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employed him in some of the apartments at Ver-
sailles. In the sacristy of the Augustinian church
in Paris he painted the 'Adoration of the Magi.'
Notwithstanding this flattering encouragement, he
quitted Paris and returned to his native country in
1647, after an absence of nine years. His first
work after his return was a grand composition of
the ' Crucifixion,' which he is said to have painted
for one of the chapels of the collegiate church of
St John, as well as for the King of Sweden.
This performance gained him great reputation,
and he was employed in several considerable works
for the churches at Liege. In 1670 he was invited
to return to Paris, where he painted the ceiling of
the king's chamber of audience, in the palace of
the Tuileries, representing an emblematical subject
of religion. He was made a member, and after-
wards a professor, of the Royal Academy in Paris,
and was high in the estimation of Louis XIV. and
the public. The love of his native country induced
him, however, to return to Li^ge, where he was
elected canon of the collegiate church of St. Paul,
and continued to exercise his talents, under the
protection of Henry Maximilian, Prince Bishop of
Liege. A few years before his death, which took
place at Liege in 1675, he fell into an extreme
melancholy and gave up entirely all work. Bertholet
Flemalle possessed an inventive genius, and had
acquired by his studies in Italy a great style of
composition, and a correctness of design that par-
take of the grandeur of the Roman school, but
more especially the style of Nicolas Poussin. His
forms are, however, too artificial, and his colouring
is weak. The following is a list of his most im-
portant paintings:



Brussels.
Cassel.


Dresden.



Florence.
Liege.



Museum. The Chastisement of Heliodorus.
Gallery. The Death of Lucretia.

Alexander leaving for Asia.

Gallery. Pelopidas.

JJneas leaving Troy with his

wife Creusa, his father An-
chises, and his soil Ascanius.
Several paintings.
T1 E i evation of the Cross .



Ducal Pal.

Dominican

Church.



The Assumption of the Virgin.
Cathedral. The Raising of Lazarus.

Liege. St. Paul. The Conversion of St. Paul.

St. John. A Crucifixion.

Paris. Louvre. Mysteries of the Old and New

Testament.

FLEMALLE, RENIER, (or FLEMAEL,) was a painter
on glass, to whom is attributed ' The Adoration of
the Magi,' in St. Paul's at Liege. He was the
father of Bertholet and Willem Flemalle ; and of
a third son, Hendrik, who was a goldsmith.

FLEMALLE, WILLEM, (or FLEMAEL,) who was
instructed by his father, painted several excellent
glass-paintings for the Magdalen Church at Liege.

172



FLEMING, JOHN, a Scottish landscape painter,
lived in the early part of the present century. He
is best known from the series of views he painted
for Swan's 'Lakes of Scotland,' published at
Glasgow in 1834. In the Glasgow Corporation
Galleries is a ' View of Greenock,' painted by him
in 1827.

FLERS, CAMILLE, born in Paris in 1802, was a
painter of landscapes and a scholar of Paris.
His ' Views of Normandy ' and ' The Banks of the
Marne and Eure ' display a great amount of study
and power or feeling in the colouring. He died at
Annet (Seine-et-Marne) Paris in 1868. He was the
instructor of Cabats. In the Louvre is a landscape
by this artist of the ' Environs of Paris.'

FLESSHIER, B., is an artist mentioned by
Walpole as a painter of sea-pieces, landscapes, and
fruit. His pictures may be supposed to have pos-
sessed considerable merit, as some of them were
thought worthy of being placed in the collection
of King Charles the First, and in that of Sir Peter
Lely.

FLETCHER, HENRY, was an English engraver
who flourished about the year 1729. He engraved
a print of ' Bathsheba and her Attendants at the
Bath,' after Sebastiano Conca, and some portraits,
among which is that of Ebenezer Pemberton,
minister of Boston, prefixed to a volume of his
sermons.

FLETCHER, NICOLAS, is mentioned by Basan as
having engraved, about 1750, some views of Rome,
after Canaletto.

FLEUNER, PETER. There is a woodcut exe-
cuted in a very bold, spirited style, representing an
emblematical subject, apparently ' The Procession
of Gluttony,' with the name of this artist at length,
and dated 1549.

