraver, was a native of
Lyons, where he worked about 1620. He executed
the engravings for some works published at Lyons,
representing the decorations erected in that city
for the reception of Louis XIII. in 1622.

FABRI, ALOISIO, an engraver, was born at
Rome in 1778, and died there in 1835. Amongst
his many works may be mentioned four plates after
Raphael's frescoes in the Vatican, in continuation
of a set of engravings commenced by Volpato
and Morghen, ' Constantino presenting Rome to
the Pope,' ' The Oath of Leo III.,' ' The Coronation
of Charlemagne,' and ' Charlemagne's Victory over
the Saracens'; and eleven plates after the paintings
of Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel, in continua-
tion of a set of engravings commenced by Cunego :
these represent ' David and Goliath,' the ' Brazen
Serpent,' 'Judith nnd Holophernes,' the prophets
Isaiah, Daniel, Jonah, and Zachariah, and the
Cumsan, Delphic, Libyan, and Persian Sibyls
He also engraved 'The Magi,' after Andrea del

FABRI, GIOVANNI, an Italian engraver, who
worked at Bologna in the middle of the 18th
century, and died probably about 1790, executed
some plates in a neat but formal style, among
which are :

St. Mary Magdalen ; after Paainelli.
Virgin and Child ; after Guido Eeni.
St. Jerome ; after Carracci.


FABRIANO, ANTONIO DA, flourished in the 15th
century, but the dates of his birth and death are
alike uncertain. A ' Coronation of the Virgin ' in
the Casa Morichi is attributed to him ; and also a
'St. Jerome,' with the date 1451, in the Fornari
Gallery at Fabriano. He was a feeble assistant of
Gentile da Fabriano.

uncertain whether this artist was the son or merely
pupil of Gentile. He lived in the 15th century, and
his paintings are of no very great merit. The fol-
lowing works by him may, however, be mentioned :
Fermo. .S. Domenico. Ave Maria.
Home. Vatican. The Virgin and Child.



FABRITIUS, BERNHARD, a Dutch portrait
painter, who flourished from about 1650 to 1672,
was a disciple of Rembrandt, whose eminence
he sometimes almost reached. His paintings,
however, are not all executed with the same care,
some of them being faulty in drawing and colour-
ing, whilst others are bold and broad in style. The
following works may be noted :

Brunswick. Gallery, St. Peter in the house of Cor-
nelius. 1659.
Brussels. Camberlyn),, .. ,

Collection. /Gohath. 16o8.
Joan of Arc. 1657.

Copenhagen. Gallery. The Presentation in the Temple.


Frankfort. Stddel Inst. Portrait of a Young Man. 1650.
The Birth of St. John the Baptist.

Vienna. Academy. Head of a Man.

FABRITIUS, KAREL, a Dutch painter, born at
Delft about 1624, was a pupil of Rembrandt. He
painted portraits and perspective views, and had


acquired considerable reputation, when he was
killed by the blowing up of the powder magazine
at Delft in 1654. A fine ' Head of a Man,' by him,
in the Rotterdam Museum, was for a long time
ascribed to Rembrandt. Fabritius was the in-
structor of Jan ver Meer of Delft. Besides the
above work by him there are :

Amsterdam. Museum. Herodias with the Head of St.
John the Baptist. (Ascribed
in the catalogue to Drost.)
Berlin. Gallery. Head of a Man.

Cologne. Wattraf-')

Kichartz VA Portrait.
Museum. J

FABRITIUS, KILIAN, was a German landscape
painter, who from 1633 to 1680 worked at the
court of the Elector John George II. of Saxony.
Many of his paintings are to be met with at
Darmstadt, where there is in the Museum a Land-
scape by him. At Stockholm there is ' The Expul-
sion of Hagar,' painted in 1650 ; and in the Vienna
Gallery is a 'Pastoral Landscape.' The following
etchings, which are very rare, are also by him :

Christ at the House of Nicodemus.

The Holy Family. 1633.

A Hunting Scene, with the Elector John George II.

FABRIZZI, ANTONIO MARIA, was born at Perugia
in 1594. He went to Rome when he was very
young ; and is said by Pascoli to have commenced
liis studies under Annibale Carracci, of whose in-
struction he was deprived by the death of that great
master, when he was only fifteen years of age ; and
it does not appear that he sought the aid of any
other instructor. His works evince ingenuity in
composition, and great freedom of hand. He died
at Perugia in 1649.


FACCENDA, FRANCESCO, who worked at Perugia
from 1760 to 1770, executed the plates of emblems
for the edition of Cesare Ripa's 'Iconologia,'
published at Perugia in 1764-67.

