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acquired in Italy, nor the subjects of his pictures,
were agreeable to the taste of his countrymen. He
therefore abandoned historical painting, and applied
himself to paint similar subjects to those of Ostade
and Brouwer, representing assemblies of peasants
and drunken frolics, which were admired in his
time, and are still to be found in the collections
in Holland. He died at Bergen-op-Zoom in 1674.

FOULLON, BENJAMIN, the son of Pierre Foullon,
a native of Antwerp, who received letters of
naturalization from Francis I. of France, flourished
in 1583. By him there are forty-eight crayon
drawings in the National Library in Paris, which
resemble in style those of Francois Clouet. He
was painter at the court of Henry IV. of France.

FOUNTAIN. See LA FONTAINE.

FOUQUET, JEAN, (or FOUCQUET,) a French
miniature painter, was born at Tours about 1415.
At that time there were two different schools in
France : the one adopted the principles of Van
Eyck, the other united the manner of that artist
with the Italian style, and of the latter Fouquet
was a great adherent. His first-known work is
dated 1461 ; his last, 1475. He was court painter
to Louis XL, and died in 1483. Among his
miniatures and oil paintings are the following :

Antwerp. Gallery. The Virgin and Child. (The

half of an altar-piece in oil. )

Frankfort. Brentano- ~\ Forty Miniatures, painted in

Laroche \ 1461 for Etienne Chevalier,

Collection.) Treasurer of Charles VII.

(Three more are in other private

, collections.}

Etienne Chevalier, the donor,

and St. Stephen. (The other
half of the Antwerp altar-piece.}

Munich. Royal Library. The Miniatures in a French
translation of Boccaccio, by
Pierre Faure, cure of St.
Denis. 1458.

Paris. National Library. Eleven Miniatures in a French
translation of Josephus's 'His-
tory of the Jews,' representing
scenes in the life of Joseph.

Versailles- Gallery. The Portrait of Guillaume Ju-

venal des Ursins (in oil).

FOUQUIERES, JACQUES, was born at Antwerp
in 1580, where he received some instruction from
Jodocus De Momper, and afterwards studied under
Jan Brueghel, though he adopted a style of land-

183



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



scape painting very superior to that of either of
those masters, and in this branch of art arrived
at an excellence that induced Rubens occasionally
to employ him to paint the backgrounds of his
pictures. Under this master he gained BO high a
reputation that the Elector Palatine employed him at
his court when still young. He afterwards visited
Rome and Venice, where he greatly improved his
style by studying the works of Titian, whose fine
landscapes were the particular objects of his ad-
miration. In 1621 he went to Paris, and was em-
ployed by Louis XIII. in the great gallery of the
Louvre. His pictures were so much admired by
that monarch that he conferred on him the honour
of knighthood, which mark of distinction is said
by D'Argenville to have rendered him so _vain
and ridiculous, that he afterwards never painted
without his sword by his side. He became so
proud and overbearing that his insolent conduct to
Nicolas Poussin, who was employed by the king
at the same time in the Louvre, was the means of
depriving France of the talents of that admirable
painter, who left Paris in disgust, and resided at
Rome for the remainder of his life. Fouquieres
was, notwithstanding these foibles, a distinguished
painter of landscapes ; his pencil is free and firm,
and his colour, both in oil and in fresco, is clear and
fresh, though occasionally cold, and too green. The
figures with which he embellished his landscapes
are correctly drawn, and touched witli great spirit.
He fell into disgrace, and died in Paris, in poverty,
in 1659. There is a small landscape by this artist
in the Darmstadt Gallery, and another in the
Bordeaux Museum.

FOUR, N. DU. See Du FOUR.

FOURDRINIER, PIERRE, was a French engraver,
who flourished for upwards of thirty years in
London. He engraved many plates for the em-
bellishment of books, plays, and pamphlets, and
also executed some large plates of architectural
views, which are his best performances. Some of
these were for a large folio volume of the ' Villas
of the Ancients,' published by Robert Castell in
1728. He also engraved some of the plans and
elevations of Houghton Hall. He died in London
in 1758.

FOURMOIS, THEODORE, a Belgian artist, who
was born at Presles in 1814, first devoted himself
to pencil drawing, afterwards to water-colour, and
lastly to oil painting. He was a diligent and
tasteful artist, and painted with a bold brush.
His subjects are mostly views of Brussels and the
Ardennes. He died at Brussels in 1871.

