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1829.
The Virgin and Child, called ' La Madonna del Adjuto';

after B. Luini. 1822.

FIRENS, PIERRE, was an indifferent French
engraver, who, according to Basan, resided in Paris
about the year 1640. He copied, in a stiff, clumsy
manner, the ' Hermits,' after Sadeler, and engraved
some portraits, among others that of Henry IV.
of France.

FIRENZE, ANDREA DA (who is distinct from
Andrea de Florentia), was an artist living in the
15th century, and known as the author of a large
altar-piece, signed and dated 1437, in a chapel of
the church of Santa Margareta, at Cortona, which
represents the ' Virgin taken to Paradise by six
Angels, with Saints.' There is also, in the Casa
Kamelli, at Gubbio, a 'Conversion of Constantine,'
signed by him. The dates of his birth and death
are not known.

FISCHBACH, JOHANN, born at Gravenegg, in
Lower Austria, in 1797, was a painter of landscapes
and genre-pieces. He studied at the Academy at
Vienna, and his twenty- eight crayon -designs,
representing forest trees in Germany, brought him

168



into much notice. He died at Munich in 1871.
The following are by him :
Munich. Gallery. A landscape in Salzburg.

Vienna. Gallery. A Farmer's Boy disputing with a

Girl for a Bird.

A Widow in a Churchyard.

FISCHBACH, KARL. See VITTINGHOFF.

FISCHER, A., is the name of an engraver who
executed a print of the ' Carriers,' after Wouwerman.
The same subject is engraved by Filleul.

FISCHER, ANNA CATHARINA, a German lady,
excelled in painting flowers in distemper and in
oil. She was married to Benjamin Blok in 1664.

FISCHER, GEORG JOHANN PADL, a miniature
painter, was born in 1786 at Hanover, where he
studied under Ramberg. He came to England in
1810, and exhibited at the Royal Academy from
1811 to 1871. He became miniature painter to
George IV., and died in 1875.

FISCHER, HERMANN. See SWANEVELT.

FISCHER, ISAAC, a portrait and historical
painter of Augsburg, died in 1705.

FISCHER, JOHANN, was an engraver on wood,
to whom are attributed the cuts for the Bible
printed at Strassburg in 1606.

FISCHER, JOHANN GEORG, an historical painter,
was born at Augsburg in 1580. He travelled in
Italy, but became an imitator of Albrecht Durer.
He died at Munich in 1643. The following are by
him:
Munich. Gallery. Christ carrying the Cross.

The Apprehension of Christ.

Nuremberg. Landauer- ) The Apostles John, Peter, Mark,
Briiderhaus. J and Paul; after Albrecht Durer.

-.f . 1 Ecce Homo (supposed to be by
MO niz- i hi but , >gme attri/tutec [ ta

Chapel, f M ,; recht / >iirer} .

Pommerefelden. Gall. The Trinity; after Albrecht
Durer.

FISCHER, JOSEPH, who was born at Vienna in
1769, studied painting and engraving under Brand
and Schmutzer at the Academy of that city. After
having travelled some time he returned to Vienna,
and became a professor in the Academy. He died
at Vienna in 1822. Among his paintings in the
Gallery of that city are a "lew of Vienna and a land-
scape. His best engraved works are the following:

The Entombment ; after Schidone.
Christ in the Temple ; after Ribera. 1793.
The Adulteress before Christ ; after Fuyer.
The Emperor Francis, led by Minerva and Justice, re-
ceiving the homage of his people ; in aquatint.
The Portrait of Correggio.

His sister, MARIA ANNA FISCHER, who was born
at Vienna in 1785, was also an engraver, chiefly of
landscapes and battle-pieces.

