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Paolo the Younger).

FOKBICLNI, ELIODORO, who flourished from
1550 to 1570, was a native of Verona, who excelled
in grotesques. He decorated two rooms in the
Palazzo Canova, which have been much admired.
Comte de, born at La Roque d'Antheron (Bouches-
du- Rhone) in 1777, was instructed in the rudiments
of the art by De Boissieu. Whilst a soldier in the
Garde Nationale at Nice and Toulon, he became
acquainted with the painter Granet, who exercised
great influence over him. After quitting the service
he studied at Paris under David, but in 1799 was
again obliged to change the artist's for the soldier's
life, and went through the campaigns in Portugal
and Germany. In 1809 Forbin, who was then a
lieutenant-colonel, took leave of the army and
went to Italy to study. He stayed there five
years, and then returned to Paris, where he was
elected a member of the Institute, and appointed
director of the Royal Museums, and subsequently
superintendent of the collections in the Louvre,
the Luxembourg, and at Versailles. In 1817 he
visited Syria, Greece, and Egypt, and published in



1819 his 'Voyage dans le Levant,' an excellent
work, with eighty lithographic plates. Later on
he went to Sicily, from whence he brought back a
great number of sketches. He wrote also several
other works. He died in Paris in 1841. Among
his best paintings are :

The Death of Pliny at the Eruption of Vesuvius.

The Death of King Andrew of Hungary.

A Nun in the Vaults of the Inquisition.

A Monk accused of having helped a Nun to escape.

Interior of the Peristyle of a Monastery. 1830. (Louvre,

A Chapel in the Colosseum at Rome. 1834. (Louvre.)

FORD, MICHAEL, an Irish engraver in mezzotint,
was probably a pupil of John Brooks, to whose
business as a printseller in Dublin he succeeded
about 1747. He is supposed to have been lost at
sea in 1758. There are several portraits by him,
some of which are after his own paintings. They
include the following :

"William III. ; after Kneller.
George II. ; after Hudson.
"William, Duke of Cumberland ; after the same.
William Stanhope, Earl of Harrington ; after Du Pin.
Henry Singleton, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas
in Ireland ; after himself.

FORD, RICHARD, the author of the 'Handbook
for Travellers in Spain,' who was born in London
in 1796, practised art as an amateur. He illus-
trated Lockhart's 'Spanish Ballads,' and etched
several plates. He died at Heavitree, near Exeter,
in 1858.

FORD, SAMUEL, an Irish historical painter, was
born at Cork in 1805. Although brought up in
great poverty, he managed to study at the Cork
School, and in 1828 became master of the Cork
Mechanics' Institute, but he died of consumption
in the same year. Amongst his works were :

The Genius of Tragedy 1827.
The Fall of the Angels.


FOREST, JEAN BAPTISTE, a French landscape
painter, was born in Paris in 1636. He was in-
structed in the first rudiments of art by his father,
Pierre Forest, an artist little known. He went
afterwards to Italy, and at Rome became the
scholar of Pietro Francesco Mola. After studying
the works of that master for some time, he applied
himself to an imitation of the grand landscapes of
Titian and Giorgione. On his return to France he
was esteemed one of the ablest landscape painters
of his country, and was received into the Academy
in Paris in 1674. From an unfortunate process he
made use of in the preparation of his colours, some
of his pictures have since become dark. He died
in Paris in 1712.

Domingo in 1790, was a pupil of Vincent and
David, and obtained in 1813 the first prize, which
enabled him to go to Rome. There he became
very favourably known through his paintings of
'Anacreon' and 'Cupid.' He died in 1872. Among
his historical and genre paintings may be men-
tioned :

Christ healing the Demoniac. 1817. (Louvre, Paris.)
The Funeral of William the Conqueror.


FORLI, ANSUINO DA, was the painter of the
' Adoration of St. Christopher ' in the Eremitani
Chapel, Padua. In the Correr Gallery at Venice is
a tempera profile ' Portrait of a Man,' which is


assigned to Ansuino. No dates of his birth or
death can be given.


ORGANI, who was the earliest painter of Forli,
flourished in the 14th century. He was a pupil of
Giotto, and painted frescoes in the churches of San
Domenico and the Franciscans in his native city,
but none of his works are extant.



FORMELLO, DONATO DA, was a native of
Formello, in the duchy of Bracciano. He was a
disciple of Giorgio Vasari, and, according to
Baglione, visited Rome early in the pontificate of
Gregory XIII. He greatly surpassed the style of
his instructor, as is evident in his fresco works on
a staircase in the Vatican, representing subjects
from the life of St. Peter. He died about 1580.


