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Nuremberg, and two or three portraits of local
celebrities. He marked his productions with either
his entire name or his initials.

FENOLLO, PAOLO, an Italian painter, is known
by a ' Bacchic Scene ' in the Madrid Gallery.

FENTZEL, GREGOR, an engraver, was a native
of Nuremberg, who worked in that city about
1650. He engraved the ' Battle of King Alphonso
and the Moors,' after Antonio Tempesta, and the
portrait of General Don Balthasar Marradas, after
F. Cleyn, as well as portraits and other illustrations
in the style of Jan Sadeler, mostly for the books
of Paulus Fiirst of Nuremberg.

FERA, BERNARDINO, who flourished about 1700,
was a pupil of Solimena, and was known for his
frescoes and distempers.


' FERABOSCO, MABTINO, a native of Italy, who
resided at Rome, engraved the plates for the work
entitled ' Architettura della Basilica di San Pietro
in Vaticano,' published at Rome in 1620.

FERABOSCO, PIETRO, an Italian painter, who
flourished about 1616, spent the greater part of
his life in Portugal, where his works are mostly
to be found.

FERDINAND, Louis ELLE, the elder, a French
painter of portraits, and an engraver, was born in
Paris about 1612. He was the son and pupil of
the painter Ferdinand Elle, a native of Mechlin,
who settled in France, and was one of the in-
structors of Nicolas Poussin. Ferdinand Elle was
known best by his baptismal name alone, and for
this reason his sons, Louis and Pierre, appear to
have adopted it as a surname. Independently of
his talent as a painter, he etched several plates, in
a spirited and tasteful style, and the prints for a
book, entitled ' Le Livre original de la Portraiture,'
printed at Paris in 1644. He was one of the
foundation members of the Academy in 1648, and
died in Paris in 1682. There are also by him the
following plates :

Portrait of a Lady ; after Yan Dyck.
Nicolas Poussin ; Y. E.piixcit.
A set of six Friezes ; after L. Tcstelin.
A set of six groups of Children ; after the same.
Several allegorical and mythological subjects; after

FERDINAND, Louis ELLE, the younger, the
son and pupil of Louis Elle Ferdinand the elder,
was born in Paris in 1648. He painted portraits
with great reputation, and became a member of
the French Academy, his reception pictures being
a portrait of Samuel Bernard, the miniature painter,
now in the Louvre, and a portrait of Regnaudin,
now in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. In the National
Portrait Gallery is a likeness by him of Dr. Thomas
Burnet, dated 1675. He died at Reims in 1717.
His brother, PIEBRE ELLE FERDINAND, etched a few
plates, including 'St. Potentiana,' after Correggio,
and died in Paris in 1665.

called IMPERIALI, an Italian painter, worked at
Rome in 1730. There are two works by him at
Rome, one is the ' Martyrdom of St. Eustache,' in
the church dedicated to that saint, and the other
is the ' Death of St. Romuald.

FERG, FRANZ DE PAULA, a painter and etcher,
was born at Vienna in 1689. He was instructed first
by his father, Pancrazius Ferg, and afterwards by
J. Orient in landscape painting, and by Hans Graf
in the drawing of figures. His reputation soon
spread through Germany, and he was invited to
the court of Dresden, where he passed some years.
In 1718 he went from Brunswick to London, where
he passed twenty years, and might have lived in
affluence and respectability, had not an imprudent
marriage involved him in difficulties, and kept him
in continual indigence. He is reported to have
been found dead in the street, near the door of his
lodging, in 1740. The landscapes of Ferg are of
very agreeable scenery, enriched with architectural
ruins in a very picturesque style, and bear some
resemblance to the works of Poelenborch: his
scenes from common life resemble those of Ostade.
His compositions, which are happily arranged, show
great diligence in the execution, and bear the an-
nexed monogram -yur The following are among
his paintings :

Brunswick. Gallery. The Four Seasons.

" A Market Scene.

A Rural Feast,

lassel. Gallery. Sea View.

Dresden. Gallery. Six Landscapes with ruins and


Florence. Uffi:i. Two small Landscapes.

Hampton Ct. Palace. Small Landscape.

Vienna. Gallery. A Fair.

There is a set of eight neat and spirited etchings
by Ferg of ruins and figures, called ' Capricci fatti
per F. P. F.'

FERGIONE, BERNARDINO, a painter of marine
views and sea-ports, is stated by Lanzi to have
flourished at Rome about the year 1718. Claude
Joseph Vernet studied in Fergione's atelier on his
arrival in Rome in 1732.

