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Sarzana Cathedral. The Murder of the Innocents.


FICATELLI, STEFANO, who was born at Cento
about 1630, and died at the beginning of the 18th
century, was a pupil of Guercino. He executed
some pictures for the churches in Ferrara, but his
chief works are his copies after Guercino.

FICHEL, EUGENE, French genre painter of
distinction ; born 1826 ; as a lad entered the
studio of Paul Delaroche ; began as a historical
painter, but soon preferred to devote himself to
genre, taking the famous leader of this school,
Meisonnier, as his model. He obtained a medal
at the Salon of 1857, and continued to exhibit up
to the date of his death small canvases, executed
with the utmost finesse, dealing with eighteenth-
century life. Of his pictures the best known are,
' Le Cabaret de Pamponneau,' ' La Partie aux
Cartes,' ' Soldats et Grisettes,' ' La Forge de Louis
XVI.,' ' La Carte a Payer,' ' Diderot et le neveu de
Rameau,' ' Butibn e'crivant son Histoire Naturelle,'
&c. Fichel was a Chevalier of the Legion of
Honour. He died in Paris, aged 69, in February

born at San Gimignano in 1605, was a pupil of
Jacopo da Empoli. He acquired the name of Felice
Riposo from his singular taciturnity, for which he
was not more remarkable than for his uncommon
indolence. This inertness is more to be regretted,
as the few works he has left are distinguished by
an elegance of design, a ' morbidezza,' a truth to
nature, and a harmony of colour that charm.
Such is his picture of ' Adam and Eve driven from
Paradise,' in the Rinuccini Palace, and his ' St.
Anthony,' in the church of Santa Maria Nuova, at
Florence. His copies after Perugino, Andrea del
Sarto, and others, have been mistaken for the works
of those masters. He died in 1660. In the Dres-
den Gallery is a ' Lucretia and Tarquinius ' by him.

FICQUET, ETIENNE, a French engraver, was
born in Paris in 1719, and was instructed by G. F.
Schmidt and Le Bas. He acquired great reputa-
tion by a set of small portraits which he engraved
of distinguished literary characters of France.
They are executed with extraordinary neatness
and delicacy, and are very correctly drawn. One
of his best plates is a portrait of Madame de
Maintenon, after Mignard, now become very scarce.
He engraved also several of the plates for
Descamps' ' Vie des Peintres Flamands et Hol-
landais,' of which those of Rubens and Van Dyck
are very highly finished. He died in Paris in
1794. The following are among his best prints :

Franchise d'Aubigndi ; after P. Slignard.

J. de La Fontaine ; after Riyaud.

3. F. Eegnard ; after the same.

3. J. Eousseau ; after He La Tour. 1763.

F. M. Arouet de Voltaire ; after the same. 1762

Pierre Corneille ; after Le Urun.

J. de Crebillon ; after Aved.

3. B. P. de Moliere ; after Coi/pel.

Rene Descartes ; after F. Hals.







M. Montaigne ; after Dumonstier. 1772.
De La Mothe Le Vayer ; after Nanteuil.
F. de La Mothe Fenelon ; after Vivien.
J. 3. Vad6 ; after Richard.
P. P. Rubens ; after Van Dyck.
Anton Van Dyck ; after the same.


FIDANI, ORAZIO, a native of Florence, was born
about 1610, and died shortly after 1642. He was
a pupil of Giovanni Biliverti, whose style he imi-
tated. Several of his pictures are to be found in
Florence, among which may be named ' The Four
Doctors ' and 'The Four Evangelists ' in the church
of the Chartreuse. The Corsini Gallery possesses
two portraits.

FIDANZA, FILIPPO, born at Sabina in 1720, was
instructed in painting by Marco Benefial at Rome.
Subsequently he studied and imitated the great
masters, and many works by him of that descrip-
tion are still to be met with at Rome. He died
in 1790.

