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Spirito. Florence. 14S5.
112$. St. Sebastian.

,, Gallery. Madonna and Child with

Angels (school-work).
Jfuseum. Madonna and Child with Seven

Angels (school-work).

Yenus. Copied by a follower

from a figure in the Birth of

Boston. Mrs. J. L. ~) Madonna and Child with an

Gardner. >- Angel (from Prince Chigi's

J Collection in Borne.)
Death of Lucretia (late vork).

Dresden. Gallery. Scenes from the Life of St.

n Madonna and Child (school-

Florence. Academy. 73. Coronation.

74. Predclla of above in five com-

80. Primavera( Allegory of Spring).


* ,, 85. Madonna andChild with Angels

and Saints (from the Convent
of S. Barnaba).

Four panels wbich probably
formed predtlla to above, and

157. I represent respectively: Christ

158. \ rising from the Tomb ; The

161. [ Death of St. Ambrose ; Sa-

162. I lonie with the Baptist's

Head ; and The Vision of
St. Augustine.
T^.-i'. 39. The Birth of Venus.

ii i, 1154. Portrait of Giovanni di Cosimo

dei Medici.

ii 1156. Return of Judith.

1158. Holofernes 1 Dead Body in his


n ii 1179. St. Augustine in his Study.

1182. 'Calumny.'

1267. bis. Madonna of the Magnificat.

,i 1286. Adoration of the Magi (from

the Maria Novella). About

it ,, 1289. Madonna and Child with Angels

(known as the Madonna of
the Melagrana).

i, 1299. Fortitude. 1470.

ii ,i 1303. Madonna and Child (Rosebush


i, 1316. Annunziation. 1490.

ii ,i 3436. Adoration of the Magi (laid in

by Botticelli).

Pala:-o Pitti. Pallas with a Centaur. 1480.

Pala:zo Capponi. Communion of St. Jerome.

Church of the J gt Augustine (f rexo ). 1450.

Omtssmtti. J
Milan. Po&feaoK ) Madonna ^ Child .

Collection. J
,i Ambrosiana. Madonna and Child with


Munich. Royal Gallerv. 1 TV *
1010. J Fleta "
London. Jfational Gal- ) Adoration of the Magi (early

lery. 592. J work).

626. Portrait of a Young Man.

915. Mars and Venus.

1033. Adoration of the Magi (early

work) .

1034. Nativity. 1500.

226. Madonna and Child with St.

John and an Angel (school-
275. Madonna and Child with John

and Angels (school-work).
Mr. J. P. Heset- \ Madonna and Child with St.

tine. J John.
Jlr. Lading. (Scenes from the Life of St.

Jfond. J Zenobius (late work).

Paris. Louvre. Giovanni Tornabuoni with

Venus and the Graces (fresco
from Villa Lemmi). i486.

n H Lorenzo Tornabuoni and the

Liberal Arts ( fresco from
VillaLemmi, Florence). I486.

Rome. Sistine Chapel. Temptation of Christ. -,
Scenes from the Life of

Moses. [-1481-

Fall of Core, Dathan, 14S3.

and Abiron.
i, Some Portraits of Popes.

Prince Pallavicini. La Derelitta (the Outcast).


St. Petersburg. Her- } 4
mitage. 163. 3 -



FILIPPI, CAMILLO, was a native of Ferrara,
who flourished about the middle of the 16th cen-
tury. He was a disciple of Dosso Dossi, and
painted historical works with some success. In
the church of Santa Maria del Vado, at Ferrara, is
a picture by this master representing the ' Annun-
ciation ' ; and in that of II Gesii is another of the
' Trinity.' His death took place in 1574.

FILIPPI, CESARE, the younger son and pupil
of Camillo Filippi, was born at Ferrara in 1536.
He assisted his father and brother Sebastiano in
their works, and excelled in painting heads and
grotesques in the ornamental style, although he
sometimes attempted historical subjects, which are
very feeble imitations of the style of his brother.
Such is his picture of the ' Crucifixion ' in the church
of La Morte. He died after 1602.