FISCHER, JOSEPH ANTON, born at Oberstorf,
Algau, in 1814, was at first a cow-herd, but being
assisted by Ch. Schraudolf, he studied at the
Academy at Munich under Schlotthauer, and visited
Italy in 1832 and 1843. During this time he
executed cartoons under H. Hess for the glass-
paintings of the Auerkirche, representing ' The
Flight into Egypt,' ' Death of the Virgin,' ' Burial
of the Virgin,' ' Christ in the Temple,' ' The Three
Kings,' ' The Angel's Salutation,' ' The Marriage of
the Virgin,' and ' The Prophecy of Simeon in the
Temple.' He was a follower of Fra Angelico, and
painted from 1844 to 1848 the cartoons for eight
glass-paintings for the cathedral at Cologne, repre-
senting ' St. John the Baptist preaching,' ' The
Adoration of the Magi,' 'The Taking down from
the Cross,' 'The Stoning of St. Stephen,' 'The



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LADY SARAH BUNBUKY



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Descent of the Holy Ghost,' 'The Four Grea
Prophets,' ' The Four Evangelists,' and ' The Fou
Western Fathers'; for these he obtained the golc
medal of Prussia. Several beautiful pen-and-ink
drawings by this artist are in different collections
especially in Munich, where he died in 1859
Among his oil paintings are the following:

Munich. Gallery. The Flight into Egypt. 1841.

,, The Adoration of the Magi

1844.

The Visitation. 1845.

The Entombment. 1848.

XarixhMn',. } Th ******> f the Virgin.
FISCHER, VlNCENZ, an historical painter and
professor of architecture at the Academy of Vienna,
was born at Schmidham, in Bavaria, in 1729, and
died at Vienna in 1810. In addition to some pen-
and-ink drawings, the following works by him are
worthy of mention:

The Restoring of the Young Man of Naiu to life. 1763.
The Raising of Lazarus. 1763.

Moses when a Boy treading on Pharaoh's Crown (in the
Academy at Vienna).

FISEN, ENGELBEET, a Flemish painter, born at
Liege in 1655, was a pupil of Bertholet Flemalle.
When still very young he went to Italy, where he
studied under Carlo Maratti, whose style he imi-
tated. After eight years he returned to his native
city, where his principal pictures are a 'Crucifixion,'
painted for the chapel of the Hotel-de-Ville ; and a
' Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew,' and a ' Christ on
the Cross,' painted for the church of St. Bartholo-
mew. He died at Liege in 1733.

FISHER, ALVAN, an American portrait painter,
who was a native of Needham, Connecticut, visited
Europe in 1825, and studied for some time in
Paris. He died at Dedham, Massachusetts, in
1863, having produced many satisfactory and re-
fined likenesses, especially that of Spurzheim.

FISHER, EDWARD, a mezzotint engraver, was
born in 1730 in Ireland, but resided in London
during the time he was known as an artist, and
died there about the year 1785. He engraved
a number of portraits, chiefly after Sir Joshua
Reynolds, which possess great merit. Among
others are the following :

PORTRAITS AFTER SIR JOSHDA REYNOLDS.
John, Earl of Bute, when Lord Cardiff.
The Marchioness of Tavistock (Lady Elizabeth Keppel) ;

full length.

Garrick between Tragedy and Comedy. 1769.
Kitty Fisher as Cleopatra.
Sir Thomas Harrison.
Lady Sarah Bunbury ; whole length.
The Marquis of Rockingham.
Hugh, Earl of Northumberland.
Elizabeth, Countess of Northumberland.
Granville, Earl Gower. 1765.
George, Lord Edgcumbe, Vice-Admiral. 1773.
Viscount Downe.
Lady Elizabeth Lee ; full length.
John, Viscount Ligonier, on horseback.
Augustus, Lord Keppel. 1759.
Augustus Hervey, afterwards Earl of Bristol.
Ladies Amabel and Jemima Yorke, daughters of the

Earl of Hardwicke.

Hon. George Seymour Conway. 1771.
Lawrence Sterne, Prebendary of York.
John Armstrong, M.D.

PORTRAITS AFTER OTHER PAINTERS.
George III.; after Benjamin West.
Hon. Frederick Cornwallis, Archbishop of Canterbury ;
after Sir Jf. Dance.



Richard Terrick, Bishop of London ; after the same.

"William, Earl of Chatham ; after Broinpton.

Benjamin Franklin ; after Chamberlin.

Paul Sandby, R.A. ; after F. Cotes.

Mark Akenside ; after Pond.

Eliza Farren, actress, afterwards Countess of Derby ;

whole length ; after Zoffany.
Colley Cibber ; after Vanloo.

FISHER, JONATHAN, an Irish landscape painter,
waa born at Dublin about the middle of the 18th
century. He held a post in the Stamp OfSce,
but his art was poor. He died in 1812.