FORNAVERT, J. P., was an obscure engraver,
chiefly employed by the booksellers. Strutt men-
tions a frontispiece to a book of devotion by this
artist, representing ' Moses and Aaron, with the
Four Evangelists.' It is neatly executed with the
graver, but in a stiff, formal style.

FORNAZERIS, JACQUES DE, (probably the same
as FORNAZORI,) was a French engraver, who
flourished from 1594 to 1622. He resided at
Lyons, and appears to have been principally em-
ployed for the booksellers, though his plates are
executed in a style very superior to that of the
generality of artists of that class. He engraved
portraits of historical personages, and also several
frontispieces, which he generally embellished with
small historical figures, correctly drawn. His plates
are executed with the graver. Among his fifty-six
engravings may be noticed :


Henry IV. (Five plates.)

Mary de' Medici. (Two plates.)

Pope Leo XI.

Pope Paul V.

Charles Emmanuel, Duke of Savoy.

James I., King of Great Britain.

Gabrielle d'EstrSes.

Louis XI.


To the ' Biblia Sacra,' Lyons. 1606 ; ill quarto.
To the ' Biblia Sacra,' Lyons. 1618 ; in folio.
To the ' Tabula Chronographica,' Lyons. 1616.
To the ' Praxis Fori Pcenitentialis,' Lyons. 1616.
To the ' Commentaries of J. Fernandus.' 1622.

FORRESTER, ALFRED HENRY, a caricaturist,
known by the pseudonym of ' Alfred Crowquill,'
was born in London in 1805. His family was
connected with the Stock Exchange, on which he
was himself more or less engaged till 1839. His
works were generally in illustration of his own
letterpress. He also contributed to 'Bentley's
Miscellany,' ' The Illustrated London News,' ' The
Humourist,' &c. He died in 1872. Amongst his
productions were :

Leaves from my Memorandum Book.

Eccentric Tales.

The Wanderings of a Pen and Pencil.

The Comic English Grammar.

Comic Arithmetic.

A Bundle of Crowquills.

FORRESTER, JAMES, an engraver, flourished
about the year 1760. He resided some years in


Laurent photv\



Italy, where he etched several plates of land-
scapes, which are executed in a neat, pleasing

FORSELL, CHRISTIAN, born in 1777, studied first
at the Academy at Copenhagen, and afterwards
improved his talent for art by travelling. He was
court engraver and professor at the Academy at
Stockholm. The following are some of his best
works :

The Coronation of the Virgin ; engraved after a design
by Ternite.

The Poet Camoens ; after Gerard.

Charles John, King of Sweden ; after the same.

Louis XVIII ; after Auyustin.

'Une Annee en Suede,' in forty-eight plates; partly
from his own drawing, partly after those of Sandberg.

FORSTER, ERNST JOACHIM, painter and writer
upon art, was born in 1800, at Munchergosserstadt,
on the Saale. After a stay at the Universities of
Jena and Berlin he took up art as his career, and
studied under Schadow at Berlin, and under Corne-
lius at Munich. In 182-1-5 he was working under
Hermann on the frescoes in the Aula at Bonn,
and was afterwards employed on those in the
arcades of the Munich Hofgarten. He married
a daughter of Jean Paul Richter, and this con-
nection led him again in the direction of literature.
After the death of his father-in-law he published
several biographical notices of him, and edited his
literary remains. He was employed in 1832 by
the then Crown Prince Max of Bavaria to visit
Italy, and make a series of drawings from the
antique, and his archaeological researches in con-
nection with this work were afterwards embodied
in his 'Material for a new History of Art' (1835).
He also carried out various decorative works in
the new palace at Munich. Of his numerous
literary productions in connection with art the most
important are : 'A History of German Art' (1851-
60) ; ' Monuments of German Architecture, Sculp-
ture and Painting' (1853-69); 'Life of Raphael'
(1867-69); 'History of Italian Art' (1869-75).
He published the continuation of Schorn's German
version of Vasari, and was joint editor with Kugler
of the 'Kunstblatt' from 1842-49. He died in

FORSTER, FRANQOIS, a Swiss engraver, born at
Locle in 1790, was instructed by P. G. Langlois in
Paris. In 1814 he obtained the first prize, by
which he was sent to Rome, and after his return he
soon gained a reputation, his numerous plates being
remarkable for the skill with which he represented
the original. He handled the graver with great
ability, and his faculty of imparting both vigour
and tenderness in the execution gives the whole a
beautiful and harmonious effect. In 1844 Forster
was elected a member of the Institute of France
and the Academies of Brussels and Berlin. He died
in Paris in 1872. The following were his most
important plates :

The Disciples at Emmaus ; after Paolo Veronese. 1812-

The Portrait of a Woman ; after the same. 1818.