FILIPPI, GIACOMO, a native of Ferrara, studied
painting under Francesco Ferrari. His views and
architectural paintings are deservedly esteemed.
He died in 1743.

sometimes GRATELLA, born at Ferrara in-. 1532,
was the son of Camillo Filippi. He was first in-
structed in art by his father, and when he was
eighteen years of age he went to Rome, where he
had the advantage of being admitted into the school
of Michelangelo, but on account of the unhealthy
climate of Rome he was obliged to leave that city
and return to Ferrara. He was a fertile painter,
but negligent in the execution of his works, which
are very unequal in value and possess little origin-
ality. Though his drawing is correct, his figures
are clumsy. His principal work is 'The Last
Judgment' (1577-84), in the cathedral at Ferrara,
a prodigious performance in which he imitated the
style of Michelangelo. It has been spoiled by
restoration. A ' Holy Family ' and an ' Adoration
of the Magi' are in the Costabili Gallery in the same
city, in the churches of which there are no fewer
than seven pictures of the 'Annunciation,' differing
little from each other in composition. Among his
best works may also be noticed his ' Martyrdom of
St. Catharine,' in the church dedicated to that
saint ; in Santa Maria de' Servi, the ' Adoration of
the Magi ' ; in the Certosa, a grand picture of St.
Christopher, entirely in the lofty style of Michel-
angelo ; in San Benedetto, a ' Dead Christ supported
by Angels'; and at the Cappuccini, the 'Virgin and
Infant, with St. John. ' In the cathedral is a picture
of the ' Circumcision,' which is supposed to have
been painted before he went to Rome. Filippi died
at Ferrara in 1602.



FILLEUL, GILBERT, was a French engraver,
who is mentioned by Basan. He flourished about
the end of the 17th century, and executed some
plates after Le Brun, Simpol, &c.

FILLEUL, PIERRE, was the son of Gilbert Filleul.
He engraved some plates for the ' Fables ' of La Fon-
taine ; as well as the ' Carriers,' after Wouwerman.

FILLIAN, JOHN, an engraver, flourished from
about 1676 to 1680, in which year he died at an
early age. He was a pupil of the elder Faithorne,
and worked in the style of his instructor. The
following are by him :

Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex.

"William Faithorne; after a print by Faithorne.

The Head of Paracelsus.

The Frontispiece to Heylyn's ' Cosmography.'

FILOCAMO, ANTONIO and PAOLO, two brothers,
were natives of Messina, and are noticed by Hackert
in his ' Memorie de' Pittori Messinesi.' They were
educated in the school of Carlo Maratti, at Rome ;
and on their return to Messina, established an
academy, which was much frequented. They exe-
cuted conjointly several works, both in oil and in
fresco, in the former of which Antonio was very
superior to Paolo. Their principal works are in
the churches of Santa Caterina di Valverde and
San Gregorio, at Messina, where they both died of
the plague in 1743.


TICHI,) usually called COLA DELL' AMATRICE, and
sometimes COLA DALLA MATRICE, is mentioned by
Vasari in his life of Calabrese. He painted from
about 1513 to 1543, in Ascoli, Calavria, and Norcia,
and was distinguished throughout all that province.
His manner was hard in his earlier pictures, but in
his subsequent works he exhibited a fulness of
design, and an accomplished modern style. His
' Last Supper,' formerly in the oratory of the
Corpus Domini, and now in the Foundling Hos-
pital, is a work of merit. Ascoli possesses, in
addition to this, several of his best works. A few
are in Rome an ' Ascension ' is in the Museum of
the Lateran, and a ' Madonna ' in the Capitol.
Cola died at Amatrice, but in what year is not

FINCH, FRANCIS OLIVER, a landscape painter in
water-colours, was born in 1802. In early life he
studied under John Varley, and painted portraits.
He exhibited regularly at the Water-Colour Society,
of which he was elected an associate in 1822, and
a full member in 1827. His works were generally
poetic compositions, and he excelled in twilight
and moonlight scenes. He died in 1862. Several
of his landscapes are at the South Kensington
Museum. His ' Memorials ' were printed in

FINCKE, HANS, a landscape and architectural
engraver, was born at Berlin in 1800. He studied
under Buchhorn, and in London under Finden, and
died in 1859. His best plates are a view of the
Cathedral at Meissen, after Schirmer, and a view
of Salzburg, after Biermann. He commenced also
a view of the Convent of San Miniato near Florence,
after Biermann, which was finished after his death
by Drohmer.