FLEUR, NICOLAS GUILLAUME DE LA. See DE
LA FLEUR.

FLEDRY, ANTOINE CLAUDE, a French historical
and portrait painter, was born about the middle of
the 18th century. He studied under Regnault, and
exhibited at the Salon from 1795 to 1822. Amongst
his works are :

The Abduction of Helen from the Temple of Diana.

1800.

Theseus going to fight the Minotaur. 1804.
The Doom of Orestes. 1806.
Venus and Adonis.
The Origin of Painting. 1808.
Cornelia and her Sons. 1810.
The Flight into Egypt. 1819.
The Widow's Mite. 1819.
Portrait of Louis XVIII. 1819.

FLEURY, FRANQOIS ANTOINE LEON, a French
landscape painter, was born in Paris in 1804. He
was the son of Antoine Claude Fleury, under
whom he at first studied, and then under Bertin
and Hersent. Between 1827 and 1830 he made
a sketching tour in France and the neighbour-
ing countries. He occasionally painted figure
subjects, such as ' The Baptism of Christ,' at the
church of St. Marguerite, and ' St. Genevieve,' at St.
Etienne-du-Mont, Paris. He died in 1858. Amongst
his works are :

A View of the Ponte Eatto, Rome. 1831.

Wood in Normandy. (Bar-k-Duc Museum.)

View on the Road to Genoa, near Nice. (Amiens

Museum.)

Pasturage in Normandy, near Trouville.
Water and Mill at Coutivert.
View on the Coast of Genoa. (Orleans Museum.)

FLICIUS, GERBARDS, is only known bv his



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



portrait of Archbishop Cranmer, painted in 1546,
now in the National Portrait Gallery. It has
been engraved in Thoroton's 'Antiquities of Not-
tinghamshire,' and in Lodge's 'Portraits.'

FLINCH, ANDREAS CHRISTIAN FERDINAND, a
wood-engraver, was born at Copenhagen in 1813,
and studied at the Academy there from 1832 to
1838. He had previously worked as a gold-
smith, but he afterwards took to wood-engrav-
ing from self-tuition, and introduced a special
method of his own into Denmark, consisting in
drawing the outline upon the block and working
out the details with a free hand. In 1840 he
settled down as a lithographer, and published the
popular ' Flinchs Almanak ' with woodcut illus-
trations. He died at Copenhagen in 1872.

FLINCK, GOVERT, was born at Cleves in 1615.
It was the wish of his parents to bring him up to
mercantile pursuits ; but his desire of becoming a
painter induced him to seek every opportunity of
becoming acquainted with artists, and his father
was at length persuaded to allow him to follow a
profession for which he had shown so decided a
propensity. He was first a scholar of Lambert
Jacobsz, at Leeuwarden, and under him he re-
mained some time ; but he afterwards entered the
school of Rembrandt, and made such progress that
after a year his works were scarcely discernible
from those of that master.

From 1640 to 1650 he executed his best produc-
tions of historical subjects and portraits, and in
both he was one of the most successful and most
employed artists of his country. The magistrates
of Amsterdam engaged him in many considerable
works for the town-hall, and he painted the
portraits of some of the most illustrious personages
of his time. In 1652 he became a burgher of
Amsterdam. The Elector of Brandenburg and
Prince Maurice of Nassau favoured him with
their protection, and employed him in many im-
portant works. The burgomaster of Amsterdam
had commissioned him to paint twelve pictures for
the town-hall, of which he had finished the sketches
when he died in 1660. In the latter part of his
life he began to study after the works of the
Italian masters. The following is a list of his best
paintings :

Ais-la-Chapelle. HoteUe | Thfj Eegents . 164 o.

Amsterdam. Museum. Fete of the Civic Guard of Am-
sterdam, in celebration of the
Peace of Munster. 1648.

Isaac blessing Jacob. 1638.

Palace. Marcus Curias Dentatus as a

Husbandman.
Solomon praying for the gift of

Wisdom.

Town-hall. The Archers of 1643.

Curios. Cab. The Archers of 1645.
Antwerp. Museum. The Portraits of a Man and

Woman.
Berlin. Gallery. A Female Portrait. 1641.

The Expulsion of Hagar.

