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painted a picture of ' St. Rupert,' in the church of
St. Peter in his native city. He died in 1745.

FACTOR, PEDRO NICOLAS, a Spanish painter,
was born at Valencia in 1520. Tbe early part
of his life was devoted to study, and he is
said to have distinguished himself as a poet as
well as a painter. In 1537 he entered the Fran-
ciscan monastery of Santa Maria de Jesus, where
he painted many of his pictures, the best of which
is said to have been ' St. Michael triumphing over
Lucifer." None of his works are known to exist,
but Cean Bermudez says that they displayed con-
siderable skill in drawing, although somewhat poor
in colouring. He also painted miniatures for the
choir-books of his convent. Factor died at Valen-
cia in 1583, and in 1786 was declared by Pope
Pius VI. a " beato," or saint of the second order.
Spain has produced many devout artists, but to
Factor alone have the honours of canonization been


FAED, JOHN, was born at Burley Mill, Kirkcud-
bright, in 1820. His bent was early shown, and
the self-taught boy of twelve practised as a
miniaturist until he went to Edinburgh in 1841.
There he soon achieved great success in miniature
painting. From 1841 he regularly exhibited at
the Royal Scottish Academy, gradually abandoning
miniature for genre subjects. In 1847 he was
elected A.R.S.A., and in 1851 became full Academi-
cian. He removed to London in 1862, residing
there for eighteen years, and exhibiting at the
Royal Academy. Then he retired to his native
place, and died at Gatehouse in 1902. Thomas
Faed, the well-known Scottish Academician, and
James Faed, the line-engraver, were his younger
brothers. For subjects he went to the Bible and
Shakespeare, and especially to Scottish history,
poetry, and romance. Among his best pictures
are 'The Cottar's Saturday Night,' 'Olivia and
Viola,' ' Catherine Ley ton,' ' John Anderson my Jo,'
'Auld Mare Maggie,' 'Annie's Tryst,' and 'The
Poet's Dream.' These last two hang in the Scottish
National Gallery. He was a good draughtsman,
and bad much command of pathos and humour,
but was somewhat deficient in sense of colour, and
his pictures often lack coherence and atmosphere.
His careful and precise finish throughout showed
the influence of miniature.

FAED, THOMAS, was born on June 8, 1826, at
Gatehouse of Fleet, in Kirkcudbright, Scotland,
and was the son of a millwright. The village
where he lived was a very small one, Burley
Mill, in which the lad was born, being the only
important house in it, the rest being very small
cottages. His parents were poor but very hard-
working people, very fond of reading, and of a
degree of culture above that of their neighbours.



An uncle of the lad had been an engraver, and
many of his productions hung in the mill-house,
and were very attractive to the boy from his
earliest days. There was one elder brother who,
like Thomas, was of an artistic temperament, and
he left home early for Edinburgh to take lessons
in the art which he loved. On the death of their
father he recommended Thomas, who from the first
days of boyhood had been devoted to sketching,
and had neglected all other lessons and occupa-
tions for the practice of drawing, to come up to
Edinburgh and join him in his humble lodgings,
and thither Thomas Faed made his way. He got
into the Art School at the age of fifteen, and
amongst his fellow-students was Orchardson. He
commenced very quickly in the special field of
work which he so particularly made his own, that
of representing scenes of pathos and character
taken from the life of the Scotch peasant, but
although he gained admission to the Scottish
Academy as Associate at the age of twenty-three,
he was not satisfied with the small measure of
success which his labours realized, and determined
to seek wider fields of action in London. He
came up in 1852, and in 1855 exhibited at Trafalgar
Square the first of his important pictures, called
' The Mitherless Bairn.' From that moment the
artist never looked back, and, what was of peculiar
interest, never rejected the class of subject which
had brought him his first renown, and to the
end of his life was faithful to the delineation
of simple homely Scotch life with all its mingled
pathos, dry humour, and with all the force of its
somewhat melancholy characteristics represented
with unbending truth and realism. Some of his
notable works may be mentioned: 'Only Herself,'
' A Wee Bit Fractious,' ' From Hand to Mouth,'
' His Only Pair,' ' From Dawn to Sunset,' ' Evange-
line,' ' Worn Out,' ' The First Break in the Family,'
' Lucy's Flittin',' ' The School Board in the Cottage,'
' In Time of War,' and most notable perhaps of all,
the picture now in the Tate Gallery called ' Faults
on Both Sides,' in which the artist has with rare
sense for beauty painted the face of the woman full
of delicate refinement and wonderful grace, and
represented the touching scene with a mingling of
pathos, reserve and humour which are most dexter-
ously depicted. Faed's work was brilliant and
harmonious, full of rich jewel-like colours marvel-
lously combined. His technique was sure and
definite, his handling was broad, and the quality
of his work excellent throughout his long career.
He outlived his popularity, as the scenes which he
always adopted were no longer attractive to the
public, but from an artist's point of view there is
little that can be said against the pictures which
he painted, so sound and wholesome are their
subjects, so refreshing are their candour and truth,
and so honestly are they painted that they seem able
to last in their pristine excellence for ever. His
work is, above all, virile, strong and direct. In
1893 the artist was compelled to resign his
membership of the Royal Academy, into which he
had been admitted as Royal Academician, by
reason of failing sight, and soon afterwards the
sight which he had so strained in the production
of his many works with all their minute painting
failed him altogether, and for the seven last years
of his life he was a blind man. He died August
17, 1900. G. C. W.