FISHER, THOMAS, who was born at Rochester
in 1782, was a clerk in the India Office. He prac-
tised art as an amateur, and made many drawings
of antiquarian subjects, which he etched himself.
He died at Stoke-Newington in 1836.

FISK, WILLIAM HENRY, a portrait and historical
painter, was born in 1797 at Thorpe-le-Soken,
Essex. He did not take up art as a profession till
he was thirty-one years of age, having been for
the ten previous years engaged in mercantile em-
ployment. His first picture exhibited at the Royal
Academy was a portrait in 1831, and he continued
painting in the same branch of art till 1835; from
this date his pictures were chiefly historical.
Among these we may mention 'Leonardo da Vinci
dying in the arms of Francis I.,' exhibited at the
Royal Academy in 1838 ; ' Attempted Assassination
of Lorenzo de' Medici in Florence in 1478,' ex-
hibited in 1839, and which was awarded the gold
medal of the Manchester Institution in 1840 ; and
'The Trial of Charles I.,' exhibited in 1842, and
afterwards engraved. His historical pictures are
well composed, and accurate as to costume. He
retired a few years later to a property he had pur-
chased in the country, and from this time almost
entirely relinquished painting. He died at Danbury,
near Chelmsford, in 1872.

FISK, WILLIAM HENRY, painter, was the son and
Dupil of William Fisk, and was born about 1827.
3e studied at the Royal Academy schools, and was
appointed anatomical draughtsman to the Royal
"Jollege of Surgeons. He continued at the same
:ime to practise painting, and many of his pictures
were exhibited at the Academy, the British Institu-
tion, the Suffolk Street Gallery, and in Paris. He
also contributed numerous essays and articles on
art subjects to current literature, and lectured both
n London and the provinces. His artistic powers
were very considerable, but he was best known as
a careful and able teacher, in which capacity he
worked for forty years at University College
School, London. He died at Humpstead, Novem-
ber 13, 1884.

FITTLER, JAMES, a line-engraver, was born in
iondon in 1758. He entered the schools of the
Royal Academy in 1778, and was elected an
Associate Engraver in 1800. He distinguished
limself by numerous works after English and
breign masters, of different subjects and character;
and book illustrations by him abound. His best
engravings are considered to be ' Lord Howe's
Victory,' and ' The Battle of the Nile,' both after
De Loutherbourg ; the portrait of Benjamin West ;
he plates in Forster's 'British Gallery,' others
n Bell's ' British Theatre,' and the portraits in
Dibdin's ' Aedes Althorpianaj,' published in 1822,
after which time he does not appear to have pro-
duced anything of importance. He died at Turn-
lam Green in 1835.
FLACCO, ORLANDO. See FIACCO.



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



FLAMAEL, BERTHOLET. See FLEMALLE.

FLAMEN, AALBEET, (or FLAMAND,) a Flemish
painter and etcher, resided in Paris from 1648 to
1664. He painted landscapes, birds, and fish, and
particularly excelled in representing the last of
these, to which he gave a surprising appearance of
reality. He succeeded less in landscape painting,
and the forms of the trees, as well as the modifica-
tion in light and shadow, are defective. There are
by this artist some neat etchings of the above-
mentioned subjects, executed with the dry point
and graver in the style of Hollar. He some-
times marked his plates with his name, 7T)
and sometimes with the annexed cipher. /~vL<

There are by him 601 plates, among which may
be mentioned :

36 plates of Sea Fish.

24 Fresh-water Fish.

12 Livre d'Oyseaux.

13 Diuersaa Auium Species. 1659.
The Militia of Paris. 1660 and 1662.

There exist also several portraits by Aalbert
Flamen, which have been engraved by Poilly and
Boul anger.

FLAMEN, F., probably of the same family as
Aalbert Flamen, was a native of Flanders, who
resided in Paris about the year 1660. Among
other prints, he etched a set of four plates of
' Views on the River Seine,' after the designs of
Israel Silvestre.