FOURNIER, , a French engraver, executed

part of the plates for a small folio volume, entitled
'Les Tableaux de la Penitence.'

FOURNIER, DANIEL, an a-la-mode beefseller,
shoemaker and engraver, was born early in the
18th century. He published in 1764 a work on
Perspective, and died about 1766. There is a mezzo-
tint by him of Cuthbert Mayne, a Catholic priest.

FOURNIER, JACQUES. See FORNAZERIS.

FOURNIER, JEAN, a native of France, was a
scholar of F. de Troy, and gained the first prize
at the Royal Academy of Painting in 1737 for a
picture of ' Samson and Delilah.' He passed the
greater part of his artistic life at the Hague, and
painted the portraits of many distinguished persons
of his time ; among others, those of the Duke of
Cumberland and Admiral Anson. He died at the
Hague in 1765.

FOURNIER, JEAN BAPTISTE FORTUNE DE, born
184



at Ajaccio, Corsica, in 1798, studied at the Poly-
technic School at Naples, and was distinguished for
bis water-colour views of interiors, as 'The Saloon
of Louis XIV. in the Tuileries.' He died in Paris
in 1864.

FOUTIN, J., an engraver of Chateaudun, was
probably a goldsmith, as the only prints known by
him are some plates of ornamental foliage, with
grotesque heads, figures, &c., dated 1619.

FOWLER, WILLIAM, a draughtsman and en-
graver, was brought up as a carpenter at Winterton
in Lincolnshire, where he died in 1832.

FOWLER, WILLIAM, a portrait painter, was born
in 1796. His best known work is a portrait of
Queen Victoria, which was engraved in mezzotint
by J. R. Jackson. He died in London about 1880.

FOX, CHARLES, who was born at Falmouth in
1749, and who began life as a bookseller, later
turned his attention to art, practising both land-
scape and portraiture. He likewise published some
translations from the Persian, and died at Bath in
1809.

FOX, CHARLES, was born in 1794, at Cossey,
near Norwich, where his father was steward to
Lord Stafford, of Cossey Hall. After a period of
studying engraving under Edwards at Bungay,
he came up to London, became an inmate in
the studio of John Burnet, who was at that time
engaged in engraving some of Wilkie's prin-
cipal works, and assisted Burnet in their com-
pletion. The engravings executed entirely with
his own burin are several small plates after Wilkie
for Cadell's edition of Sir Walter Scott's novels,
and various illustrations to the Annuals of the
day. His large engravings are a whole-length
portrait of Sir George Murray, after Pickersgill ;
' The First Council of the Queen,' and ' Village
Recruits,' after Wilkie. His early habits and
love of flowers never left him ; and on Dr. Lindley,
his fellow-townsman, being appointed secretary
of the Horticultural Society, Fox was chosen as
a judge and arbitrator for the various prizes ; and
during the whole time gave the greatest satisfac-
tion, both on account of his scientific skill and
his strict impartiality. He also executed all the
engravings for a periodical called ' The Florist.'
At the time of his decease, which took place at
Leyton in 1849, he was engaged upon a large print
after Mulready's picture of 'The Fight interrupted.'

FRACANZANO, CESARE, a Neapolitan painter,
who flourished in the 17th century, was a pupil of
Spagnoletto. He died in France some years after
1657. His son, MICHELAGNOLO FRACANZANO, who
was also a painter, died in France about 1685.
There is in the Madrid Gallery a picture by the
latter, representing 'Two Wrestlers.'

FRACANZANO, FRANCESCO, the brother of
Cesare Fracanzano, was a pupil of Spagnoletto and
the master of Salvator Rosa, whose sister he had
married. His married life was an unhappy one, as
by the instigation of his wife he committed crimes
for which he suffered death at Naples in 1657.

FRACASSI, CESARE, (or FRACASSINI,) was born
in 1838. He studied painting in Rome, where he
executed several frescoes for San Lorenzo. He
died in 1868. One of his most important pictures
is 'The Martyrs of Gorinchum.'