FACCHETTI, PIETRO, a painter and engraver,
born at Mantua in 1535, was instructed by Girolamo
and Ippolito Costa. He visited Rome in the pontifi-
cate of Gregory XIII., and died in that city in 1613.
Although bis first essays in historical painting were
not without merit, he abandoned that line for the
painting of portraits ; and his portraits of some of
the nobility were so much admired, that there was
scarcely a person of distinction at Rome, of either
sex, whose likeness he did not paint. His pictures
had not only the merit of perfect resemblance, but
were designed in a grand style, and admirably
coloured. Facchetti was also an engraver, and
there are two etchings by him, which are drstin-
guished for their skilful and pure design ; they
represent a ' Holy Family ' after Raphael, and
' Christ bearing the Cross.'

FACCHINETTI, GIUSEPPE, a native of Ferrara,
flourished in the 18th century. He was instructed
by A. F. Ferrari, and was one of the pupils who
chiefly helped to build up the name of the school
to which he belonged. He painted in a vigorous
and yet_ tender style, and achieved most of his
success in historical, architectural, and perspective
paintings. His works are to be found in Santa
Caterina da Siena at Ferrara, and in other churches
in that neighbourhood.

FACCI, FRANCESCO, a painter of Verona, was a
pupil of F. Ricci. He died in 1621.

FACCINI, BARTOLOMMEO, a native of Ferrara,
painted portraits and architectural pieces in the


[Tale Gallery, L



style of Girolamo da Carpi. He was killed by
falling from a scaffold in 1577. There is a picture
attributed to this artist in the Museum at Lille :
it represents the ' Martyrdom of St. Agnes.' In
many of his works he was assisted by his brother,

FACCINI, PIETKO, (or FACINI,) was born at
Bologna in 1560. He did not display any genius,
or disposition for art, until he had arrived at the
age of maturity ; and it is told by Malvasia, that
being in the habit of visiting the academy of the
Carracci, though not for the purpose of study, one
of the pupils drew a caricature of him, which
excited the mirth and ridicule of his fellow-
students. On the drawing being shown to Faccini,
he took a piece of charcoal, and, without any pre-
vious instruction or practice, sketched a satirical
likeness of the person who had ridiculed him,
which astonished every one present, particularly
Annibale Carracci, who persuaded him to study
art, and took him under his particular tuition. His
assiduity was so great that he practised drawing
from the skeleton at night, and it is related that
on one of these occasions Annibale, for a prac-
tical joke, slily pulled the cord and caused the
skeleton to move, which so offended Faccini that
he left their school. He met immediately with
employment and applause from the public, and
even established an academy in opposition to
that of the Carracci, which for a short time was
respectably frequented. The delusion did not,
however, last long : it was soon discovered that
Faccini's design was neither correct nor tasteful,
that his figures were uncouth and disproportioned,
and the character of his heads without expression
or beauty. His colouring was admirable, resembling
the freshness of Tintoretto, and this caused Anni-
bale to declare, on seeing his picture of the ' Mar-
tyrdom of St. Lawrence,' in San Giovanni in Monte,
that in his carnations he seemed to have worked
human flesh into his colours. He died in 1602.
The principal works of Faccini are :

Bologna. Pinacoteca. The Marriage of St. Catharine.
The Guardian Saints of Bologna.

., The Virgin and Child.

" & Monte 71 } The Martyrdom of St. Lawrence.

S. Damenico. The Virgin appearing to St.

S. Paolo. The Crucifixion of St. Andrew.

<S. Mattia. The Adoration of the Magi.

Dresden. Gallery. The Marriage of St. Catharine.

The Virgin and Child with Saints.

Modena. Estense Gall. Study of a Man.

He etched also some plates, which are signed

with the annexed monogram
St. Francis of Assisi.
Two Blind Beggars ; after Annibale Carracci.
A Boy in a Chimney Corner.
A Dog in a landscape.

FACHERIS, AGOSTINO, a painter of Bergamo, is
noticed by Tassi in his ' Lives of the Bergamese
Painters,' where he describes a picture by him in
the Church of the Trinity at Borgo Sant' Antonio,
representing ' St. Augustine with two Angels,' and
dated 1528.


LIEB, who were brothers and engravers, were born
at Ratisbon, about 1750. Both studied at Brussels,
where their father held the office of Russian consul.
In the year 1776 they proceeded to London, in order

to work for Alderman Boydell, and for whom they
completed a great number of plates. They worked
chiefly as etchers, and the impressions from their
plates are either black or brown, or in colours.
They were both living in 1802. Among their best
works are:

Benjamin West and his Family ; after West. 1777.
Apollo and the Muses ; after C. Maratti. 1784.
Apollo with the Muses on Parnassus ; after L. Gutten-

bmnn. 1794.

Hector and Paris ; after Angelica Kavfmann.
Abraham entertaining the three Angels ; after Jfurillo.
The Young Bull ; after Paulus Potter.

FACKLER, JOSEPH, born at Salzburg in 1698,

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