FLAMENCO, JUAN, (that is, ' John the Fleming,')
supposed to be identical with JDAN DE FLANDES, is
mentioned underthe formername by Cean Bermudez
as a painter who resided in the Certosa di Mira-
flores from 1496 to 1499, and painted the altar-
pieces there, for which he was paid the sum of
53,545 maravedis, besides his maintenance. On
the right-hand, or gospel side of the altar, he
represented various passages in the life of St.
John the Baptist, which were well treated, with
good colouring and much expression, in the style
of Lucas van Leyden ; the painting on the left, or
epistle side, is much deteriorated, and it can only be
seen that it represented ' The Adoration of the Kings.'

Under the name of Juan de Flandes, the same
writer notices an artist who painted eleven

Eictures in the cathedral of Palencia, which he
egan in the year 1509, under an engagement to
complete them in three years, for the sum of 500
gold ducats. Some have supposed that Hans
Memlinc is the painter intended by these two
appellations.

FLAMENGO, MIGUEL EL. See AMBERES.

FLAMMINGO. See FIAMMINGO.

FLANDES, JUAN DE. See FLAMENCO.

FLANDIN, EUGENE NAPOLEON, a French land-
scape painter, was born at Naples in 1809. After
producing various pictures, which obtained con-
siderable success, he was present in 1838 through-
out the campaign in Algeria, and reproduced several
of the scenes with his brush. In 1839 he was
selected to pursue antiquarian investigations in
Persia, and on the completion of this work he
prosecuted further researches in the East, and
published several works containing the fruits of
his labours. The most important of these is his
' Voyage en Perse,' published in conjunction with
Pascal Coste, the architect, in six folio volumes,
Paris, 1843-54 ; and ' L'Orient," published at Paris
in folio, 1853-74. He did not return to painting
till about 1850 ; and he died in 1876. Amongst
his chief works are :
170



The Piazzetta and Ducal Palace at Venice. 1836.

The Bridge of Sighs. 1836.

A View of the Coast at Algiers. 1837.

The Breach at Constantino. 1839.

View of Stamboul. 1853.

View of the Royal Mosque at Ispahan. 1853.

General View of Constantinople. 1855.

The Entrance of the Bosphorus. 1855.

View of Bagdad. (Marseilles Museum.}

FLANDRIN, AUGUSTE RENE, a French painter,
brother of Jean Hippolyte Flandrin, was born at
Lyons in 1804. He was at first employed in book
illustration, but in 1832 he went to Paris, where he
worked for two years under Ingres. He painted
several portraits, and after visiting Italy, became
director of the Academy at Lyons, where he died
in 1843. Amongst his works are :

Savonarola preaching at Florence.

Reposing after the Bath.

Interior of San Miniato, Florence.

FLANDRIN, JEAN HIPPOLYTE, a French his-
torical and portrait painter, was born in 1809 at
Lyons, where his father fought a hard battle against
poverty as a miniature painter. He was the fourth
son, and his mother, who had seen much of the
cares and necessities which follow the pursuit of
art, was resolutely opposed to his becoming a
painter. She at length relented, and in 1821 he
entered the studio of the sculptor Legendre, and
afterwards studied under Revoil in the Lyons
Academy. By dint of the strictest economy a
little hoard was scraped together sufficient to en-
able him and his younger brother Paul to set out
for Paris in 1829. To economize their slender
means, the two brothers were obliged to travel
tliitherfrom Lyons on foot. Arrived in the capital,
they became pupils of Ingres, in preference to
Hersent, to whom they had letters of introduction.
The choice was most fortunate, for Ingres proved
most kind to his pupils, and Flandrin to the end of
his life ever showed himself loyal and devoted to
his old master. The next three years was a period
of great trial and privation. Besides suffering
from cold and scanty food, he had what was no
doubt a slight attack of cholera, then raging griev-
ously in Paris. He was also laid low by rheu-
matism, from which he subsequently became a
great sufferer. In 1832 he obtained the long-
wished-f or ' grand prix de Rome ' with his ' Theseus
recognizing his Father.' Early in the following
year he arrived at Rome, and though not over-
burdened with means, he now managed to send
frequent remittances to help the home at Lyons.
While studying here, he formed a friendship with
Ambroise Thomas, the French musical composer,
which lasted through life. He returned to Paris
in 1838, and soon obtained ample employment in
the mural decorations of churches. His first great
work in the church of St. Severin was completed
in 1841, in which year he received the cross of tho
Legion of Honour. Two years later he married
Aimee Ancelot, and their eldest son was born in
1845. The history of the remainder of Flandrin's
life may be summarized in the decorative works
which he executed. The chief of these were : St.
Germain-des-Pres sanctuary 1842-4, choir 1846-8,
and nave 1855-61 ; St. Paul, Nimes, 1847-9 ; St.
Vincent-de-Paul, Paris, 1850-4 ; the Conservatoire
des Arts et Metiers, 1854 ; and the church of Ainay,
at Lyons, in 1855. He did not lack appreciation of
his works, for he was promoted to the rank of officer
of the Legion of Honour in 1853, and in the same
year was elected to the Academy, becoming Pro-



