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in the Dresden Gallery, that it has much strength-
ened the supposition that Correggio was Ferrari's
pupil. He died in 1510.

FERRARI, GAUDENZIO, called by Vasari GAU-
DENZIO MILANESE, a painter and sculptor of the
Lombard school, was born at Valduggia, near
Novara, most probably in the year 1484. Nothing
is known of his early years, or as to who was his
first master, though he seems at one time to have
been a pupil of Luini. That he was instructed in
the principles of art by Girolamo Giovenone at
Vercelli is a supposition devoid of foundation, but
he studied under Stefano Scotto, a painter of ara-
besques, at Milan. His greatest advance was, how-
ever, derived from an attentive study of the works
of Leonardo da Vinci. There is no proof that he
was acquainted with Perugino or Raphael, or that
he was at Rome, and painted in conjunction with
the latter in the Farnesina and in the Vatican in
1519 and 1520. This devotion to the study of such
models developed his great talent so rapidly as to
cause him so early as in 1504 to be appointed for
the execution of a considerable work in the Cappella
del Sacro Monte at Varallo, representing the 'Sacri-
fice of Christ.' In 1508 he was at Vercelli. In
1510 he painted for the commune of Arona a
picture in six compartments, the subject of the
principal one being ' The Virgin adoring the In-
*' - '. i This, and others of his early works, was


signed ' Gaudenzio di Vincio.' At Varallo he
displayed great activity, and executed a con-
siderable number of paintings and sculptures.
He was also the instructor of many artists, as,
Andrea Solario, Bernardino Lanini, Firmo Stello,
Cesare Luini, and Antonio Zanotti. From 1527
until his death at Milan, where he left unfinished
a 'Last Supper' in Santa Maria della Passione,
he painted in oil and fresco in several churches
in that city and its neighbourhood. There exists
a great number of frescoes by Gaudenzio, which
are scarcely inferior to those of his pupil Luini,
with whom he painted from 1532 to 1535 in San
Cristoforo at Vercelli. The latest mention of
him is in 1545, and it is probable that he died
at Milan in 1549 or 1550. The different styles
of the great masters after whom he studied
are very discernible in his works, while here and
there he becomes fantastical and odd. He un-
doubtedly possessed an extraordinary fertility of
invention, together with an elevation of style, and
these characteristics have caused him to be con-
sidered one of the first painters of his time. Hia
works are not so distinguishable for a correct
delineation of muscular anatomy as for a choice
of difficult and uncommon attitudes, which are
bold and striking where the subject admits. The
following is a list of several of his works :


Busto Arsizio,
near Milan.

Church. Madonna and Child*
Gallery. The Annunciation.

Church. Several frescoes.


Cannobbio.Lagoj ch ft

Maggiore. )
Gomo. Cathedral.


Mr. Holford.

,, S. Amorogio.

,, ' S. M. delle Grazie.

,, S. M. della Passione.

S. M. presso S. Celso.

Novara. Cathedral.

S. Gaudenzio.



Saronno, near Pilgrimage)

Milan. Church, j

Turin. Gallery.


Cappella del )
">nte. )

Sacro Mo;

Christ bearing the Cross.

Marriage of Mary and Jo-

The Flight into Egypt (in

The Virgin and Angels ador-
ing the lufant.

Martyrdom of St. Catha-

Scenes in the Life of the
Virgin ; in, fresco. (For-
merly in Santa Maria della

Adoration of the Magi.

An Angel with a Harp.

An Angel with a Lute.

Presentation in the Temple.

Virgin and Saints.

The Flagellation of Christ.

The Crucifixion. 1542.

The Last Supper. Unfinished.

Baptism of Christ.

An Altar-piece. 1524.

The Virgin enthroned, sur-
rounded by Saiuts.

The Apostle Paul. 1543.
(Formerly in Santa Maria
delle Grazie, Milan.)

A Glory of Angels; in the
cupola. 1535.

Christ bewailed.

St. Peter.