FINDEN, EDWARD FRANCIS, a line-engraver,
was the younger brother of William Finden, and
like him a pupil of James Mitan. He was born in
London in 1792, and died in the same city in 1857.
He worked chiefly upon the various publications
issued by himself and his brother, but executed
also a few plates for the ' Literary Souvenir,' as
well as the following :

The Princess Victoria ; after Weitall.

The Harvest Waggon ; after Gainsborough.

Happy as a King ; afttr Collins.

Othello telling his exploits to Brabantio and Desde-
mona ; after Douglas Cowper.

FINDEN, WILLIAM, a line-engraver, was born in
1787. He was a pupil of James Mitan, and in
conjunction with his brother Edward, and a number
of assistants and pupils, he published several ably
executed series of prints and book-illustrations.
The principal of these were as follow :

Landscape Illustrations to the Life and Works of Lord

Byron. 18311834.
The Gallery of the Graces ; after Clialon, Landseer, and

others. 18321834.



Landscape Illustrations of the Bible; after Turner,

Calcott, Stanfielil, and others. 1834.
Byron Beauties. 1834.
Landscape Illustrations to the Life and Poetical 'Works

of George Crabbe. 1834.
Portraits of the Female Aristocracy of the Court of

Queen Victoria; after Chalon, Hayter, and others.


The Eoyal Gallery of British Art.
The Beauties of Thomas Moore.

Besides these independent works, the Findens pro-
duced the illustrations to the 'Arctic Voyages,' pub-
lished by Murray ; to Brockedon's 'Illustrations of
the Passes of the Alps,' 1827-29; to Campbell's
'Poetical Works,' 1828; and some of the plates
for Lodge's ' Portraits of Illustrious Personages
of Great Britain,' 1821-34. The ' Royal Gallery of
British Art ' and the ' Beauties of Thomas Moore '
involved the Findens in a great loss from which
they never recovered. William Finden died in
London in 1852. The most important plates by
his own hand are :

George IV., full-length, seated on a sofa; after Sir

Thomas Laicrence.

The Highlander's Return ; after Sir Edmn Landseer.
The Naughty Boy ; alter the same.
Deer-Stalkers ; after the same.

The Interior of a Highlander's House ; after the same.
The Fisherman's Daughter ; after the same.
The Village Festival ; after Sir llaiiid Wilkie.
The Crucifixion ; after Hilton.
Returning from Market ; after Sir A. W. Calcott.
Sickness aud Health ; after Webster.
Lord Byron at the age of nineteen ; after G. Sounders.
The Rivals ; after Leslie. (' Literary 'Souvenir,' 1826.)
The Blackberry Boy ; after Hamilton. (' Anniversary,'


SOLINO DA PANICALE, was the son of Cristof oro Fini,
of the quarter of Santa Croce, at Florence, and was
born at Panicale in 1383. He probably received his
artistic education from Lorenzo Ghiberti, and after-
wards from Gherardo Stamina, and was admitted into
the Guild of the Medici and Speziale, at Florence,
in 1423 ; shortly afterwards be entered the service
of Philippe Scolari, Obergespann of Temeswar, in
Hungary, who is better known as Pippo Spanno,
and with whom he went to Hungary in 1427. At
his death Masolino returned to Italy, and accepted
from Cardinal Branda Castiglione the commission
to paint the choir of the church, which that prelate
had just finished in Castiglione di Olona, in 1428,
and in which can still be seen the remains of a
double course of frescoes representing scenes from
the lives of the Virgin and SS. Stephen and Law-
rence. He also decorated the whole of the Baptis-
tery at Castiglione with scenes drawn from the life
of St. John the Baptist, which still remain, and
although much injured by time, are worthy of
notice. Very little else that is really authentic
remains of Masolino's work. The date of his death,
though somewhat doubtful, is now set down as
1447. The famous Masaccio was one of his pupils.