Aurora and Cephalus ; after Guerin. 1821.

Dido and jEneas ; after the same. 1828.

The Portrait of Albrecht Diirer ; after Durer. 1823.

Arthur, Duke of Wellington ; after Gerard.

La Vierge au Basrelief ; after Leonardo da Vinci. 1835.

Titian's Mistress.; after Titian.

La Vierge de la Maison d 'Orleans ; after Raphael. 1838.

La Vierge a la Legende ; after the same. 1846.

The Holy Family ; after the same. 1854.

The Three Graces ; after the same.

The Portrait of Raphael ; after the same. 1835.

Christ on the Cross ; after Sebastiano del Picmlo. 1850.
Louis I. of Bavaria ; after Stieler.
Alexander von Humboldt : after Steuoen.
St. Cecilia ; after Lelaroche.

FORSTER, THOMAS, an artist who lived in the
early years of the 18th century, drew miniature
portraits on vellum with lead pencil.


FORTI, GIAOOMO, a painter of the Bolognese
school, who flourished in 1483, was a pupil of
Zoppo. He assisted his master in his frescoes,
but in the church of San Tommaso al Mercato
in Bologna, is a fresco of the Virgin, which is
attributed to him.

FORTIER, CLAUDE FRANgois, a French engraver,
was born in Paris in 1775, and died in the same
city in 1835. His best plates are 'The Entry of
the French into Milan,' after Gerard; 'A Virgin
Forest in Brazil,' after Clarac; and 'Morning,' after

FORTIN, AUGDSTIN FriLix, a French painter of
landscapes, and of genre and historical subjects,
was born in Paris in 1763, and studied under his
uncle, the sculptor Lecomte. He was, however,
chiefly noted for his sculpture, for which he ob-
tained the grand prize in 1783. He became a
member of the Academy in 1789, and died in Paris
in 1832. Amongst his paintings are:

Invocation to Nature.

A Satyr.


FORTIN, CHARLES, a French genre and land-
scape painter, the son of Augustin Felix Fortin,
was born in Paris in 1815. He studied under
Beaume and Roqueplan, and first exhibited in
1835. He died in Paris in 1865. Amongst his
works are :

The Rag-seller.

The Return to the Cottage.

The Chimney Corner.

The Butcher's Shop.

The Village Barber.

Chouans. 1853. (Lille jlfuseum.)

The Blessing. (Luxembourg Gallery.)

The Music Lesson.

The Smoker. 1855.

During Vespers, Morbihan. (Paris Exhibition, 1855.)

Rustic Interior. 1S59.

The Country Tailor. 1861.

Between two Halts. 1864.

FORTNER, GEORQ, who was born at Munich
in 1814, studied under Schlotthauer and Heinrich
Hess. He executed frescoes for the Bavarian
National Museum ; but he is better known for his
designs for church windows. He died at Munich
in 1879.

painter in oil and water-colours, was born of
humble parentage at Reuss, near Barcelona, in
1841. Showing great artistic promise in his child-
hood, he was enabled by a local magnate to study
at Barcelona and Madrid, and he further pursued
his studies at Rome and Paris. He soon became
known, and worked with great assiduity on the
commissions he received, many of which were
from Goupil of Paris. With the exception of the
time during which he was on the staff of General
Prim in Morocco, the rest of his life was passed
chiefly at Rome and Paris. His death, which oc-
curred at Rome in 1874, was occasioned by an attack
of fever, contracted while sketching in damp
weather in the vicinity of Naples. The pictures
remaining in his studio were sold in Paris, and



realized 800,000 francs. He married the daughter
of Senor Madrazo, the director of the Madrid
Academy. The following are amongst his chief
works :

A Marriage in the Cathedral of Madrid.

Rehearsal at the Opera Buffa.


Fantasy of Morocco. 1866.

A Book-lover in the Library of Eichelieu. 1869.

The Fencing Lesson.

The Tribunal of a Cadi.

The Academy of the Arcadians. 1874.

Baron Davillier published at Paris in 1875, with
illustrations, ' Fortuny, sa vie, son ceuvre, sa cor-

FOSCHI, FERDINANDO, was a landscape painter
who flourished at Bologna in the 18th century.
There is a landscape by him in the Lille Museum,
and a winter scene in the Darmstadt Museum.