(the Monkey), who painted in the style of Perugino

and Pinturicchio, flourished in the early part of
the 16th century at Faenza. In the Pinacoteca
of that city there are various works ascribed to
him, of which the most remarkable is a ' Majesty,'
signed by him and bearing the date 1506. Crowe
and Cavalcasellealso claim forBertucci an 'Adora-
tion of the JIagi' in the Berlin Gallery, there
ascribed to Pinturicchio, and a 'Glorification of
the Virgin ' in the National Gallery, given in the
catalogue to Lo Spagna, who was a pupil of



ANTONIO ROCCHETTI, an Italian painter of the earlier
part of the 17th century, is probably the artist men-
tioned by Vasari with the surname Figurino, who
was one of the best disciples of Giulio Romano.
His early paintings are of a small size, often repre-
senting scenes in the life of St. Sebastian. The
following works are also by him :

Faenza. Pinacoteca. The Madonna of the Angels.
S. Socco. St. Eoch. 1634.

FAENZA, OTTAVIANO DA, an Italian painter of
the 14th century, who was instructed by Giotto,
spent the greater part of his life at Faenza,
where he died. There are several paintings at-
tributed to him to be found in the neighbourhood
of Faenza, and at Bologna.

FAENZA, PACE DA, an Italian painter, who
flourished during the 14th century, was a pupil
of Giotto, and is said to have executed some
decorations in fresco on the exterior of San Gio-
vanni at Bologna. He had a particular talent for
representing small figures. About the year 1574
the following works by him existed at Forli :

The Holy Cross.

A small picture in tempera, representing the Passion.

Four Scenes from the Life of the Virgin.


FAES, PIETER, a painter of flowers and fruit
in the manner of Van Huysum, was born at Meir,
near Hoogstraten, in the province of Antwerp, in
1750. His pictures are tastefully composed and
delicately pencilled, but are somewhat deficient in
vigour and chiaroscuro. Many of his works were
transferred from Laeken to Vienna. He died at
Antwerp in 1814.


FAGAN, Louis, the late sub-director of the
Print-room at the British Museum, and the man
who certainly by merit ought to have been head
of that department, merits a place in this work on
account of his own excellent artistic work no less
than for his literary work on Art subjects. He
was born in 1846, the son of the British Minister
at the Court of the Two Sicilies, and his birthplace
was Naples. His sympathies were always very
strongly with the Italian people, whose tongue he
spoke with the most perfect accuracy, and much
of his life was spent in Italy, and there it was that
he died in January 1903, in his own house in
Florence. He had travelled far and wide, as at
one time when in the Foreign Office he was with
his father in Venezuela, and his knowledge of
Spanish and of Spanish manners rendered him a
valuable assistant in the settlement, for the time,
of the boundary questions. At another time he
was in France, and yet again in Sweden, but
eventually at the desire of his close friend Antony
Panizzi he took office in the British Museum in