FERGUSON, JAMES, the Scottish astronomer,
born near Keith, in Banffshire, in 1710, was a self-
taught man. Though better known as an astro-
nomer, he gained a living in Edinburgh and in
England, for several years, by drawing miniature
portraits in black lead. He died in 1776.

FERGUSON, WILLIAM Gow, was a native of
Scotland, who after learning the first rudiments of
art in his own country, passed some years on the
continent. On his return to his native country,
he acquired some reputation in painting dead game
and still-life. He died in London about the year
1695. Some of his smaller pictures are so excellent
that they are frequently attributed to Weenix, to
whose works they bear strong resemblance. In
the Berlin Gallery is a picture of still-life, a dead
partridge, and in the National Gallery of Scotland
is one of ' Sculptured Ruins and Figures.'

Spanish artist of considerable skill, who at the
beginning of the 16th century painted for the
convent of St. Jerome at Cordova several altar-
pieces from the lives of Christ and the patron Saint,
which were considered equal in execution to any
contemporary productions. In 1508 he was em-
ployed to paint and gild the noble reredos of the
high-altar of Seville Cathedral, designed at the
close of the previous century by the Flemish archi-
tect Dancart. Fernandez remained at Seville until
1525. A ' Madonna with Angels,' in the church of
Santa Ana in Seville, is by his hand.


FERNANDEZ, FRANCISCO, who was born at
Madrid in 1605, and brought up in the school of
Vincenzo Carducho, was one of the most ingenious
artists of his time, and his talent gained great
reputation for him at an early age. He was em-
ployed by Philip IV. in the palaces at Madrid, and
in the conrent of La Victoria are pictures by him
of the 'Death of St. Francis of Paola,' and 'St.
Joachim and St. Anne. ' He also etched five spirited
plates of allegories for Carducho's ' Dialogos de la
Pintura,' 1633. He was killed in a quarrel by
Francisco de Baras in 1646.


FERNANDEZ, Luis, (the elder of the name,)
was a painter in tempera of Seville, who about the
year 1580 was the instructor of the elder Herrera,
Juan and Augustin del Castillo, and Francisco

FERNANDEZ, Luis, a Spanish historical painter,
both in oil and in fresco, born at Madrid in 1594,
was a pupil of Eugenio Caxes. There are by
him in the cross-walk of the convent of La Merced



Calzada scenes from the life of St. Ramon, painted
in 1625, and in Santa Cruz were several frescoes
and oil paintings, which perished, however, by fire
in the 17th century. His works, executed in the
style of his master, are distinguished for correct-
ness of design and beauty of colouring. He died
at Madrid in 1654.

FERNANDEZ. VASCO, commonly known as
GRAN VASCO, or GRAO VASCO, (' Vasco the Great,')
was a Portuguese painter, who has been variously
cited as ' Ferdinand de Vizeu,' ' Gran Vasco de
Vizeu,' ' Fernandez Vasco de Cazal," or simply
' Vasco Pereira,' or ' Vasco Fernandez.' If reliance
can be placed on Portuguese testimony, or rather
assertion, he was the greatest painter that ever
lived ; not only are his pictures the most'excellent,
but the most numerous. All in Portugal that have
not secured a name are by Gran Vasco. Zani
notices Vasco Pereira, a Portuguese painter, who
worked in 1594 ; and Cean Bermudez has given an
account of him among the Spanish artists. Count
Raczynski, who was desirous of identifying Vasco
Pereira with Gran Vasco, and who examined a
small picture by the former, with the date 1575,
abandoned that idea, and left the elucidation of the
subject to his friend M. J. Berardo. The conclu-
sions at which the latter arrived in 1844, and which
do not appear to have been subsequently shaken,
were that Gran Vasco is identical with a certain
Vasco Fernandez, whose baptismal register shows
him to have been the son of a painter named
Francisco Fernandez, and to have been born in
1552, and baptized in the church of Vizeu, though
it is uncertain whether he was born within that
town or in a mill in its vicinity. He flourished
during the reign of Dom Sebastian. One of his
paintings probably is the ' Christ on the Cross ' in
the Misericordia at Oporto, which is ascribed to

canon of Cordova, who painted two pictures of
' St. Ferdinand," and the ' Virgin of the Immaculate
Conception,' for the chapter-room of his cathedral.
He died in 1739.