Bordeaux. Museum. A Landscape.
Brunswick. Gallery. A Female Portrait. 1636.
., Pyrrhus and Fabricius.

The Crowning of a Conqueror.

Brussels. Museum. Portrait of a Woman.
Cologne. Museum. Portrait of an old Man reading.
Copenhagen. Gallery. A Portrait.

A Portrait Group.

Darmstadt. Museum. A Woman and Child.
Dresden. Gailefry. David and Uriah.

Three Portraits.

Dublin. Nat. Gall. Bathsheba's Appeal to David.
Frankfort. Stadel Inst. A Female Portrait.



Lille.



London.
Munich.

Paris.



Bute Coll.
Gallery.



Pommersfelden. Gall.
Rotterdam. Museum.



Museum. Solomon and the Queen of Sheba.
(A joint picture with Dirk van
Deelen.)

Portrait of a Lady. 1643.
Isaac blessing Jacob.
A Dutch Guard-Room.
Louvre. An Angel announcing the Birth

of Christ to the Shepherds.
Portrait of a Girl. 1641.
Petersburg. Hermitage. Jacob Cats, the poet, and William

of Orange.
Portrait of a Jewess.
Portrait of a Soldier.
A Polish Jew.

A Landscape with Figures. 1646.
Portraits of Dirck Graswinckel

and of his Sister. 1646.
Vienna. Gallery. Portrait of an old Man.

FLINDT, PAUL, born at Nuremberg about 1570,
was a goldsmith and engraver on metals, and one
of the first artists who worked with the stamp or
swage. He died after 1644.

FLIPART, CHARLES JOSEPH, the brother of Jean
Jacques Flipart, was born in Paris in 1721, and was
instructed in the rudiments of art by his father.
He visited Venice, and studied painting under
Tiepolo and Amiconi, and engraving under Wagner.
After staying some time at Rome he was appointed
court painter and engraver by King Ferdinand VI.
of Spain in 1770. His best plates are the portraits
of the King and the Queen of Spain. Some of his
paintings are in two of the churches at Madrid.
He died in that city in 1797.

FLIPART, JACQUES NICOLAS, who was born in
Paris in 1724, was a painter of no repute.

FLIPART, JEAN CHARLES, a French engraver,
was born in Paris about the year 1683. He en-
graved some plates, which are executed entirely
with the graver, in a neat, finished style, but with-
out much effect. He died in Paris in 1751.
Amongst his works are :

The Portrait of Ren4 Choppin ; after Janet.

The Virgin and Infant ; after Raphael ; for the Crozat

Collection.
Christ praying on the Mount of Olives ; after the same ;

for the Crozat Collection.
The Penitent Magdalen ; after Le Brun.
Apollo and Daphne ; after R. Houasse.

FLIPART, JEAN JACQUES, the son of Jean Charles
Flipart, born in Paris in 1719, was instructed in
the art of engraving by his father, whom he soon
surpassed. He afterwards studied under L. Cars.
His plates are partly etched, and finished with the
graver, and possess great merit. He died in Paris
in 1782, leaving a considerable number of plates,
many of which were after the best masters of his
time. They include the following :

Portrait of J. B. Greuze ; after Oreuze.

A Sick Man surrounded by his Children ; after the same.

1767.

Twelfth Night ; after the same.
Portrait of Jacques Dumont le Romain ; after De La

Tour.

The Holy Family ; after Giulio Romano.
Adam and Eve ; after C. Natoire.
Venus presenting the Arms to JJneas ; after the same
A Sea-storm at Night ; after Vernet.
A Sea-storm by Day ; after the same.
Christ curing the Paralytic ; after Dietrich.
A Bear-hunt ; after C. van Loo.
A Tiger-hunt ; after F. Boucher.
The Battle of the Centaurs and Lapitha.

CHARLES FRANCOIS FLIPART, the brother of
Jean Jacques Flipart, who died in 1773, executed
several plates after Fragonard.

17o



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



FLODING, PEHR, a Swedish designer and en-
graver, was born at Stockholm in 1721. He was
instructed by Charpentier, and resided chiefly in
Paris, but finally returned to his native city, where
he died in 1791. He engraved several plates, both
in line and in aquatint, among which are the
following :

The Portrait of Alexander Koslin, painter; after

Boslin.