FOSCHI, SIGISMONDO, a son of Antonio Foschi,
was born at Faenza, and flourished about 1530.
There is a ' Madonna and Child ' by this artist in
the Brera at Milan, which came from the church of
San Bartolommeo in Faenza.
sidered the best of the Spanish engravers of title-
pages during the reign of Charles II. Among his
works are the f ollowing :

Title-page to a ' Life of St Domingo de Silos.' 1653.
Title-page to Ximena's ' Catalogue of the Bishops of

Jaen.' 1654.
Title-page to Gandara's ' Glory of the Church in

Galicia.' 1677.
The Auto-da-fe held in the Plaza-Mayor of Madrid,

30th June, 1680.
One of the plates of Yera Tassis's * Obsequies of Queen

Maria Louisa.' 1690.
St. Francis Xavier.
Portrait of Cardinal Errico Noris.


etcher, was born at Morco, near Lugano, in 1708,
and studied drawing under Mariotti at Venice, and
painting under Daniel Gran, with whom in 1723 he
went to Vienna. In 1728 he painted the dining-
hall in the monastery of St. Martinsberg at Press-
burg ; but in 1730 he returned to Venice, and in
the next year executed the wall-paintings in the
villa at Torre, near Este, as also in the nunnery of
Santa Margaretta, near Lauis. He afterwards took
to etching, but did not succeed at first. His death
occurred at Vienna about 1780. His works as a
painter are little known, but he has left among his
later and happier efforts several etchings of land-
scapes and historical subjects after various masters.
The following are his plates most worthy of notice:

they are sometimes marked with the cipher

Diana and Calisto ; after Solimena.

The Family of Darius before Alexander; after Paolo


Jupiter destroying the Vices ; after the same.
Eebekah and the Servant of Abraham ; after A . Bellucri.
The Calling of St. Peter to the Apostleship ; after

the same.
A set of twenty-four Views of Venice, and Landscapes ;

after Marco Ricci.

FOSSATI, DOMENICO, was born at Venice in 1743,
and studied painting at the Academy of that city.
He distinguished himself as a painter of archi-
tecture and a decorator, and his works are to be met
with in the theatres and palaces of Venice, Padua,
Vicenza, Verona, Udine, Monza, and Gratz, and in
the Scala at Milan. He died at Venice in 1784.


FOSSATI, GIORGIO, an engraver and architect,
who was born at the commencement of the 18th
century, and died about 1770, executed the plates
to the 'Raccolta di varie Favole' (Venice, 1744),
and also made the designs for the carving in the
Scuola di San Rocco at Venice.


Paris in 1782, and died there in 1824, studied under
Delaunay and Moreau the younger. He engraved
after Velazquez, Domenichino, &c.

FOSTER, MYLES BIRKET, was a member of an
old north-country Quaker family. He was born at
North Shields on February 4, 1825, the youngest
but one of seven children. His father removed to
London when he was but five years of age, so
that his early youth was spent away from the
district of his birth. His grandfather was a naval
officer of renown who was acquainted with Thomas
Bewick the engraver, but Birket seems to have been
the only member of the family who had inclinations
towards art. Birket is said to have been able to
draw before he could speak, but whether this was
true or not it is certain that at very tender years
he was able to make quite a creditable sketch, and
the local renown of Bewick, and the traditions as
to his friendship with the grandfather of young
Foster helped to enkindle in the lad the strongest
desire that he too might become a great artist.
At the first schools to which he went, those kept
by Quakers at Tottenham and at Hitchin, he was
taught drawing, and then later on he had special
lessons from an intelligent master named Parry;
but his education terminated before he was six-
teen, and the question of a profession was before
him. It was at first decided that he should be
sent to a steel engraver named Stone, but as the
man committed suicide on the day that the articles
were signed that could not be accomplished, and
eventually Foster was sent to the studio of Ebenezer
Landells the wood engraver, a man who had
known Bewick, and was therefore of the greatest
importance to Foster. Here he worked for a good
many years doing drawings for 'Punch,' 'Punch's
Almanack,' the ' Illustrated London News,' and
its ' Annual Almanack," and many of the illus-
trated books of the day, notably one by S. C. Hall
on Ireland. It was very little actual engraving
that Foster did, as his work in drawing on the
blocks was so acceptable that his time was fully
occupied with it, and he himself was always ready
to add to his knowledge by steady work out-of-
doors, or by sketching events which took place with
a view of using them for illustrations. He left
Landells in 1846, starting on his own account, and
worked as a book illustrator for Vizetelly. His
first great success was in illustrating ' Evangeline,'
and after that he was sent up the Rhine that he
might make drawings for ' Hyperion,' and for a
book on the famous river itself. From that time
to 1859 he illustrated many of the most notable
works of the day, especially of poetry, but at
length he determined to give up black and white
work and take to more congenial labour in colour.
His first work in the Royal Academy represented
a farm near Arundel, and was hung in 1859 ; in
the following year he was an Associate of the Old
Water-Colour Society, and attained full rank as a
member two years afterwards. The death of his
father in 1861 was not altogether a loss to Foster,
for a confusion having arisen between his name
and that of his parent an obituary account of the