St. Joaehim driven from the

Meeting of the Virgin and
St. Elizabeth.

The Sacrifice of Christ. 1504.

S. M. di Lor Mo.
Vercelli. S. Cristoforo.

Marriage of St. Catharine.

The Procession of the

S. M. delle Grazie. Pieta. 1504.

Scenes in the Life of Christ.

Adoration of the Infant.

The Birth of Mary, The An-
nunciation,The Visitation,
The Adoration of the Magi
and the Shepherds, The
Crucifixion, The Ascension
of the Virgin, Madonna
with Angels and Saints.
S. Paolo. The Last Supper.


native of Bologna, and a scholar of Lucio Massari.
Although he is chiefly noticed by Malvasia as a
painter of drolleries and carnival festivals, he
acquired no little reputation by his historical works,
of which there are several in the churches at
Bologna. In SS. Gervasio e Protasio is a picture
of the ' Virgin of the Rosary, with Mary Magda-
len, and other Saints ' ; in San Francesco, the
' Death of St. Joseph ' ; and in La Madonna della
Neve, ' St. Anthony of Padua.

born at Reggio in 1603. He had the advantage of
studying under Guido Reni ; and in the airs of his
heads, and the elegant movement of his figures,
he approaches the graceful style of his instructor.
One of his most esteemed works is a ' Pieta,' in
the chureh of Sant' Antonio at Padua ; it is full of
character and expression, and admirably coloured.
In compositions which require a multiplicity of
figures he is less successful, as appears in his

picture of ' The Plague,' at the Dominicans, painted
in 1630. He was the instructor of Minorello and
Cirello, the former of whom is often confounded
with Luca, from the great resemblance of his works
to those of his master. Luca da Reggio died at
Padua in 1652. In the Estense Gallery at Modena
are a 'Magdalen,' 'The Death of Cleopatra,' and
' Tomyris, Queen of the Massagetae, placing the
head of Cyrus, King of the Persians, in a bottle
filled with blood,' and in the Bordeaux Museum ia
' Painting crowned by Fame.'

FERRARI, PIETRO, a native of Parma, was
instructed by Giuseppe Baldrighi. He was a pro-
fessor of the Academy of his native city, and
imitated the old masters of that school rather than
his instructor. He died in 1787.


FERRER, GARCIA, the Licentiate, an ecclesiastic
and painter of some reputation at Valencia, exe-
cuted some pictures for the altar of San Vicente
Ferrer in the convent of San Domingo, and practised
his art at Madrid. Cean Bermudez mentions a
' Crucifixion ' by him, dated 1632, then in the
possession of Don Mariano Ferrer, secretary of
the Academy of San Carlos.

FERRERS, BENJAMIN, a portrait painter, flour-
ished about the middle of the 18th century. He
was deaf and dumb. Amongst his works are
portraits of Bishop Hoadly and Bishop Beveridge ;
the latter is in the Bodleian Library, Oxford.

VANNI DOMENICO DA IMOLA, was born at Florence in
1692. He was a scholar of Giovanni Gioseffo dal
Sole, and painted historical subjects, both in oil
and fresco, with considerable success. His works
are principally in the palaces and churches of
Imola, Leghorn, Siena, Florence, and Pisa. He
also painted the cupola of the Filippini, at Pistoja.
One of his best pictures is ' The Martyrdom of St.
Bartholomew,' in the church dedicated to that
apostle at Pisa.

FERRI, GIRO, an Italian historical painter, was
born at Rome in 1634. He was the most dis-
tinguished scholar of Pietro da Cortona, with
whom he executed many paintings, and whose
style he imitated with a servility that renders it
sometimes difficult to distinguish his works from
those of his instructor, from which they only differ
in their inferiority. He was patronized and em-
ployed by Prince Borghese and Pope Alexander
VII., for whom he executed several works. The
Grand-Duke Cosmo III. invited him to Florence
to finish the great fresco works which were left
imperfect by Pietro da Cortona, and in this he
was so successful, that they appeared to be the
production of one hand. Ferri died in 1689. The
following are his most important paintings :
Amsterdam. Museum. Marriage of the Virgin.
Bergamo. S. Maria } Scenes from the Bible. His

Maggiore. J largest work.