Apollo and Daphne ; after F. Boucher.
Soldiers guarding a Prison; after the same.
A Girl sleeping, with a Dog by her ; after J. B. Deshait.
Gustavus III., King of Sweden ; after L. Poach.
A Battle ; after Casanova.

FLORENCE, WILLIAM OP, was a monk who, in
the 13th century, painted in Westminster Abbey,
in the old castle at Windsor, and in Guildford.

FLORENTIA, ANDREA DA, was an artist who
lived in the 14th century, and painted the frescoes
inside the east gate of the Campo Santo of Pisa,
which represent incidents in the life of St. Ranieri.
Records exist to prove that they were executed by
order of Piero Gambacorta, and that Andrea
received payment for them in 1377. These fres-
coes were afterwards completed by Antonio Vene-
ziano in 1386. Crowe and Cavalcaselle have
assigned to this artist an immense series of
frescoes painted between 1339 and 1346 in the
Cappellone dei Spagnuoli, in the convent of San
Spiritu, Florence. These frescoes contain between
three and four hundred life-size figures, and pre-
sent an allegorical representation of ' The Triumph
and Power of the Church Militant through the
efforts of St. Dominic and the members of his
Order.' On the north wall of this same chapel is a
fresco representing ' Christ going to Calvary,' and
'The Crucifixion.' No dates are known as to this
artist's birth or death.

FLORENTIA, BERNABDDS DE, is a name found
on a few pictures, as a triptych in the Academy,
and a ' Virgin and Saints ' in the convent of the
Ognissanti at Florence. It was atone time thought
that the author might possibly be identical with
Leonardo di Clone, the brother of Orcagna.

FLORENTIA, RAKFAELLINO DI. See CAPPONI.

FLOREZ, FRANCISCO, a painter of illuminations
in the service of Isabella of Spain, whose missal
embellished by this artist is now in the Cathedral
of Granada.

FLORI DELLA FRATTA. See DELLA FRATTA.

FLORIANI, FRANCESCO, a native of Ddine, who
flourished in the 16th century, was instructed by
Pellegrino, and displayed a great talent for por-
traiture. Many of his paintings were in the pos-
session of the Emperor Maximilian II., by whom
he was employed. His ' Judith ' lias great merit.

FLORIANO, FLAMINIO, was a Venetian painter,
who imitated the style and copied the works of
Tintoretto with success, from which fact he is
supposed to have been a disciple of that master.
One of his best works is a picture of 'St. Lawrence,'
in the church of that saint.

FLORIGERIO, SEBASTIANO, who lived in the
16th century, was. probably born about the year
1500 at Udine. He was a pupil of Pellegrino, and
is thought to have married his daughter Aurelia.
His first altar-piece was painted in 1525 for the
church of Santa Maria di Villanuova, and in 1529
he painted, by commission, the altar-piece of ' St.
George and the Dragon ' for the church of San
Giorgio of Udine. Soon after this he went to
Padua, where he painted the portal of the Palazzo
174



del Capitaneo, and seems to have remained in that
city until 1533. On his return to Udine he un-
happily killed a man in a duel, and was obliged to
flee for refuge to Cividale, which he was unable to
leave until 1543. His death is believed to have
occurred at Udine soon afterwards. The following
are among his extant paintings :

Padua. S. Bovo. Deposition from the Cross, with Saints.

A Pieta.

Venice. Academy. The Conception, between S3. Koch and

Sebastian.

Madonna and Child, with St. Augus-

tine and St. Monica (painted for the
Shoemakers' Guild at Udine).

>, ,. St. Francis, St. Anthony, and St. John

the Baptist (painted for San Bovo
at Padua).

Madonna and Child enthroned, with

St. John, St. Anthony, and St.
Monica (formerly in the Servi at
Venice).

FLORIMI, GIOVANNI, (or FLORINI,) an engraver,
who was a pupil of Cornelis Galle, worked at Siena
in 1630. His works consist principally of portraits,
and among them is that of Francesco Piccolomini
after F. Vanni.

FLORIS, FRANS. See DE VBIENT.

FLOS, Do. See DDFLOS.