FIDANZA, FRANCESCO, the son of Filippo
Fidanza, was born at Milan in 1749. He studied
under Vernet and Lacroix, and excelled in land-
scape painting. For Eugene Beauharnaia he
painted the Italian Harbours, two of which,
Ancona and Malamocco, with a landscape, are in
the Brera at Milan. He died at Milan in 1819.

FIDANZA, GREGORIO, brother of Francesco
Fidanza, was a disciple of Claude Lorrain and
Salvator Rosa, whom he imitated with success in
his landscapes. He died in 1820.

FIDANZA, PAOLO, an Italian painter and en-
graver, of Rome, was born at Camerino in 1731,
and studied after the great masters at Rome, from
whose paintings he executed a series of heads.
There are by him several plates after Raphael,
Annibale Carracci, and Guido Reni, but very indif-
ferently executed ; among them are the following :

Mount Parnassus ; after Raphael.
The Mass of Bolsena ; after the same.
The Descent from the Cross ; after A nnilale Carracci.
St. Peter and St. Paul appearing to St. Francis ; after
the same.

FIEBIGER, JDLIUS, a Saxon landscape painter,
was born at Bautzen in 1813, and died at Dresden
in 1883. There is a landscape by this painter in
the Dresden Gallery.

1697, was a painter of portraits, who studied in
Paris under Rigaud and Largilliere. As court-
painter at Darmstadt, where he died in 1768, he
executed the portraits of a number of distinguished
personages. Among his productions in the Gallery
of that town are 'The Burial of Christ,' 'The
Seasons,' some portraits, among which is the artist
himself, and some fruit and fish pieces.

eminent water-colour landscape painter, was born
in 1787. He was the second son of Theodore
Nathan Fielding, and studied under John Varley.
In 1810 he became an Associate of the Water-
Colour Society, to the exhibitions of which he was
a very large contributor. He became a full mem-
ber of the Society in 1813, treasurer in 1817, secre-
tary in 1818, and was president from 1831 until his
death. He was awarded a gold medal at the Paris
Salon of 1824. The public appreciation of his art,
and a large teaching connection, enabled him to
amass a considerable fortune, and in his later
years he retired to Brighton. He died at Hove,
and was buried in the parish churchyard there in

1855. His works are clever, although the rapidity
with which they are executed he frequently
exhibited more than forty in one year at tha
Water-Colour Society renders them slight. He
is seen at his best in his sea-pieces and aerial
effects. He occasionally painted in oil, and some
of his works in this medium appeared at the Royal
Academy. There is a large collection of his
water-colour drawings in the South Kensington

FIELDING, JOHN, an engraver, was born about
1758. He studied under Bartolozzi and Ryland,
for the latter of whom he worked much, so that
few plates bear his own name ; of these are ' Jacob
and Rachael," after Stothard, and ' Moses saved by
Pharaoh's Daughter.'

FIELDING, NEWTON, a water-colour painter
and an engraver, was the youngest son of
Theodore Nathan Fielding. He painted animals,
but he is chiefly known as an engraver and litho-
grapher. His practice was large in France, where
he had a considerable reputation. He died in 1856.

FIELDING, THALES, a water-colour painter,
born in 1793, was a younger son of Theodore
Nathan Fielding. He painted landscapes, with
cattle and figures, and became drawing-master at
the Woolwich Military Academy. He died in
London in 1837. At the South Kensington Museum
is a water-colour drawing, ' Greenwich Hill,' by

water-colour painter, the eldest son of Theodore
Nathan Fielding, was born in 1781. He exhibited
occasionally at the Royal Academy, and became
drawing master at Addiscombe Military College.
He also wrote several works on the theory and
practice of painting, engraving, and perspective.
He died at Croydon in 1851. At the South
Kensington Museum is a water-colour drawing of
' Manorbeer Castle ' by him. His wife was a
member of the Water-Colour Society, and from
1821 till 1835 exhibited drawings of flowers,
birds, insects, &c. at its exhibitions.

FIELDING, THEODORE NATHAN, a portrait painter,
had considerable practice in the latter half of the
18th century in Yorkshire and Lancashire. He
was the father of the four water-colour painters,
Theodore, Copley, Thales, and Newton Fielding.