THOMAS FLATMAN




[Collection of Dr. G, C. Williamson
JOHN, LORD SOMERS, LORD HIGH CHANCELLOR, 1683





SIR THOMAS HENSHAW, AMBASSADOR
TO DENMARK AND NORWAY, 1677



[Victoria and Albert Museum

THOMAS FLATMAN, 1662
(BY HIMSELF)



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



fessor of Painting in 1857. The popularity of his
art drew to him a large connection as a portrait
painter, and he had many eminent sitters. His
health during the last few years had been any-
thing but good ; his sufferings from rheumatism,
aggravated by his work in cold, damp churches,
had been great ; and in 1863 he undertook a leng-
looked-f or journey to Italy, in hopes of a restoration
of strength. But he was not destined to return,
for he succumbed to an attack of small-pox at
Eome, March 21st, 1864. Besides the decorative
works already enumerated, the following are
amongst the chief of his easel productions :

Dante and Virgil. 1835. (Lyons Museum.)
Buripides. 1835. {Lyons Museum.)
St. CLua healing the Blind. 1836. (Nantes Cathedral.}
Christ blessing little Children. 1837. (Lisieux Museum.}
The Eeverie. (Nantes Museum.)
Mater Dolorosa. 1844.

The Tower of Babel. 1861. (Lille Museum.)
Portrait of Cherubim ; after Ingres.
Marie Anne de Bourbon, Duchess of Bourbon.
Marie Franchise de Noailles, Marchioness of Tersaillcs
Lavardin. JSitseutn.

Cardinal de Tournon.

Diana of Poitiers. >

Figure Study. 1855. } , _ .

Portrait of a Young Girl. 1863. } Louvre, Pant.
Portrait of Napoleon III.

Prince Jerome Napoleon.

Comte Duchatel.

Comtesse Duchatel.

Comte WalewsM.

Flandrin's ' Lettres et Pensdes," accompanied by a
biographical notice and a catalogue of his works,
were published by the Count Delaborde in 1865.

0. J. D.

FLANDRIN, JEAN PADL, a well-known land-
scape painter, brother of the famous historical
painter, Hippolyte Flandrin. He was born at
Lyons on May 8, 1811. He received lessons in
painting from Ingres, and exhibited constantly
at the Salon since the year 1839 ; an achievement
probably exceeded by few. His early landscapes,
painted in the Campagna, were almost wholly
based upon mythological and religious subjects ;
but about the year 1840 he turned his attention to
portraiture. At Nantes are his pictures, ' La Soli-
tude,' and the portraits of Hippolyte and Paul
Flandrin, and the Due de Feltre. Among his
more famous landscapes we may cite: ' Au bord
de 1'Eau,' ' Ombrages,' ' La Vallee du Garden,' ' Pre*
d'Etretat,' ' Pornic,' ' Falaises du Trdport ' and
several scenes taken from Languedoc and Beam.
His work is also represented at Nismes, Lyons
and Langres. The font and baptismal chapel at
the church of St. SeVerin, Paris, are also decorated
by Flandrin ; and he also executed several portraits
and mural paintings at the Due de Loj'nes' chateau
at Dampierre. We must regard him as one of
the legitimate representatives of classical land-
scape painting in France, and his industry and
talent seemed to lose nothing of their vigour
by the passing of the years, for even in the last
Salon he was represented by two canvases. He
obtained two medals of the Second Class in 1839 ;
a First Class Medal in 1847 ; a bronze medal
at the Universal Exhibition of 1889. He was
also created Knight of the Legion of Honour in
1848. His death occurred in Paris on March 10,
1902. P.P.