FLUGGEN, GISBERT, a German painter, was
born at Cologne in 1811, and having there learned
the rudiments of painting, visited in 1833 the
Academy at Diisseldorf, but went soon afterwards
to Munich, where he became known for his genre
paintings. The characters, the expression of the
faces, and the excellent arrangement of his pictures
have a very pleasing effect. He was elected a
member of the Academy at Munich in 1853, and
died there in 1859. The following are some of his
works :

Hanover. Museum. Jacob deceiving Isaac. 1848. (His

best work.)
Leuchtenberg. Ducal ) ,, ~,

Gall I Chess-players.

Madrid. Gallery. The unlucky Player. 1841.

Munich. Gallery. The Ante-chamber of a Prince.

(His last unfinished work.)

FO, G. R., was a native of Switzerland, who
flourished about the year 1551. Papillon speaks of
him as an excellent engraver on wood, and a con-
temporary of Hans Holbein. He executed the
cuts for the ' History of Animals,' by Conrad
Gesner, published at Zurich in 1551, and also en-
graved the coins and medals of the ' Roman Em-
perors,' for another work by the same author,
published in 1559.

FOCK, HERMANUS, who was born at Amsterdam
in 1766, and died there in 1822, was a landscape
painter as well as an etcher, of whose works there
remain sixty-five plates of landscapes, caricatures
of Napoleon, &c.

FOCOSI, ALESSANDRO, who was bora in 1839,
painted historical subjects at Milan. His best
works are ' Catharine de' Medici and Charles IX.'
(1867), and 'Charles Emmanuel throwing the
Insignia of the Golden Fleece to the Ambassador
of Spain,' painted for the Government of Italy.
He died in 1869.

FOCUS, GEORGE, born at Chateaudun about 1641,
was a painter of landscapes and an etcher. His
best plates are six ' Italian Views,' after Nicolas
Poussin. He died in Paris in 1708. He is called
Faucus by FtSlibien and Mariette.

FOGGO, GEORGE, who was born in 1793, worked



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



with his elder brother James Foggo. He litho-
graphed the cartoons of Raphael, and he was the
author of several essays written for the advance-
ment of art. He died in 1869.

FOGGO, JAMES, was born in London in 1790.
His father, who was a zealous friend of civil and
religious liberty, having given offence to the Tory
government at the time when they had suspended
the Habeas Corpus Act, proceeded with his family
to Paris, where his sons were educated in the
Imperial Academy. In 1815, on the return of
Napoleon from Elba, James Foggo hastened to
England, full of hope and ambition ; but after his
long exile he sought in vain the friends of bis
childhood. Nevertheless, without the encourage-
ment of patronage, he set to work in a humble
second-floor room, and painted his ' Hagar and
Ishmael,' which was exhibited at the British In-
stitution, where it was favourably noticed by West
and other artists, yet did not find a purchaser.
In 1819 he was joined by his brother George, and
during the next forty years the brothers, working
together, produced various historical pictures,
generally of a large size, which, however, were
doomed to remain on their hands unsold, their
slender means of living being chiefly derived from
teaching. In 1821 and 1822 they painted their
large picture representing the ' Christian Inhabit-
ants of Parga preparing to emigrate in presence
of the invading force of All Pasha.' This and
subsequent works obtained the approbation of
Sir Thomas Lawrence, Fuseli, Hilton, Flaxman,
and other artists of eminence. An ' Entombment
of the Saviour,' by them, forms the altar-piece of
the French Protestant church in St. Martin's-le-
Grand. Amongst their other works may be men-
tioned ' Napoleon signing the Death-warrant of the
Duke d'Enghien, in spite of the entreaties of his
mother,' ' General Williams amongst the inhabit-
ants of Kars,' and ' Christ at the Pool of Bethesda '
(1824). The Foggos contributed also to each of
the cartoon and fresco exhibitions held in West-
minster Hall in the years 1840 to 1843. James
Foggo died in London in 1860.