Copenhagen. Gallery. David refusing the Armour.
The Eape of Helen.
Dido and J3neas.
Dido dying on the funeral pile.
Pitti Pal. Frescoes (commenced by Pietro da


Christ on the Cross.
Alexander ou his couch reading

Pal. Triumph of Bacchus.

Coriolanus besought by his family

not to besiege Rome.
A Roman 'SVarrior.





Hampton Court.
Modena. Estense Gall.


Munich. Gallery. The Rest on the Flight to Egypt

i) .. Madonna and Child.

Nuremberg. Landauer ) , . .,
Bruderhaus}^ Kdj-Fxntij.

Rebekah and Elieser at th>


Petersburg. Hermitage. Vision of St. Catharine of Siena
Rome. tS. Ambrogio St. Ambrose healing a sick per

della Massima. son. His best work.
,1 S. Agnese, The Cupola (finished by Cor

, Vatican. Designs for the mosaics in

cupola of the right nave in
St. Peter's.

Vienna. Gallery. Christ appearing to Mary Mag


FERRI, GESUALDO, born at San Miniato in 1728,
was still living in 1776. He was a pupil of Pompeo
Batoni, and his works are to be found in Florence
and other places. Among them is an ' Exaltation
in the Carmine Church in Florence.

FERRIERE, F. and L., father and son, of Swiss
extraction, were miniature painters, who practisec
in London. The former exhibited at the Roya
Academy from 1793 to 1822, and the latter from
1817 to 1828.

FERRONI, GIROLAMO, a painter and etcher, was
born at Milan in 1687. It is not stated who was
his first instructor in art ; but at an early period ol
his life he painted the 'Death of St. Joseph,' for
the church of Sant' Eustorgio, at Milan ; and after-
wards visited Rome, where he entered the school oi
Carlo Maratti. He died about 1730. There are
some spirited and tasteful etchings by this artist,
after C. Maratti, including the following :

Joshua stopping the course of the Sun.

Deborah celebrating the Victory over Sisera.

Jael slaying Sisera.

The Chastity of Joseph.

Judith with the Head of Holofernes.

St. Charles Borromeo ; after S. Cantarini.

FERRUCCI, NICODEMO, was a native of Fiesole,
and the favourite disciple and friend of Domenico
Passignano, whose spirited style and facility of
execution he emulated. He accompanied that
master to Rome, and assisted him in his most im-
portant undertakings. He chiefly excelled as a
fresco painter ; and many of his works are in the
public edifices at Florence and Fiesole, as well
as in the neighbourhood of Rome. He died in


FESEL, CHRISTOPH, born at Ochsenfurt in 1737,
distinguished himself as a painter of historical sub-
jects and portraits. After having studied some
time under Mengs and Battoni at Rome, he returned
to Germany, and painted a number of easel-pictures
for churches, besides frescoes. All his works are
of a bright colouring. He was professor at the
Academy of St. Luke at Rome, and died at Wiirz-
burg, where he was court-painter and inspector of
the Gallery, in 1805.

FESELEN, MELCHIOR, an historical painter, of
Passau, lived at the same time as Altdorfer, whose
works he imitated with assiduity. Though he was
inferior to that artist, his paintings are rich in
composition, with a great number of figures highly
finished, and in a style quite peculiar to himself.
He died at Ingolstadt in 1538. Among his paint-
ings (marked with the annexed monogram) TV/IT*
there are : 1.YC



Gallery. The Crucifixion.
Gallery. The Siege of Rome by Porsena.

Munich. Gallery. Csesar conquering the town

Alesia in Gaul. 1533.
Nuremberg. Museum, The Adoration of the Magi.

Ratisbon. Hist. Soc. St. Mary of Egypt.