FLATMAN, THOMAS, was born in London in
1633, and was educated at Winchester school.
From thence he went to New College, Oxford ;



but leaving the university without a degree, he
removed to the Inner Temple, where, in due time,
he became a barrister. It does not appear that
he ever followed the profession of the law, but
having a turn for the fine arts, he indulged his in-
clination, and gained some reputation as a poet and
a painter in miniature. Horace Walpole mentions
in his ' Anecdotes,' that Mr. Tooke, Master of the
Charterhouse, had a head of his father by Flatman,
which was so well painted that Vertue took it for
Cooper's ; and Lord Oxford had another portrait by
him, which was so masterly that Vertue pronounced
Flatman to be equal to Hoskins and next to Cooper.
It is certain that he excelled more as a painter
than a poet, and Granger asserts that one of his
heads is worth a ream of his Pindarics. He died
in 1688.

FLAVITSKY, KONSTANTIN DMITKIEVICH, a Rus-
sian historical painter, was born in 1829 or 1830,
and studied at the Academy of St. Petersburg, of
which he afterwards became a professor. . He
earned considerable praise in his country for his
painting of 'The Death of the Princess Tarakanoff.'
He died at St. Petersburg in 1866.

FLAXMAN, MARY ANN, a sister of John Flax-
man, the celebrated sculptor, with whom she re-
sided for some time, was an occasional exhibitor
at the Royal Academy of portraits and subjects
taken from poems, as well as domestic scenes,
from 1786 till 1819. She died in 1833, in her
65th year. Blake engraved her designs for Hay-
ley's ' Triumphs of Temper,' and her illustrations
to ' Robin Goodfellow ' were also engraved.
Redgrave mentions the following, amongst others,
of her works :

Turkish Ladies. 1786.

Ferdinand and Miranda playing Chess. 1789.

Portrait of Mrs. Bilhngton. 1802.

Sappho. 1810.

Maternal Piety. 1819.

FLEGEL, GEORG, a painter of subjects of still-
life, was born at Olmiitz in Moravia in 1563, and
resided at Frankfort, where he died in 1638. He
painted fruit, flowers, fish, vases, glasses, and
other inanimate objects. The flowers and fruit in
the paintings of Martin van Valckenborch are by
him. There are fruit-pieces by this artist in the
Gallery at Cassel and the Museum at Darmstadt,
and in the latter is a portrait of himself.

FLEISCHBERGER, JOHANN FRIEDRICH, was a
German engraver, who worked for the booksellers.
He engraved an ornamental frontispiece, and a
portrait of the author, for Horst's ' Opera Medica,'
printed at Nuremberg in 1660.

FLEISCHMANN, AUGUSTIN CHRISTIAN, was an
obscure German engraver, who was employed by
the booksellers at Nuremberg. He engraved some
of the portraits for Roth-Scholtz's 'Icones Biblio-
polarum et Typographorum,' published in 1726-42.

FLEISCHMANN, FRIKDRICH, a painter and
engraver, was born at Nuremberg in 1791, and
was instructed by Ambrosius Gabler. He executed
many miniatures and portraits in oil, and engraved
more than 1900 plates with the point. He died at
Munich in 1834. His best works are :

His own Portrait.

The Four Apostles ; after Allireclit Diirer.
Ecce Homo ; said to be after Leonardo da J'inci.
The Portrait of Van Dyck.

FLEMALLE, BERTHOLET, (more commonly
FLEMAEL, and sometimes FLAMAEL,)a son of Renier
Flemalle, a glass painter, was born at Liege in

171



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



1614. He was first instructed in painting by
Hendrik Trippez, but afterwards by Geraert Douf-
fet, an historical painter, who had studied at Rome.
Under this master lie acquired sufficient ability to
venture on visiting Italy. On his arrival at Rome
in 1638, he was unremitting in his studies after
the works of the best masters, and it was not long
before he was noticed for the readiness of his in-
vention and the freedom of his hand. The Grand-
Duke of Tuscany invited him to Florence, and
employed him in ornamenting one of the galleries
of his palace. After passing some years in the
service of that prince, he visited Paris, where he
was patronized by the Chancellor Seguier, who



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