FOGOLINO, MARCELLO, was probably born in
the Friulan Provinces at the beginning of the
16th century. He learned his art in Vicenza, and
one of his earliest paintings is a small ' Adora-
tion of the Magi,' in tempera, formerly in San
Bartolommeo, and now in the Public Gallery of
that city. In 1523 he contracted with the Scuola di
San Biagio, at Pordenone, for a ' Virgin and Child
between SS. Blaise and Apollonia,' and a little
later he executed the ' Glory of St. Francis be-
tween Daniel and St. John the Baptist," both of
which pictures are now in the cathedral of Porde-
none. On his return to Vicenza he painted a
'Madonna surrounded by Angels,' now in Santa
Corona ; and a ' Nativity ' that is in the possession
of Signor Bernasconi of Verona. According to a
letter in his own hand, still in existence, he was
at Trent in 1536, having been appointed to aid in
the decorations of that city for the visit of King
Ferdinand. In the Santlssima Trinita, Trent,
is an altar-piece that may be assigned to him, as
also other paintings and frescoes in the churches
and cathedral of that city. The dates of his birth
and death are uncertain. Among his extant paint-
ings are the following :

Berlin. Gallery. Madonna and Child with Saints.

(Early work : formerly in San
Francesco, Vicenza.)



Pordenone. <?. Biayio. Madonna with Saints.

Cathedral. St. Francis between Daniel and

St. John the Baptist. (Much
in the style of Raphael.)

Vicenza. Council- j Tbe Adoration of the Magi _

His engravings, which are executed with the
graver in a free and light manner, include :

A Virgin and Child, in a landscape with architectural

ruins, and Joseph drawing water from a well.
A naked Woman and a Child.
A Statue of Marcus Aurelius on horseback.
The Fragment of a Female Statue.
A Nativity.
Mary going to the Temple.

FOHR, DANIEL, born at Heidelberg in 1801, first
studied science, which he afterwards abandoned
for the art of painting. After studying some time
by himself, he went to Munich in 1829, and then to
the Tyrol. He was court painter to the Grand-
Duke of Baden, and died at Baden-Baden in
1862. There are by him in the Gallery at
Carlsruhe :

Mazeppa. 1836.

A View of the Konigsee, near Berchtesgaden. 1836.
The Steinberg, near Berchtesgaden. 1837.
The Four Seasons, representing four Epochs of German
History.

FOHR, KARL PHILIFP, a brother of Daniel Fohr,
was born at Heidelberg in 1795, and studied at
Munich, chiefly by himself from nature and the great
masters. His paintings, which are to be met with
at Carlsruhe, Darmstadt, and Frankfort, display
genius and grandeur of style. In the Stadel Insti-
tute at Frankfort are views of Tivoli and Heidelberg.
His death occurred in 1818 at Rome, from bathing
in the Tiber.

FOKKE, SIMON, a Dutch designer, etcher,
and engraver, was born at Amsterdam in 1712.
He was a pupil of J. C. Philips, and was chiefly
employed for the booksellers on small portraits and
vignettes, which he executed with spirit, but for
the most part superficially. The same must be
said of the numerous drawings which he has left.
He died at Amsterdam in 1784. There are by him,
among others, the following plates :

His own Portrait ; after himself.

A View of the Port of Leghorn ; after Ternet.

A View near Narni, in Lombardy ; after the same.

Six plates of Dutch Views, with .Rivers, Ships, and

Skaters ; after Avercamp.
Several Portraits for Tycho Hofman's 'Portraits his-

toriques des hommes illustres de Dannemark,' 174ti.
Several plates of his own design for Wagenaar's

' Vaderlandsche Historic,' 1749-59.
The Treaty of Peace at Miiuster ; after Terborch.
The Prodigal Son ; after Spagnoletto ; in the Dresden

Gallery.
Jacob keeping the Flocks of Laban ; after the same ;

in the Dresden Gallery.
The Death of Dido, a burlesque ; after C. Troost.

FOLDSONE, JOHN, a portrait painter, was born
about the middle of the 18th century. He ex-
hibited at the Academy up to 1783, soon after
which year he died. He was the father of Mrs.
Mee, the miniature painter.

FOLER, ANTONIO, was born at Venice in 1528.
He was a contemporary and friend of Paolo
Veronese, whose splendid style he followed with
some success in his colouring, though very de-
ficient in his design, particularly in his large
works. In his easel pictures this inferiority is less
discernible, and they possess considerable merit.
Among other works by this master, Ridolfi notices



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