r o




order to be near his old companion and under his
wing, and he then relinquished lor good his duties
in diplomacy. Few men took a greater interest
in the work of his department than did Fagan,
and few worked harder to render it available to
students and useful to the public. His lectures on
the treasures of his beloved museum were received
with the greatest acclamation and were most
popular, whilst his writings on prints and draw-
ings, his valuable catalogues, and his history of
the Reform Club and of the British Museum, and
his excellent life of Panizzi proved the brilliance
of his power and the ability with which he devoted
himself to his work. He will be especially remem-
bered by artists for his volumes on the works of
Correggio, the art of Michael Angelo, the en-
gravings of Faithorne, and the works of Wollett
and Bartolozzi. He also wrote a ' History of
Engraving,' and an important treatise on the
Sonnets of Raffael. His water-colour drawings
done to amuse himself during periods of ill-health
were of much more than average excellence,
whilst his drawings in pencil were of the utmost
refinement and beauty. His love of Italy, his
strong friendship for most of her greatest writers
and skilful artists, and his passionate interest in
her future, did not render him the more popular
with certain persons who were narrow enough to
resent any affection that was not devoted to
British interests, and neither Panizzi nor Fagan
were really appreciated at the Museum for this
very reason. To those, however, who knew him,
and who had sounded the vast depths of his
knowledge and the intensity of his affection, he
was a man greatly beloved, and a public demon-
stration of mourning took place on the occasion of
his decease in Florence. A brilliant and profound
scholar and one of the kindest-hearted of men, he
was neglected by his own countrymen and ignored
by his old colleagues in London, but his artistic
and literary works will keep alive his memory for
many a generation, and insure a remembrance of
his life's work.

FAGAN, ROBERT, a portrait painter, who resided
for some time in Rome, flourished towards the
close of the 18th century.



FAGERPLAN, AXEL JOHAN, a Swedish artist,
born in West Gothland in 1788, was an historical
and fruit painter of some renown. He died in 1865.

FAGIVOLI, GIROLAMO, an engraver who worked
at Bologna about 1560, published several prints
after Correggio, Cecchino de' Salviati, and Francesco

FAHEY, JAMES, painter, was born at Paddington
April 16, 1804. He was intended for an engraver,
and studied for a time under Swaine, who was his
uncle. He afterwards worked at Munich and
Paris, where he was employed as a surgical
draughtsman. He exhibited a portrait at the
Academy in 1825, but shortly afterwards devoted
himself to landscape in water-colours. In 1834 he
joined the short-lived Associated Painters in Water-
Colours, and in the following year he, with other
leading members of that body, formed the New
Society, now the Institute of Painters in Water-
Colours. He was for more than forty years
secretary to the society. In 1856 be was appointed
drawing-master at Merchant Taylors' School,
whence, after twenty-seven years, he retired on a
pension. He died December 19, 1885.

scape painter, was born in Dalecarlia in 1774. He
was instructed by P. Ljung,a sculptor and painter,
and depicted Northern scenery with a masterly
touch, his twilight and moonlight scenes being
particularly effective. He died at Stockholm in
1861. Among his best known works are :
The Legend of Frithiof.

Several Views of Stockholm, Christiania, and Sparre-
holm, the Fortress of Bohns, the Hills of Smedje-
bakken, Cape Framuas, the Balestrand, and the
Waterfall of Donare.


FAIRFIELD, CHARLES, a painter who died at
Brompton in 1804, at the age of about forty-five, is
chiefly known by his excellent copies of Dutch

man, was born in 1818, in London, where his father,
a native of Prussia, had settled as a tobacco manu-
facturer. His first attempts in art were as a drawing-
master and scene-painter. He was next employed
by Charles Knight in making designs for the
'Pictorial History of England,' 'Pictorial Shake-
speare,' and other works. From the commencement
of the ' Art Journal,' in 1839, he was a constant
contributor, both as author and as artist, and about
the same time he seems to have begun to take an
interest in antiquities. He wrote several books on
the pageants and costume of mediaeval England,
of which the best are ' Costume in England,' 1846,
'A Dictionary of Terms in Art,' 1854, and 'Ram-
bles of an Archaeologist,' 1871, and he left to the
Society of Antiquaries a collection of works on
these subjects. He died in London in 1866.

FAIRLAND, THOMAS, an engraver and litho-
graphic artist, was born in 1804 After having
studied under Fuseli in the Academy, where he
gained a silver medal for drawing from the an-
tique, he became a pupil of Charles Heath, but
he afterwards gave up line-engraving for litho-
graphic drawing, and eventually devoted himself
to portraiture, in which he was very successful.
His reproductions of the works of Landseer and
Hunt, as well as 'The Recruit; or, Who'll serve
the King ? ' and ' Left Leg foremost,' obtained
great popularity. He executed many private por-
traits for the Queen, whose personal regard he
enjoyed until his death in 1852. Among other
lithographs by him may be mentioned :

The Poacher's Confederate / after Hancock.

The Eat-catcher ; after A. Cooper.

The Deserter.

Mrs. Chisholm ; after A. C. Hayter.