FIESOLE, Fra BENEDETTO DA, called also
BENEDETTO DA MUGELLO, who was born at the
village of Vicchio, in the province of Mugello, was
a brother probably younger of the celebrated
Fra Angelico, and with him entered the convent of
San Domenico at Fiesole, in 1407, taking the name
of ' Frater Benedictus,' by which he is usually
known. For three years previous to his death,
which occurred in 1448, he held the post of superior
of that convent. Fra Benedetto was a miniaturist
of talent. He illuminated the choral books of San
Marco, Florence, and also books in the convent of
San Domenico, Fiesole. He is supposed also to have
assisted Fra Angelico in his frescoes in San Marco.
FIESOLE, Frate GIOVANNI DA, commonly, from
the piety of his life and works, called FRA ANGELICO,
was born at Vicchio, in the province of Mugello, in
1387. His father's Christian name was Piet.ro, his
surname is unrecorded. He was christened Guido,
ind both he and his brother Benedetto entered the
Dominican convent of Fiesole, near Florence, in
1407, when Guido took the name of Giovanni. His
earliest works, it is believed, were illuminations



for manuscripts. His novitiate was passed at
Cortona, and at Cortona were spent the early
years of his life as a religious, in consequence of
the fact that the hrotherhood were driven from
Florence by the Archhishop for their allegiance to
Gregory XII. He probably returned with the
Dominicans to Fie^ole in 1418, and remained there
eighteen years, during which he executed many
paintings and frescoes for the convent and churches.
Amongst them may be mentioned 'The Madonna
dei Linajuoli,' a triptych, painted in 1433, and now
in the Uffizi Gallery. About 1436 he went to the
monastery of San Marco, at Florence, which owed
so much of its splendour to the liberality of Cosmo
de' Medici ; and in 1439 he painted the altar-piece
for the choir, which is now in the Academy of
Arts. The numerous frescoes with which Fra
Angelico has adorned the church and convent have
rendered it for ever famous, and have so often
been described and illustrated that it is unnecessary
here to enlarge on them. He was engaged on the
work about six years. In 1446 or early in 1447
he went, at the invitation of Pope Eugenius IV.,
to Rome, and shortly afterwards he was offered
the Archbishopric of Florence, which through
modesty he declined. In 1447 he visited Orvieto,
where he painted ' The Last Judgment ' in the
Cappella Nuova of the cathedral. The subjects
are ' The Saviour in the midst of a glory of Angels,'
and sixteen figures of Saints and Prophets. He
only painted a small portion of the vaulted roof of
this chapel, which was subsequently adorned with
frescoes by Signorelli in 1499. On his return to
Rome he was employed by Nicholas V. to decorate
with frescoes the chapel in the Vatican which
bears his name ; these illustrate the lives of St.
Stephen and St. Lawrence. Fra Angelico died at
Rome in 1455, and was buried in the church of
Santa Maria sopra Minerva in that city. The
following are his principal works :

Berlin Gallery. The Last Judgment (a trip-


Boston. Mrs. J. L. \ Assumption and Dormition of

Gardner's ^ the Virgin (a small panel,

Collection. ) believedtobeoneoffourreliquary

pictures originally at S. Maria


Gortons.. San Domenico. The Virgin and Child, and the
Four Evangelists (fresco, much

i, Virgin and Child, with Saints

(altar-piece: the predella is in
the Baptistery, Cortona).
Baptistery 1 Annunciation, with scenes from

(formerly the V the Life of the Virgin.
Oratorio del Jesu).)

Life of St. Dommic (the predella

of the altar-piece in San Dome-
nico, Cortona}.
Dublin. National Gall. Martyrdom of St. Cosmo and St.

Florence. Academy. Descent from the Cross "(from

Santa Trinitct, Florence).
The Virgin and Child, with

Saints ; and, on the predella, a
Pieta and Six Saints (from the
Convent of S. Buonaventura al
Bosco in the Muycllo).
The Virgin and Child, with Saints
(from the Convent of San

The Virgin and Child, with Saints

(from the Monastery of Anna-
Icna, Florence).