FINIGUERRA, MA so or TOMMASO, born 1426;
died 1464. Maso Finiguerra belonged to a family
that had been long established in Florence, practis-
ing various crafts ; his father was a goldsmith,
named Antonio, living in 1427 in the quarter of
Santa Lucia d'Ognissanti. In an official statement
of his possessions for that year, he states that his
son Tommaso is one year and five months old.
The boy was brought up as a goldsmith, and
appears to have joined the shop of the Pollaiuoli
on the Ponte Vecchio. He was celebrated for his


works in niello, and received an order when in his
twenty-fifth year from the Consuls of the Guild of
Merchants or Calimala, for a silver pax in niello,
to be presented to the Baptistery of San Giovanni ;
it was delivered and paid for in 1452. Tommaso
married Piera di Domenica di Giovanni, before the
year 1457. He was working as a goldsmith and
jeweller in partnership with one Piero di Barto-
lommeo di Sali. Antonio Pollaiuolo was a
partner in the same business. In this year the firm
made a pair of silver candlesticks, probably
decorated in niello, for the altar of the church of
San Jacopo at Pistoja. In a manuscript zibaldone
begun in 1459 by Giovanni Ruccellai, Maso
Finiguerra is mentioned with Antonio Pollaiuolo,
as a master in drawing, among the artists with
whose work the Casa Ruccellai is enriched. In
1462 Finiguerra supplied open-work silver
buckles decorated with niello to Cino di Filippo
Rinuccini, and early in 1463 Alessio Baldovinetti
notes that he is to receive, on February 21, payment
from Giuliano da Majano, for work that he has
done in colouring the heads of five figures designed
by Tommaso Finiguerra for the inlaid wood
panelling in the Sacristy of the Duomo, to be
carried out by the said Giuliano. Finiguerra's
cartoons are specified as consisting of a St.
Zenobio between two deacons and a Virgin with
an angel. These intarsias from the designs of
Finiguerra are still to be seen in the Sacristy and
the Opera del Duomo ; they are perhaps the only
undisputed works of the masters, left In 1466
Rinuccini records that he revisited the same shop
to buy another buckle, but this time he dealt with
Tommaso's younger brother, for our artist was no
longer living : he was buried on August 24, 1464.

Although Finiguerra has been deprived of late
years of the glory given to him by Vasari of being
the inventor of printing from engraved metal
plates, yet he must be regarded as a great master
in the art of niello engraving. A ' Crucifixion ' in
the Bargello is probably an example of his work in
this beautiful art ; the famous ' Coronation of the
Virgin ' in the same Museum often attributed to
him is of another school. He was one of the
pioneers of metal engraving in Italy, and Mr.
Colvin in his monumental work on the master,
almost proves that he is the author of certain very
beautiful Florentine prints and drawings, all
evidently by one hand and from the workshop of
the Pollaiuoli. Several of these drawings are in the
Uffizi, Florence, and were catalogued under his
name in the eighteenth century. They consist of
studies in pen and wash, of boys and workmen
engaged in various crafts. Several of these were
used in a modified form in the series of ninety-nine
drawings, part of a Picture Chronicle by the same
hand, in the Print Room of the British Museum ;
there are twenty-two other drawings in the col-
lection of M. Bonnat, Paris. The following famous
early Florentine engravings, in what is known as
the fine manner, are by the same master:

The Series of the Planets.

n Prophets and Sibyls.

The Otto prints, including the Jason and Medea, the
Judith and Holofernes, aud several decorative designs.

The Battle of the Hose.