FESSARD, ETIENNE, a French engraver, was
born in Paris in 1714. He was a pupil of Edme
Jeaurat, and proved an artist of sufficient merit to
be appointed one of the engravers to the king.
He died in Paris in 1774. He executed a con-
siderable number of plates, among which are the
following :


Hortensia Mancini, Duchess of Mazarin j after Fer-

Marie Madeleine de Lavergne, Countess de La Fayette ;
after the same.

J. P. de Bougainville, of the French Academy : after
C. N. Cochin.

The Marquis de Mirabeau ; after Van Loo.

The Duke de Choiseul ; after the same.


Diana and Actseon; after Giacomo Eassano ; for the

Crozat Collection.
The Virgin enthroned, with SS. Francis, John, and

Catharine ; after Correygio.
The Holy Family, with St. Charles Borromeo; after

The Four Liberal Arts, personified by Children ; four

plates ; after C. van Loo.
Jupiter and Antiope ; after the same. 1758.
Herminia armed as Clorinda ; after J. B. Pierre.
The Birth of Venus ; after F. de Troy.
Jupiter and Leda ; after the same.
The Triumph of Galatea ; after Bouchardon ; etched by

Count de Cfry/HS, and finished by Fessard.
The Triumph of Bacchus ; after the same ; etched by

Count de Caylus, and finished by Fessard.
The Nativity ; after Boucher.
A Flemish Festival ; after Rubens. 1762.
Psyche abandoned by Cupid ; after Le Maine.

FETI, DOMENICO, born at Rome in 1589, was
a scholar of Lodovico Cardi, called Cigoli. While
still very young he went to Mantua with Cardinal
Ferdinando Gonzaga, afterwards Duke of Mantua,
}y whom he was much patronized, and who sub-
sequently appointed him his principal painter. In
this city he studied the works of Giulio Romano,
and at Venice, to which city he went afterwards,
:he masters of the Venetian school. He represented
scenes from the Bible and from mythology, as well
as from life ; but his oil paintings are superior to
lis frescoes. This able artist was unfortunately
.ddicted to intemperance and excess, to which he
'ell a victim, at Venice, in 1624. The following
are among his principal works :



Edinburgh. Nat. Gall.
lorence. Corsini Pal.


Gallery. Elijah in the 'Wilderness.
Museum. The Expulsion of Hagar.

The Return of the Prodigal.
Gallery. The Martyrdom of St. Agnes.
David with the Head of Goliath.
,, The Return of the Prodigal.
Young Tobias pulling the Fish

out of the "Water.
Several Parables.
The Beheading of St. John the


Christ praying in the Garden.
Christ presented to the People

by Pontius Pilate.
The Cpowning with Thorns.
,, The Entombment.
Pitti Pal. The Labourers in the Vineyard.
The Lost Coin.
Vffid. Artemisia.
Stadel. The Visitation.

The Flight into Egypt.


Petersburg. Hermitage.

Hampton Court. Palace. David with the Head of Goliath.
Mantua. Academy. The Miracle of the Loaves.

Cathedral. Frescoes.

Modena. Estense Gall. The Virgin enthroned.
Munich. Gallery. Herminia.

St. Peter.

Tancred lying wounded in the

arms of his Esquire.
Paris. Louvre. Nero.

.. Rural Life.

.. Melancholy.

The Guardian Angel.
The Adoration of the Shepherds.
Portrait of a Comedian.

The Conception.

The Young Tobias healing his


Daedalus and Icarus.

Venice. Academy. Melancholy.

Vienna. Gallery. A Market-place.

The Flight into Egypt.

The dead Leander.

Moses and the burning Bush.

The Marriage of St. Catharine.

The Triumph of Galatea.

St. Margaret.