Spanish artist, painted in 1509-12 a number of
wooden figures for Seville Cathedral, and in 1527
executed for the same edifice a ' Descent from the
Cross,' with the body of the Saviour lying upontha
knees of Mary, as well as some other pictures, ono
of which represented the ' Repentance of St. Peter.'

best fresco painters of his time, was born at
Madrid in 1632, and studied under Francisco Rizi,
whom he assisted in his works at the Retiro. He
painted many pictures for the churches at Madrid,
where he was killed by a fall in his own studio in

called EL MDDO, from having been deaf and dumb,
was born at Logrofio about 1526. An acute malady
at the age of three years deprived him of the sense
of hearing, and consequently of the power of learn-
ing to speak. He received his first instruction in
art from Fray Vicente de Santo Domingo, a monk
of the order of St. Jerome, but subsequently went
to Italy and studied at Venice under Titian. His
sojourn in Italy lasted for at least twenty years, and
whilst there he availed himself of the opportunity
of visiting the studios of the most renowned masters.
Although there is no account of any production of
importance by him during his stay in that country,


yet it is certain that he obtained a great reputation
among the artists, which no doubt was augmented
by the circumstance of his infirmity. The fame of
El Mudo, by which name he was known in Italy,
reached Philip II., who was commencing the decor-
ations of the Escorial, and he was commanded to
attend at Madrid for the purpose of being em-
ployed on that work. He arrived there in 1568,
and was appointed painter to the king, with an
annual pension of 200 ducats, in addition to the
price of his works. He had scarcely commenced
his labours, when a serious malady compelled him
to retire to the country for the benefit of air, and
he remained for three years in his native place,
Logrofio, on leave of absence, but receiving bis
pension as painter to the king. In 1571 he
returned to the Escorial, bringing with him four
large pictures which had been commanded, and for
which he received 500 ducats. These were an
'Assumption,' the 'Martyrdom of St. James the
Great,' a ' St. Philip,' and a ' St. Jerome.' It is
believed that in the first the face of the Virgin was
the portrait of his mother, Catalina Ximenes, who
in her youth had been very beautiful. In ad-
dition to these four pictures he painted for the
Escorial ' The Nativity,' ' Christ at the Pillar,' a
' Holy Family,' and ' St. John writing the Apoca-
lypse ' : these he finished in 1575, and for them he
received 800 ducats. These eight pictures were
Navarrete's principal works : unhappily three of
them, the ' Assumption,' ' St. Philip,' and ' St. John,'
were destroyed by fire ; the other five were saved
and placed in the principal cloister of the monastery.
Besides their unquestionable merit, each picture is
remarkable for some peculiar circumstance. Thus
the ' Martyrdom of St. James ' and the ' St. Jerome'
are most minutely finished ; a manner which he
did not continue in his other compositions. The
' Christ at the Pillar,' seen in front, is an admirable
head, which, by its meekness and beauty, contrasts
marvellously with the ignoble features of the
flagellators. In the ' Holy Family ' the heads are
equally beautiful and expressive; but, by a strange
caprice, the painter has placed on one side of the
fore-ground of the picture a partridge, and on the
other, a dog and cat contending for a bone, with
such comical contortions that it is impossible to
regard them without laughing. In ' The Nativity,'
El Mudo essayed to vanquish a formidable difficulty
in painting. He has introduced three lights in the
picture : the effluence from the holy Infant ; that
which proceeds from the glory above, and which
extends over the whole composition ; and that
emitted from the torch which Joseph holds in his
hand. The group of shepherds is the best part of
the picture. It is related that Pellegrino Tibaldi,
on seeing it, cried out in raptures, " Oh ! gli belli
pastori ! " This exclamation gave its name to the
picture, and it continues to be known as 'The
Beautiful Shepherds.' In 1576 El Mudo painted
his famous picture of 'Abraham and the three
Angels,' for which he received 500 ducats, and about
this time he entered into a contract with the prior,
inspector, and treasurer of the Escorial, to paint
thirty-two pictures, which he engaged to deliver
within four years. Twenty-seven of these pictures
were to be seven feet and a half in height and
seven feet and a quarter in breadth, and the other
five thirteen feet high and nine feet broad. In the
contract, which is preserved in the archives of the
monastery, all the details are specified : for example,
the canvas of each is to be of one piece without














Alinari photo} \_Brcra, Milan



seam ; the work is to be entirely by the hand of Juan
Fernandez Navarrete, and to be done either at the
convent, at Madrid, or at Logrono ; the figures are to
be just six feet and a quarter in height ; if the same
Saint is repeated several times in the pictures he is
always to have the same visage and the same vest-
ments ; the painter is not to put in the pictures
either cat, or dog, or any immodest figure. He
did not, however, live to complete this vast under-
taking ; he painted in 1577 and 1578 the eight
which represent the Apostles, the Evangelists, St.
Paul, and St. Barnabas; the rest were finished in
the following years by Alonso Sanchez Coello and
Luis de Caravajal. El Mudo's health had always
been delicate, and he died at Toledo in 1579. In
the Madrid Gallery there are by him a 'Baptism of
Christ,' 'St. Peter,' and 'St. Paul.'
FERNELEY, J. E., an English animal painter,
was born in 1781, and died in 1860. He exhibited
hunting pictures at the Royal Academy from 1818
to 1849.