Thirty-five scenes from the Life
of Christ (from the Convent of


the SS. Annundata originally
panels to ornament the plate

Florence. Academy. Two Scenes from the Lives of
St. Cosmo and St. Damian.

Predella, with six scenes from the

lives of St. Cosmo and St.
Damian (from the Chapel of
St. Luke, in the cloister of the
SS. Annunziata, Florence).

ij The Coronation of the Virgin.

)t The Crucifixion.

The Entombment (formerly in

the Monastery of La Croce al

The Last Judgment (formerly in

the Monastery of S. Maria
deali Angeli, Florence).

Ujfizi. Virgin and Child, with Saints

(painted in 1433 /or the Cor-
poration of the Linajuoli).

The Coronation of the Virgin

(from S. Maria Nuova, Flo-

The Naming of John the Baptist.

The Preaching of St. Peter, the

Adoration of the Magi, and the
Martyrdom of St. Mark (pre-
della to the above ' Madonna dei
Linajuoli 1 ).

The Assumption of the Virgin.

Convent of ~)

San Marco. >The Crucifixion, with St. Dominic.
(Cloisters.) }

St. Peter Martyr en joining silence.

St. Dominic with the scourge of

nine thongs.

A Pieta.

,, St. Thomas Aquinas.

M Christ as a Pilgrim welcomed by

two Dominican Monks.

(Chapter The Crucifixion. Christ between

House.) the thieves, surrounded by a

group of twenty Saints; with

bust portraits of seventeen

Dominicans below.

" " (UpP eT | The Annunciation.
Floor. ) J

Christ on the Cross, with St.


Madonna enthroned, with Saints.

Noli Me Tangere.

The Entombment.

The Annunciation.

,, The Crucifixion.

,, The Nativity.

The Transfiguration.

,, Christ at the Praetorium.

The Resurrection.

The Coronation of the Virgin.

The Presentation in the Temple.

The Descent to Limbo.

The Agony in the Garden.

,. The Institution of the Eucharist.

The Nailing to the Cross.

,, The Crucifixion.

The Adoration of the Magi.

The Crucifixion.

,, Three Reliquaries. One Adorned

with ' The Virgin and Child ' ;
another w i th the 'Annunciation*
and ' Adoration of the Magi ' ;
and the third with a ' Corona-
tion of the Virgin and Saints '
(from the Sacristy of Santa
Maria Novella).

Fiesole. 5. Domenico. Madonna and Saints (the predella
is in the National Gallery).

Sacristy. Crucifixion (a fresco).

London. National Gall. Christ, with the Banner of the
Resurrection in His left hand,
in the midst of a choir of
Angels, and crowds of the
Blessed. In five compartments





[J/rj. j '. L. Gardner's collection

Alinari photo\




\$an Marco, Florence



Madrid. Gallery,

Munich. Gallery.

Orvieto. Cathedral.

Paris. Louvre.

Parma. Pinacoteca.
Perugia. Pinacoteca

St. Petersburg. Gall.

Pisa. Gallery.

Borne. Vatican.

(Cappella di
Niccolo V.)


,, Corsini Palace.
Turin. Gallery.

(formerly the predella to the
altar-piece in San Doinenico at

The Annunciation.

Three Scenes from the Lives of
St. Cosmo and St. Damian (part
of a predella of the altar-piece,
painted in 1438 for San Marco,

Christ, in a glory of Angels, as
Judge with sixteen Saints
and Prophets to the right (all
more or less damaged ; finished
by Signorelli in 1499).

Coronation of the Virgin : on the
predella, seven subjects six
scenes from the Life of St.
Dominic, and in the centre
Christ risen from the Tomb
( formerly in San Domenico,

The Crucifixion (from the Convent
of San Domenico, Fiesole).

The Martyrdom of St. Cosmo
and St. Damian (one of the
pictures of the predella of the
' Madonna ' in the Florence Aca-
demy, formerly in the Convent of
San Marco).