artist was issued praising him in no measured
terms, and lamenting: the loss caused to British
art by so untimely a decease. This was at once, of
course, contradicted, but the critics had already
spoken, and the reputation of Foster gained in
strength by this strange occurrence. In 1862
Foster settled down in Surrey, eventually building
a house at Witley, which became a most popular
resort for his artist friends, and in which he resided
for many years. His work was always worthy of
respect, conscientious and pleasing, and although
it ever bore traces of his earlier practice of black
and white drawing, and was as elaborate some-
times in its stippling as though it was intended
for a block, yet this fault gradually became less
and less, and his work assumed a stronger and
broader character. He had a great love for the
rustic cottage scenes of Surrej', and painted them
with a daintiness and loving skill which few have
excelled. His greatest triumphs in water-colour
were obtained in the country side, in the winding
lane, the hedgerow, with its flowers ; the cottage,
the hamlet, or the village, and he painted all these
over and over again with a careful attention to
details, a graceful daintiness and a freshness of
colour which invariably caused the pictures to be
popular and attractive. There was a sweetness
and a gentleness as has been well said about his
work which redeemed it, and although it was
monotonous it never failed to be pleasant and
thoroughly English. His home at Witley was
adorned by the work of all his friends. Burne
Jones painted on the staircase, Rossetti adorned
the dining-room, Keene devised some of the stained
glass, Morris and Hunt, Linnell, Walker, Pinwell,
Houghton and Lewis, all had their share in the
decoration, and the result was very remarkable
and of great beauty. Towards the close of his
life Foster had to leave this place, and settled in
failing health, and with his mental powers at times
over-clouded, at Weybridge. There he died March
27, 1899, at the age of seventy-three, having made
a very important name in English water-colour
art. He was in earlier days fond of etching, and
produced some notable plates. He also worked in
lithography, and whatever he did was marked by
the same restful charm, daintiness and grace which
are the main characteristics of his well-known
work in colour. An 'Art Annual 'respecting him
was written by Mr. Huish, and issued by the ' Art
Journal ' in 1890. Q_ c. W,

FOSTER, THOMAS, an Irish portrait painter,
was born in 1798. He came to England early,
and entered the schools of the Royal Academy,
where he exhibited from 1819 to 1825. He died
by his own hand in 1826. Amongst his portraits

Miss Tree.

Eight Hon. John Wilson Croker.

Sir Henry Bishop, the composer.

FOUACE, GDILLAUME, a French painter of still
life, born at Reville (Manche) ; a pupil of Yvou ;
exhibited regularly with success at the Salon des
Champs Elyse'es, where in 1884 he obtained an
honourable mention, in 1891 a medal of the third
class, and in 1893 a medal of the first class. He
also showed much talent as a sculptor, and made
his mark in this branch of art in the Salon of 1890.
His death occurred January 12, 1895.

FOUCEEL, , a Dutch landscape painter and

engraver, flourished in the early part of the 17th

century. Three very tenderly executed plates, now
very rare are known by him : ' The Group of
Trees, ' The Avenue,' and ' The Terrace '
_ FOUCHER, NICOLAS, born in Paris in' 1650, was
instructed by Mignard, and painted portraits and
historical subjects. He also etched in a spirited
manner the portrait of ' Jaque Roland, sieur de
1700 maiStre chirur ien -' Foucher died about
TOUCHIER, BARTRAM DE, a Dutch painter, was
born at Bergen-op-Zoom in 1609. He was sent to
Antwerp when very young, and there became a
scholar of Van Dyck, but when that master left
Antwerp to visit England, Fouchier returned to
Holland, where he studied under Jan Bylert, at
Utrecht. He afterwards went to Rome, where he
remained three years, and would probably have ac-
quired a distinguished reputation if he had not been
implicated in a quarrel, which obliged him to quit
the city. The fame of the Venetian painters drew
him to Venice, where he particularly devoted him-
self to studying the works of Tintoretto. After
an absence of eight years he returned to Holland,
where he soon found that neither the style he had

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