FERON, FIRMIN ELOI, a pupil of Gros, born in
Paris in 1802. He gained the grand prize in
painting at 1'Ecole des Beaux Arts in 1825, and
went on soon after that to Kome, where he studied
with great earnestness for some considerable time.
On his return he executed several pictures for the
Gallery at Versailles, amongst which may specially
be named, ' The Battles of Arsur,' ' Fornous,'
'Guntersdorff,' and ' Hollabrun.' He also painted
'The taking of Rhodes,' 'The entrance of Charts
VIII. into Naples,' 'The arrival of the Duke of
Orleans at the Hotel de Ville, July, 1830,' and
some fine portraits of the statesmen of his time.
He died in 1876.

Bosco,) a native of Padua, painted at Venice from
'631 to 1659. He was a contemporary of Boschini,
who gives to this master, and to the Cavaliere
Liberi, the first rank among the Venetian painters
of the time. He was more employed for private
collections than for the churches, and was much
engaged in portrait painting, in which he particu-
larly excelled. Ferrabosco possessed a noble and
penetrating genius, and united suavity with finish,
and elegance with force ; his works were studied
in every part, particularly in the heads. He was
still living in 1660. In the Dresden Gallery is a
picture of ' A Young Woman snatched from the
hand of Death. 1

ing to Lanzi, was a native of Macerata, flourished
about the middle of the 17th century. He chiefly
painted landscapes, particularly winter-pieces,
which were much esteemed in his time.

FERRADO, CRISTOBAL, a Spanish painter, was
born at Anieva, in the principality of tlie Asturias,
in 1620. He had acquired some ability from the
instruction of an unknown artist, and afterwards
developed into an accomplished painter from his
own unaided practice. In 1640 he became a monk
of the order of Santa Maria de las Cuevas, near
Seville. He continued, however, to exercise his
art, and painted some pictures for the altars of his
monastery. Several of his productions are in the
cloister of San Miguel at Seville, and others
have been removed to the Alcazar. Towards the
end of his life he was made rector of the Car-
thusian Monastery of Cazaller. He died at Seville
in 1673.

FERRAJUOLI, Ncxzio, called Nuszio DEGLI
AFFLITTI, was born at Nocera de' Pagani, in the
Neapolitan territory, in 1660. After studying
some time under Luca Giordano, he went to
Bologna, where he became a scholar of Giuseppe
dal Sole. His first efforts were in historical paint-
ing ; but his genius decidedly led him to land-
scape in oil and fresco. He died at Bologna in

native of Brescia, born before 1480, the son of a
carpenter named Lorenzo Ferramola and the
master of Alessandro Bonvicini (Moretto). Rossi
relates of him that when Brescia was sacked by
Gaston de Foix in 1512, he remained calmly
working at his easel, and being there found by a
gang of plunderers who demanded ransom, he,
without discontinuing his labours, told them to
help themselves, which they quickly did, and left
his studio an empty wreck. Happily for the artist
his talents gained for him the protection of Gaston
de Foix, who ordered him to paint his portrait,
and indemnified him for his losses. He was much
employed as a fresco-painter in the churches and
palaces of Brescia, though very little by him now
remains there. In 1514 he painted half-lengths of
Apostles on the spandrels of the arches in the
nave of S. Maria at Lovere, and between 1516-1518
decorated the organ shutters in the old cathedral
of Brescia, which were later removed to S.
Faustino Maggiore and eventually to S. Maria at
Lovere, where they are still preserved. Hia
frescoes in St. Giulia at Brescia, executed in com-
pany with a painter named ' Paolo," were finished
in 1527, and in that year he was painting in the
chapel of the Holy Cross in the cathedral at
Brescia assisted by his pupil Moretto, but he died
before the completion of the work, in 1528. Sumo
critics attribute to him certain of the frescoes in
S. Giulia, those in an oratory at the back of the
choir in the church of the Carmine, an altar-piece
in S. Maria delle Grazie, and other paintings at
Brescia. The following may be ascribed to him
with certainty :

Berlin. Gallery. Madonna and Saints, dated

Brescia. Carmine. Lunette]

fresco otter W. >The Annunciation.
door. J

Lovere. S. Maria. Frescoes, dated 1514.