The March to Calvary.

Conversion of St. Paul ; a unique proof at Hamburg.

Two subjects of Ships at Sea.

The Judgment Hall of Pilate; prints at Gotha and

The Encounter of a Hunting party with a family of
hairy wild men.


The Story of Theseus and Ariadne.

The Chariot of Ariadne and Bacchus ; a unique proof in

the British Museum.
Some Arabesques in the form of Candelahra.

There are other engravings from the same
workshop, but as they were not published until
after the death of the master, he cannot have had
much to do with them. Such are the engravings
for the Monte Santo di Dio, 1477, and those for
the Lundini Dante, 1481. C, H.

FINK, FREDERICK, an American genre painter,
was born at Little Falls, New York, in 1817. He
commenced life as a student of medicine, but
impelled by an irresistible love of art, he went to
New York and studied under Morse. In 1840 he
visited Europe, and made copies of the works of
Titian and Murillo. Among his pictures are ' An
Artist's Studio,' 'The Shipwrecked Mariner,' 'The
Young Thieves,' and 'A Negro Wood-Sawyer.'
He died in 1849.

Nuremberg in 1816. He was instructed in the
principles of art in that city, and afterwards
visited Belgium and Holland, and settled in Alten-
burg, where he was mostly employed by the court.
He excelled in portraiture, and his productions,
which are entirely in the Dutch style, are executed
in a clear and bold manner. He was professor
at Altenburg, and died in 1868.

FINLAYSON, JOHN, an engraver, was born
about the year 1730, and worked in London. In
1773 he received a premium from the Society of
Arts, and about three years after this he died. He
engraved in mezzotint several portraits, and a few
plates of historical subjects, among which are the
following :


The Duchess of Gloucester ; after Sir Joshua Reynolds.

Lady Charles Spencer ; after the same.

Lady Elizabeth Melbourne ; after the same.

The Earl of Buchan ; after the same.

Miss "Wynyard ; after the same.

Lady Broughton ; after Cotes.

The Duke of Northumberland ; after Hamilton.

Miss Metcalfe ; after Hone.

Signora Zamperini, in ' La Buona Figliuola ' ; after the


William Drummond, Scotch historian ; after C.Janssens.
Shooter, Beard, and Dunstall, in ' Love in a Village ' ;

after Zo/any.

Candaules, King of Lydia, showing his Qneen coming

out of the Bath to his favourite Gyges ; after his own


FINNEY, SAMUEL, a miniature painter, was born
in Cheshire in 1721. He was a member of the
Society of Artists, where he exhibited from 1761
to 1766. He became portrait painter to Queen
Charlotte, and died in 1807.

in the kingdom of Naples, flourished about the
year 1640. He was brought up in the academy
of Cavaliere Massimo Stanzioni, but painted more
in the style of Spagnoletto. He was a correct and
expressive designer, and possessed great fecundity
of invention. His principal works were the vault
in the convent of San Martino at Naples, with
scenes from the life of St. Martin (his best work),
and ten oil paintings in the Capitol. He died in

FINSON, Louis, or ALOIS, (or FINSONIUS,) was
born at Bruges about 1580. He went to Rome

about 1600, where he became a disciple of Cara-
vaggio. He travelled in Germany and settled at
Aix, but subsequently visited Naples, and returned
to Aix, whence he removed in 1614 to Aries, where
he was drowned in the Rhone about 1632. The
following are among his works, which are excellent
in colour but wanting in dignity :

Aix. Museum. The Incredulity of St. Thomas.

The Resurrection. 1613.

Andenne. Church. Massacre of the Innocents.

Aries. Museum. The Martyrdom of St. Stephen.

, The Adoration of the Magi. 1614.

Marseilles. Museum. A dying Magdalen.

Naples. Museum. The Annunciation. 1612.

Rome. San Giovanni. The Resurrection. 1610.