FEUERBACH, ANSELM, a German historical
painter, the son of a well-known archaeologist,
was born at Spires in 1829, and after his father's
removal to Freiburg, he went, when seventeen
years of age, to Diisseldorf, and there first studied
art under the tuition of Schadow. But the religious
sentiment of that school being little to his taste, he
left Diisseldorf in 1848, and went to Munich,
where, as a pupil of Genelli, he first disclosed that
classical taste which afterwards gave him his high
position in the ranks of art. In 1850 he betook
himself to the Antwerp Academy, and in the fol-
lowing year to Paris, where he first worked under
Couture, but afterwards quite independently. He
did not, however, remain long in that city, for in
1853 we find him removing to Carlsruhe, in 1854
to Venice, and in 1855 to Rome.

The earliest of Feuerbach's productions of
which we find mention is his 'Sea Nymph,"
painted while studying under Genelli at Munich.
Then in 1852, at Paris, he executed his grace-
ful and natural ' Hafis at the Fountain ' ;
at Carlsruhe, in 1853, his 'Death of Pietro
Aretino, 1 which proved a most striking picture
through the strong individualities of the characters,
and the grandeur and comprehensiveness of the
design. At Venice he copied Titian's ' Ascension,'
and also painted poetical subjects, in which he de-
veloped a further advance in the direction of his
previous picture. At Rome, in 1857, appeared his
'Dante with the noble Ladies of Ravenna,' now
in the Carlsruhe Gallery, a production characterized
by loftiness of conception together with depth of
thought; in 1861, his 'Iphigenia in Tauris,' and
' Francesca-da Rimini ' ; and in 1862, a magnificent
and solemn ' Pieta,' At Vienna he painted upon
the ceiling of the Museum of Modelling a powerful
original design of ' The Titans.' His death occurred
at Venice in 1880. Among his other works are the
following :


Orpheus and Eurydice.

Petrarch and Laura.

Ariosto in the Park of Ferrara.

The Boy Musicians. 1865.

The Banquet of Plato. 1869.

Medea going into Exile. 1870.

The Judgment of Paris. 1871.

The Battle of the Amazons. 1872.

Iphigenia. {Stuttgart Gallery!)

Borneo and Juliet.


The Fall of the Titans.

FEURLEIN, JOHANN PETER, who was born at
Boxberg in 1668, was instructed in painting by
Oswald Onghers, and visited Vienna and Venice.
He died at Anspach in 1728. He was an excellent
painter of portraits and historical pieces, among
which may be mentioned :

The portrait of the Emperor Joseph I.
The paintings in the Castles of the Duke of Saxe-
Hildburghausen and the Margrave of Anspach.






painter, was born in 1829 at Bey-sur-Seille (Meurthe
et Moselle). As a child he displayed a precocious
artistic gift, and after a short period of study at
Nancy, he entered the Ecole des Beaux Arts in
Paris, and became the pupil of Cogniet and of
Yvon. His first works were scenes for the Theatre
Italien ; he then devoted himself to history, but his
narrow means forced him to turn his attention to
portraiture and studies of peasant life, in which he
achieved great excellence. His best works are
perhaps his ' Return from Oyster Fishing ' (in the
Luxembourg), ' La Vanneuse ' (painted 1867), ' Les
Cancalaisesj' 'The Road to the Market,' a portrait
of M. Alphonse Daudet, and a ' Death of Orpheus.'
He was also an etcher of some ability. He died
in 1888.

FEYERABEND, SIGMUND, born in 1527 or 1528,
was a bookseller at Frankfort. To him are at-
tributed the woodcuts from the designs of Virgil
Solis in a German Bible printed at Frankfort in
1561, and the portraits of the Doges of Venice
in Kellner's ' Chronica,' also printed at Frankfort
in 1574. He died after the year 1585. He signed
his cuts with SF or a monogram. Several of his
relations also were wood-engravers, and one of
them, M. FEYERABEND, who worked about 1578,
executed several figures after Melchior Lorch.

FIACCO, ORLANDO, (or FLACCO,) a native of
Verona, who flourished about 1560, was instructed
by Francesco Torbido, called II Moro. His style
much resembles that of Badile. Vasari praises his
portraits, and Lanzi says that his forms resemble
those of Caravaggio. There are by him at Verona,
in San Nazario, a ' Crucifixion ' and an ' Ecce Homo.'