Madonna and four Saints.

The Annunciation (from San
Domenico, Peruyia).

Madonna and Saints.

Miracles of St. Nicholas of Ban.

Madonna and Saints (a fresco,

Salvator Mundi (a banner).

I Six scenes from the Life of St.
f Stephen.

Six scenes from the Life of St.

The Four Evangelists.

The Teachers of the Church.

St. Nicholas of Bari (part of a

Madonna and Angels.

The Last Judgment, The Ascen-
sion, and Pentecost.

Two Angels kneeling on Clouds.

Offenburg in Breisgau in 1752, studied without any
master the art of engraving. He visited Munich,
Vienna, Friburg (1786), Switzerland, France, and
lastly London, where he died in 1807. Among his
plates may be mentioned :

Prudence ; after M. A. Franceschim. 1777.

Ecce Homo ; after Giuseppe Ctsari. 1781.

The portrait ot Thaddaus Kosciuszko ; after J. Gfrassi.

FIGINO, AMBROGIO, a native of Milan, was bom
about 1550, and was alive in the year 1595. He
was a pupil of Giovanni Paolo Lomazzo, and not
only distinguished himself in portrait painting suf-
ficiently to be celebrated in the poetry of Marino,
but was eminent for his historical works. He has
left in his native city a ' St. Ambrose ' in Sant'
Eustorgio, a 'St. Matthew' in San Raffaello, an
'Assumption' in San Fedele, a 'Conception' in
Sant' Antonio, and (in the Brera) the portrait of
Lucio Foppa, and a ' Virgin and Child.'



FILHOL, ANTOINE MICHEL, a French engraver,
born in Paris in 1759, was instructed by F. D. Nee.
He was very successful in depicting landscapes,
and published several works on art, among which
the most noted is the 'Musee Francais,' 1804-15.
He died in Paris in 1812.

M 2

painter, was born at Bois-le-Duc in 1660. He was
a scholar of Pieter van Slingelandt, and painted
in the very highly-finished manner of his master.
His pictures, like those of Slingelandt, represent
conversations, or subjects taken from private life,
and small portraits. His works, without possessing
the extreme polish of those of his iustructor, have
great merit, and are found in the best collections
in Holland. He died in 1719.

BOTTICELLI, the youngest son of Mariano Filipepi,
a Florentine tanner, was born at Florence in 1447,
or somewhat earlier. He was apprenticed in his
youth to a goldsmith ; but he soon abandoned this
art and devoted himself to painting, which he
studied first under Fra Filippo Lippi and after-
wards under the brothers Pollaiuoli. Amongst his
earlier works are, an allegorical figure of ' Fortitude,'
originally in the Mercatanzia, now in the Uffizi at
Florence ; a ' St. Sebastian ' (now in the Berlin Gal-
lery), which he painted to the order of Lorenzo dei
Medici in 1473 for the church of Sta. Maria Mag-
giore at Florence ; and a beautiful little picture of
the 'Madonna and Child with an Angel,' formerly
in the possession of Prince Chigi, but now in Mrs.
Gardner's Collection at Boston. His first important
work was an ' Adoration of the Magi,' painted
about the year 1476, in which he seems to have
emulated the style of Dom. Ghirlandajo. This
picture, formerly in the church of Sta. Maria No-
vella, now in tlie Uffizi at Florence, contains several
portraits of the Medici family, the first Mage
representing Cosimo, Pater Patrix; the second,
Piero, Cosimo's elder son ; and the third,
Giovanni, his younger son. In 1478 Sandro was
commissioned by Lorenzo dei Medici to paint the
effigies of the Pazzi conspirators on the walls of
the Bargello, or Public Palace, of Florence. In
1480 he executed a fresco of St. Augustine, in the
church of Ognissanti, a work of great power and
depth of thought ; and in the same year he painted
the political allegory of ' Pallas with a Centaur,' a
very beautiful picture which for many years was
completely lost sight of, and was discovered in the
Pitti Palace in 1895. Botticelli was the favourite
painter of Lorenzo the Magnificent, for whose
sumptuous villas he painted the panel known as
' Mars and Venus ' in the National Gallery, as well
as his great masterpieces of the ' Allegory of
Spring ' (now in the Academy at Florence), and the
' Birth of Venus ' (in the Uffizi). These pictures,
decorative in character and poetical in subject, were
to a great extent inspired by the classical imagery
of the poems of Lorenzo the Magnificent and Agnolo
Poli'.iano. Between the years 1481 and 1483, Bot-
ticelli, called to Rome by Pope Sixtus IV., colla-
borated with Ghirlandajo, Perugino, Pinturicchio,
and Cosimo Rosselli, in the decoration of the
Sistine Chapel. His work consisted of three
frescoes representing (1) the ' Purification of a
Leper,' with vignettes of the 'Temptation of
Christ ' ; (2) ' Scenes from the Life of Moses ' ;
(3) ' The Punishment of Core, Dathan, and Abiron ' ;
and Vasari says that it brought him great renown
"beyond any of his collaborators." On his return
to Florence he executed commissions for some of
the leading Florentine families ; and, about the
year 1480, he painted for his friend Antonio Segni
his famous picture of ' Calumny,' in imitation of
the lost masterpiece of the Greek painter Apelles,
as described by Lucian. Amongst his religious