FAIRLESS, THOMAS KERB, a landscape painter,
was born at Hexham in 1823. He first practised
wood-engraving under Nicholson of Newcastle, and
then came to London, exhibiting landscapes at the
Royal Academy from 1848 to 1851. He died at
Hexham in 1853.

engravers of Philadelphia, who died respectively in
the years 1821, 1815, and 1827.



FAITHORNE, WILLIAM, the elder, an eminent
engraver, was born in London in 1616. He was
a pupil of Robert Peake, a painter and print-
seller, who was afterwards knighted by Charles I.,
and under him he worked three or four years, until
the breaking out of the Civil War, when Peake
took up arms for the king, and Faithorne was



persuaded by his master to accompany him into
the service. At the taking of Basing House,
where Peake had the rank of lieutenant-colonel,
Faithorne was made a prisoner, and was for some
time confined in Aldersgate, during which period
he resumed his profession, and, among other plates,
engraved a small head of Villiers, Duke of Buck-
ingham. With much difficulty the solicitation of
his friends procured his release, on condition that
he left the country. He retired to France, where
he became acquainted with Robert Nanteuil, under
whose instruction he made great improvement.
After the year 1650, he was permitted to return to
England, and he established himself as an engraver
and printseller near Temple Bar, where he carried
on a considerable trade in Italian, Dutch, and
English prints. In 1680, however, he quitted his
shop, and retired to a more private life in Printing-
house Yard, Blackfriars, where he continued to
engrave, and to draw portraits in crayons, an art
which he had learned in Paris. He died in

The works of this excellent engraver consist
chiefly of portraits, in which he specially excelled.
Many of them are of an admirable execution, clear,
brilliant, and full of colour. Previous to his journey
to Paris, he had adopted the Flemish and Dutch
mode of engraving; but on his return from France
his style was greatly improved. In his historical
prints he shows a deficiency and incorrectness of
drawing ; and it is not, certainly, from these that
a just estimate can be formed of his great ability.
His plates are extremely numerous, some of them
exceedingly scarce, and very valuable. When he did
not fix his name to them, he marked them with a

cipher composed of two Fs. ^ fft The follow-
ing are his best portraits ; a more complete list
will be found in Fagan's ' Descriptive Catalogue of
the Engraved Works of William Faithorne,' 1888.

Sir William Fasten, Bart. ; 1659 ; extremely fine.
Lady Paston ; after Van JJyck ; 1649 ; very fine.
Margaret Smith, afterwards Lady Herbert; after the


Montagu Bertie, Earl of Lindsey ; after the same.
William Sanderson; after Zoust. 1658.
Anne Bridges, Countess of Exeter ; after Van Dyck.
Samuel Collins, M.D. ; W. Faithorne ad vivum del. et


John Kersey, mathematician ; after Zoust. 1672.
John La Motte, Citizen of London.
John, Viscount Mordaunt.
Thomas, Earl of Elgin. 1662.
Mary, Lady Langham.
Henry Gary, Earl of Monmouth.
Thomas Killigrew, with a Dog ; after W. Sheppard.
Thomas Stanley ; aftt-r Left/.

Robert Bayfield ; set. 25 ; with a large hat. 1654.
Robert Bayfield ; set. 27 ; without a hat.
Francis Rous, Provost of Eton. 1656.
Sir Henry Spelman.
Thomas Hobbes.
Samuel Leigh. 1661.
Queen Henrietta Maria, with a Veil ; in the manner of

Thomas Mace; after Cooke ; prefixed to his 'Musicks

Monument,' 1676.
Sir Orlando Bridgman.
Sir John Fortescue.
Robert Boyle ; oval.
Elias Ashmole ; bust, in a niche.
William Oughtred ; in the style of Hollar
William Harvey.
Henry Lawes.
John Milton ; drawn and engraved from life in 1670,

as a frontispiece to Milton's ' History of Britain.'

John Wallis, D.D., prefixed to his ' Mechanica.'

Sir Francis Englefield, Bart. ; oval ; extremely scarce.

Oliver Cromwell, whole length, in armour, a large

emblematical Print, with various devices and mottos ;

very scarce.


The Holy Family ; after Laurent de La Hire.

The Repose in Egypt ; after Simon Vouet.

Landscape, with a waggon ; after Rubens.

The Fall of Phaeton ; after Diepenbeeck.

Title-page and ten plates for Bishop Jeremy Taylor's

' Great Exemplar,' or Life of Christ, 1653.
.aSueas and the Golden Branch, and Jineas killing

Turaus; after F. Cleyn; engraved for Ogilby's

translation of Virgil, 1654.