FIALETTI, ODOARDO, was born at Bologna in
1573. After studying for some time under Gio-
vanni Battista Cremonini, at Bologna, he went to
Rome, and afterwards to Venice, where he entered
the school of Tintoretto. He died at Venice in
1638. His principal paintings are in San Marco
and Sant' Andrea at Murano. Boschini mentions
thirty-eight pictures by this painter, in the different
churches at Venice. At Hampton Court Palace
are ' Senators of Venice in the Senate House,' and
' Four Doges of Venice,' both of which were
brought direct from Venice by Sir Henry Wotton,
and by him bequeathed to Charles I. He also
etched 243 plates from his own designs, and after
other masters. These are usually marked with

the cipher /Xv i and among them are the following :



A long frieze, with Tritons, Sirens, &c.
Venus and Cupid, Diana hunting, the god Pan, and a

Man holding a Vase ; after Pordenone.
The Pastimes of Love, twenty plates, entitled ' Scherzi

d'Amore.' 1617.
A set of plates of the Costumes of different Nations,

and of the different Religious Orders. 1626.
The Marriage at Cana ; after Tintoretto.
St. Sebastian ; after the same.
Designs of all the parts of the Human Body.
Designs for Sieges
A Book on Fortification and Instructions for Fighting,

in forty-three plates. 1628.


MINGO). This is a general name given by the
Italians to Flemish artists, but tbey are so numerous
that it is difficult to distinguish the Fiamminghi in
the Italian writers. Zani names no less than

FIAMMINGO, ANSELMO, who flourished about
1680, was instructed by Luca Giordano. He was
a most successful copyist of his master.

FIAMMINGO, ARRIGO, probably a native of
Mecblin, was born about 1523. His family name
is not known ; but he is called by the Italians
Fiammingo (Fleming), on account of his nationali ty.
He visited Rome in the time of Gregory XIII., and
was employed by that pontiif in the Vatican. In
the Sistine Chapel of the basilica of Santa Maria
Maggiore there is a ' Resurrection of Christ '
restored by him from the original of Domenico
Gbirlandajo, but it has lost all trace of the style
of that master. In La Madonna degli Angeli is
a picture by this master of 'Christ and Mary
Magdalen in the bouse of the Pharisee,' a grand
composition, of many figures ; and in the same
church is a fine picture of ' St. Michael discomfiting
the rebel Angels,' designed in a grand and noble
style. Many other works of this painter, in oil and
fresco, are in the public edifices at Rome, where
be died in 1601.



FIAMMINGO, ENRICO, first studied under Giu-
seppe Ribera, called Spagnoletto, but was after-
wards a scholar of Guido. There are some works
by this artist, in the style of Guido, in the church
of San Barbaziano, at Bologna.


two artists painted for the churches of Florence a
great number of windows after the designs of
Vasari. It is supposed that these glass-painters,
mentioned by Vasari, are identical with Dirk and
Wouter Crabeth of Gouda.

FIAMMINGO, GDGLIELMO, a scholar of Fran-
cesco Albani, painted in the style of that master at
Bologna about 1660. His productions are remark-
able for the landscapes.



SARAZANA), was born at Sarzana, in the Genoese
state, about 1589. After passing some time in the
school of Giovanni Battista Paggi, he went to
Rome, where he studied attentively the works of
Raphael. During a residence of ten years at
Rome he was employed in several works conjointly
with Passignano and the Cavaliere d'Arpino. On
his return to Genoa he painted a great number
of pictures for the churches in that city. His


powers were best adapted to the depicting of tragic
scenes. As a colourist he is superior to the gener-
ality of the Genoese painters. He distinguished
himself also as a portrait painter, and died in
1669. His principal works are :

Genoa. S. Selastiano. St. Anthony finding the dead
body of St. Paul the Hermit.
S. Agostino. St. Thomas of Villanuova.

Piacenza. S. Vincenzo. St. Bernard (in the manner of

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