FIORAVANT1, was an Italian painter of still-
life and inanimate objects, who excelled in painting
vases, fruit and flowers, and musical instruments,
which he represented with great exactness and





FIOKENTINO, LUCA, a Florentine engraver,
who flourished in the early part of the ^r\.
16th century, followed the manner of L 17
Robetta. He used the annexed monogram : J_'L
The following are some of his best works :

Herodias with the Head of St. John the Baptist.

A richly-dressed Woman seated on the Ground, with

two Children.
A Man with a Bow.

The Virgin and Child, St. Anthony, and St. Francis.
St. Catharine and St. Lucia.

PONTE VECCHIO, and Lo SCIMMIA (the ape), is
questionably stated to have been the grandson and
the disciple of Giotto. He was born at Florence
in 1301, and, according to Vasari, greatly excelled
his instructor in every department of the art. The
rules of perspective were little known at the early
period at which he lived, and he has the credit of
establishing them on more regular principles. If he
was less successful in his endeavours to overcome
the difficulty of foreshortening, he has at least the
credit of being the first artist who attempted it. He
succeeded, better than any of his contemporaries,
in giving expression to the airs of his heads, and a
less Gothic turn to the attitudes of his figures. His
works in the churches at Rome and Florence have
perished, and the picture of the ' Virgin and Infant
Christ,' in the Campo Santo at Pisa, which Lanzi
mentions as the only vestige remaining of his
productions, is clearly a work of the Sienese
school. He died in 1350.

FIORENZO DI LORENZO. Little is known of
this painter, excepting that a contract was made
by him to paint a double altar-piece in the church
of Santa Maria Nuova, now belonging to the Ser-
vites, in Perugia, in 1472 ; and that in 1521 he
assisted Tiberio d'Assisi in the valuation of a
picture by Giannicolo of Perugia. Parts of the
above-mentioned altar-piece can be still seen at the
Academy of Arts at Perugia, as also eight half-
lengths of saints, a 'St. Sebastian,' and other
paintings of less value. There are also by him :

Berlin. Gallery. Virgin and Child, on a gold

ground. 1481.
Diruta. S. Francisco. An Eternal in a circular glory,

between SS. Roman and Roch.


Madrid. Trinidad Mus. The Saviour, with four Saints.



Pf-rugta. Palazzo Com- \ Two panels, with half-lengths of
munale. J Saints in prayer.

S. Affostino. A half-length Virgin and Child.

S. Giorgio. A Nativity. 1490.

S. Maria Nuova. The Adoration of the Magi. (This
has been attributed to Peruyino.}

S. Francesco. Eight paintings of the Life of
St. Bernard (probably by this
artist, and not by Pisanello and
Manteyna). 1483.

St. Peter and St. Paul. 1487.



in 1748, was a painter and literary man. In 1759
he began to study at the Academy at Baireuth, and
in 1761 went to Rome and became a scholar of
P. Battoni. From 1765 to 1769 he studied at
Bologna under Vittorio Bigari, but at the end of
this term he returned to Hamburg, and was em-
ployed at the court at Brunswick, where he brought
himself into notice. He became superintendent of
the collections of engravings at Gbttingen in 1784,
and in 1799 professor at the University. He died
at Gbttingen in 1821.

Bologna. He flourished at the close of the 16th
century, and died subsequently to 1595. He is
chiefly known as a coadjutor of Cesare Aretusi, in
conjunction with whom he painted several pictures
at Bologna and Brescia, and distinguished himself
especially as a good designer and a happy inventor.
By him there are the following works :

Bologna. Cathedral. Christ giving the Keys to St.

San Benedetto. The Descent from the Cross.

Fadri Servi. The Mass of St. Gregory.

Brescia. S. Afra. The Birth of the Virgin.

Borne. & ^W | A small painting by Fiorini alone.

in 1793, painted several portraits now in the
Dresden Gallery. He died at Dresden in 1847.

FIORONI, ADAMO, an Italian engraver, was born
about 1800. He was a scholar of Longhi, and
engraved several excellent plates at Milan, amongst
which were :

The Virgin and Child, with St. John ; after Raphael.

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