The Annunciation (outer

shutters of the organ),
dated 1518. (J. J. Ff.

Joigny in Burgundy in 1653, was a miniaturist
and painter in enamel. He was the son of a phy-
sician to Louis XIII., and studied under Mignard
and Samuel Bernard. In 1690 he was received
into the Academy, on which occasion he painted a
portrait of Louis XIV. He excelled in his art, and
published in 1721 a work entitled, ' L'Art du feu,
ou maniere de peindre en toail.' He travelled in
Italy, England, and Germany, and died in Paris in

FERRANDINI, CLAUDIO, an engraver, worked in
Paris and Toulon in the latter part of the 18th
century. He engraved landscapes, sea-pieces, and
views after Claude, Fontaine, J. Vernet, S. R.Vialy,
Teniers, &c. He died about 1790.

born at Bologna about 1600 was a pupil of Gessi.



He executed several works in oil and fresco at
Bologna and at Piacenza, where he died in 1652.

FERRANTI, DECIO and AGOSTO, father and son,
were painters who flourished about 1500. Both of
them painted miniatures exquisitely, and in the
cathedral of Vigevano is an Evangeliarium and a
Missal richly embellished by them.

DAGLI OCCHIALI, from his wearing spectacles, was
born at Bologna about 1550, and was instructed
in the school of Dionysius Calvaert. He painted
historical subjects, both in oil and fresco, in a
pleasing and tasteful manner. Several of his
works are in the churches at Bologna, of which
the following are the most esteemed : in San
Benedetto, ' St. Francis of Paola ' ; in San Mattia,
a fine picture of ' St. Jerome ' ; in La Carita, ' St.
Francis receiving the Stigmata ' ; and in the
church of the Servites, the ' Descent from the
Cross ' and the ' Birth of the Virgin.'

FERRANTINI, IPPOLITO, a brother of Gabriele
Ferrantini, was instructed by the Carracci, whom
he imitated with success. He was a member of the
Accademiadegli Incaminati. In the church of San
Mattia in Bologna is a picture representing ' St.

in the 15th century, and seems to have been the
pupil of both Pisano and Squarcione. He was
employed by the Dukes of Ferrara to decorate
their castles at Migliaro and Belfiore, in 1450 and
1452. He also painted a 'St. Christopher' in
the chapel of the Eremitani at Padua, and he is
said to have assisted in the decorations of the
Cathedral of Siena in 1461. The National Gallery
possesses a ' St. Jerome in the Desert, 1 by him,
The 'Anonimo Morel liano' refers to his work at
Padua, and says that he painted part of the
chapel, and that the remaining parts were done
by Mantegna and by Ansuino da Forli. His style
partakes of that of his master Squarcione, and also
of that of his fellow-pupil Mantegna. Of his birth
or death no dates can be given.





cesco Ferrari, was born at Ferrara in 1668. He
was a painter of architecture, and distinguished
himself by the grandeur of his style in the paint-
ings for the palaces at Ferrara, Venice, Padua, and
Kavenna. He died in 1720.

FERRARI, BERNARDINO, who was born at
Vigevano about 1540, painted at that place the
chapels of San Jacopo and San Filippo. He
imitated the style of Gaudenzio Ferrari.

FERRARI, DIFENDENTE, a contemporary of
Macrino, was a painter of numerous pictures, chief
of which are a ' Pieta ' in the cathedral of Chivasso,
altar-pieces in the cathedral of Ivrea (1519-1521),
and a ' Nativity, with Saints ' (1531) in the church
of Ranverso.

FERRARI, FRANCESCO, born at Castello della
Fratta, near Rovigo, in 1634, was a painter of his-
torical subjects, architecture, and landscapes. He
was first employed in figure-painting, but after-
wards studied decoration and scenery under
Gabriele Rossi. He painted for the Marchese degli
Obizzi, among other works, the theatre at San
Lorenzo in 1650. Subsequently he was engaged
upon theatre-decorations at Vienna, and painted in

San Francesco, the Gesu, San Giorgio, and the
Bucci Mansion at Ferrara, and San Petronio at
Bologna, where he executed 'The Martyrdom of
St. Sebastian.' He died in 1708.

an excellent artist, born in 1447, executed many
paintings at Modena, but a great number of his
productions have perished. A fine picture by him
in the Louvre at Paris, representing ' The Madonna
enthroned, with Saints and Angels,' bears so
striking a resemblance to Correggio's ' St. Francis '

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