pictures must be mentioned a large altar-piece
of the ' Madonna and Child with Angels and
Saints,' painted for the convent of St. Barnaba
(now in the Academy at Florence), and a 'Corona-
tion of the Virgin,' painted for the Guild of St.
Marco (also in the Academy). Sandro was the
originator of the Tondi, or circular pictures, of
the ' Madonna and Child with Angels,' the most
beautiful of which is the masterpiece of the ' Mag-
nificat' (now in the Uffizi). These Tondi became
very popular, and gave rise to a large number of
imitative works by his scholars and followers,
which, widely varying in merit, are now scattered
through the Galleries of Europe, and in some cases
have been mistakenly attributed to Sandro himself.
Botticelli's pictures are generally distinguished l>v
a quaint grace of form combined with a profound
melancholy of sentiment. His most distinctive
qualities as a painter lie in his unique power of
conveying the sense of light, swift movement, and
in his genius for lineal design. According to Vasari.
he practised engraving to a limited extent ; but
none of the engravings attributed to him have as
yet been identified as his work. There is no doubt
that he furnished designs to some of the engravers
of the period, especially to Baccio Baldini. The
latter's copper-plate illustrations of the ' Inferno '
(nineteen canti in all) in Landini's edition of Dante,
published in 1481, were executed after Botticelli's
designs. Later on Sandro himself illustrated (in
silver-point gone over with pen and ink) a manu-
script of the 'Divina Commedia ' for Lorenzo di Piero
Francesco dei Medici, a work to which Vasari savs
he devoted considerable time and labour. This
MS., from which several drawings are missing, was
formerly in the collection of the Duke of Hamilton,
and is now in the Berlin Museum. Eight of the
missing drawings have since been discovered in
the Vatican Library. Towards the end of his
career Botticelli fell under the influence of Savon-
arola ; and the pictures of this period, though fewer
in number and perhaps less masterly in execution,
are far more devotional in feeling than the works
of his youth and maturity. His last picture, and
the only one he ever signed or dated, was the little
'Nativity' in the National Gallery, which is full
of fervent, almost ecstatic, religious feeling. In
his old age he became, Vasari says, infirm and
incapacitated ; and during the last ten years of his
life he appears to have entirely abandoned painting.
He died in May 1510, at about the age of eixty-
nve. and was buried in the church of Ognissanti.
at Florence. The following works by Botticelli
are in the public and private Galleries of Europe
and America :

Bergamo. Gallery. Story of Virginia.

Berlin. Jfuseum. 106. Madonna and Child with SS.
John Evangelist and John
Baptist (from the Bardi
Chapel in the Chuir 1 ! of S.

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