FAITHORNE, WILLIAM, the younger, a son of
William Faithorne the elder, was born in 1656.
He was instructed in the elementary principles of
design by his father, but practised a different branch
of engraving, being chiefly engaged in scraping
portraits in mezzotint. His merit in that line would
have secured to him both profit and reputation ; but
neglecting his business, he fell into distress, which
occasioned his father much sorrow. He died not
earlier than 1701. The following are esteemed his
best portraits :

Thomas Flatman, poet and painter.

Mary, Princess of Orange ; after Hanneman.

Sir William Reade, oculist to Queen Mary.

Queen Anne, when Princess of Denmark.

George, Prince of Denmark.

Frederick, Duke of Schomberg ; after Dahl.

John Dryden ; after Clostermann.

Sir Richard Haddock ; after the same.

John Moore, Bishop of Ely.

Sophia, Electress of Hanover.

Sophia Dorothea, Princess of Hanover.

Charles XII. of Sweden ; after Ehrenstrahl.

Mrs. Plowden ; after Clostermann.

FALBE, JOACHIM MARTIN, a portrait painter,
born at Berlin in 1739, was instructed by Harper
and A. Pesne. Several etchings after Rembrandt,
or in the style of that master, which are attributed
to him, and some of which are signed with Falbe's
monogram, are in existence. In 1764 he was
elected a member of the Academy at Berlin, in
which city he died in 1782.

FALCH, JOHANN, an animal painter, was born at
Augsburg in 1687, and died in 1727. In the
Hermitage at St. Petersburg are two pictures by
him of insects and reptiles.

FALCIERI, BIAGIO, was born at Brentonico in
1628, and studied at Verona under Locatelli, and at
Venice under Cavaliere Pietro Liberi. Among his
works there is in the church of the Dominicans at
Verona, a large picture of ' The Council of Trent ' ;
in the upper part of which he has represented ' St.
Thomas vanquishing the heretics.' There exists
also an etching by him, executed with great spirit,
representing ' St. Jerome in the Wilderness.' He
died in 1703.

FALCINI, DOMENICO, an Italian engraver,
flourished at Siena in the latter part of the 16th
century. There are by him some woodcuts after
Raphael and other masters, which are executed on
three separate blocks, one for the outline, another
for the half-tint, and the third for the dark
shadows. He also engraved on metal.
He marked his prints with the annexed
cipher, but he has left one plate with a
monogram composed of the letters D.F.F.

FALCK, JEREMIAS, a designer and engraver, was
born at Dantzic about 1619. He passed some time
in Paris, and from the resemblance of his style


Large miniature after the picture by Lely] [Montagu House



After I'an Dyck~\



uttering Blessings ; after

to that of Cornelia Bloemaert, would appear to
have studied the engravings of that master. On
leaving France he went in succession to Copen-
hagen, Stockholm, and Amsterdam, where he
executed several plates for the celebrated cabinet
of Reynst. Subsequently he worked .-u Hamburg,
and it is probable that he died there about 1663.
His plates are distinguished for the splendour of
their effect, and he engraved with equal success
portraits and historical subjects, both of which
have great merit. The following are among his
best works :

Louis XIII. of France ; after Justus van Egmont. 1643.

This is considered his best work.
Christina, Queen of Sweden ; after D. Beck.
Peter Gembichi, Bishop of Croatia ; after the same.
Leonard, Count of Torstenson ; after the same. 1649.
Axel, Count of Oxenstjern ; after the same. 1653.
Adolphus John, Prince Palatine ; after the same.
Charles Gustavus, Prince of Sweden ; after the same.
Nell Gwynne ; after Lely.
Karl Gustav Wrangel ; after D. Klocker.

The Large Crucifixion ; after Van Dijck.
Christ with the Crown of Thorns ; after the same.
The Concert ; after Giorqione.

Esau selling his Birthright ; after Tintoretto. 1663.
Hunters with Hares ; after the fame.
The House of Pleasure ; after Rubens.
Pallas with the Shield and Lance ; after A. Bloemaert.

St. John preaching in the 'Wilderness ; after the same.


Satyr and Ceres ; after F. Snayers.
The Virgin with the Infant utteri

Justus van Ef/mont.
The Virgin with the Infant ; after J. Stella.
Semiramis ; after Guercino.
The Cyclops ; after Michelangelo da Caravaggio.

FALCKEISEN, THEODOB, a Swiss designer and
engraver, born at Basle in 1765, was instructed
by Holzhall and Karl Guttenberg. Amongst his

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