FRADELLE, HENRI JOSEPH, an historical
painter, was born at Lille in 1778, but passed his
life in England. From 1816 to 1855 he occasion-
ally exhibited at the Royal Academy, but his works
chiefly appeared at the British Institution. He




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PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



died in 1865. Amongst his works (several of which
were engraved) are :

Milton dictating * Paradise Lost.' 1817.

Mary, Queen of Scots, and her Secretary.

Eebecca and Ivanhoe.

Belinda at her Toilet.

The Earl of Leicester and Amy Robsart.

Queen Elizabeth and Lady Paget.

Lady Jane Grey.

FRAGONARD, ALEXANDBE EVARISTE, a French
historical painter, was born atGrasse in 1780. He
was a son of Jean Honort Fragonard, and studied
under David. Besides painting, he devoted himself
to sculpture, and to designs for lithography. He
died in Paris in 1850. His chief paintings are :

Maria Theresa and her Son.

Francis I. knighted. 1819. ( Versailles.}

The Triumphal Entry of Joau of Arc into Orleans.

(Orleans Museum.)

The Burgesses of Calais in the Tent of Edward I.
Francis I. receiving "Works of Art brought from Italy by

Primaticcio.

Henry IV. and Gabrielle d'Estrfes.
Siege of Ptolemais. ( Versailles.)
Battle of Marignan. 1836. ( Versailles.)

FRAGONARD, HIPPOLTTE EVARISTE ETIENNE,
a French historical and genre painter and litho-
grapher, was born in Paris in 1806. He was the
grandson of Jean Honore Fragonard, and was
for many years connected with the porcelain manu-
factory at Sevres. He died in Paris in 1876. There
is at Versailles a copy by him of Bronzino's ' Isa-
bella of Aragon supplicating Charles VIII. of
France.'

FRAGONARD, JEAN HONORED was the pupil and
legitimate successor of Boucher, and the last of the
great French decorative painters of the 18th
century. Born at Grasse in 1732, after a short
probation as a notary's clerk he quitted that pro-
fession, and attended the atelier of Boucher, who
placed him under the influence and teaching of
Chardin, by whom he was well instructed and
where he made rapid progress. He is said to have
handled the brush before he could draw a line, and
obtained the Grand Prix de Peinture in 1752,
though he had not yet been admitted to the
Academy course. The picture by which he gained
the prize was entitled ' Jeroboam sacrificing to
Idols.' He studied at Rome, afterwards visiting-
Naples and Sicily, and many of the drawings made
by him while on this trip were engraved by the
Abb de St. Non, who accompanied him and his
fellow-traveller, Hubert Robert. He returned to
Paris in 1763, and exhibited his 'Coresus and
Callirrhoe ' two years later. This picture was given
by the King to the Gobelins to be reproduced in
tapestry, but the artist applied for payment of his
work in vain. He exhibited once more at the
Salon of 1767, but soon deserted the classical style
of painting for that in which he came to excel,
exactly hitting off the corrupt taste of the time.
His famous life-sized portrait of the celebrated
dancer La Guimard, with whom it is alleged he
had tender passages, the preludes to a violent
quarrel, reminds one of his master Boucher, and is
in the collection of M. Groult. Fragonard's work
shows great variety of method, sometimes paint-
ing very rapidly, with a broad free brush, at
other times finishing like a miniature or enamel.
His crayons and water-colour drawings are char-
acterized by a most graceful and light touch. The
beautiful 'Foire de St. Cloud' which hangs in the
dining-room of the Banque de France shows



genuine feeling for the charm and colour of open
air, whilst his 'Gardens at Fontainebleau ' in the
Hertford House collection, which also contains 'The
Fountain of Pleasure' and 'Chances of the Swing 1
(this latter painted for the Baron St. Julien, and
afterwards in the possession of M. de Morny),
is much to be admired. He again visited Italy iu
1773 on the invitation of M. de Bergeret, and the
sketches he then executed are preserved at
Besanjon. The year 1789 brought Fragonard's
brilliant career in Paris suddenly to a close, and
after a brief period of activity, under the protection
of his quondam fellow-pupil, the all-powerful David,
during which he was nominated one of the Con-
servateurs du Musee by the Assembled Nationale,
he retired to Grasse, his birthplace, repeating in
an old house, the Maison Malvilan, his familiar
themes. When he fled from Paris he is said to have
borne with him four works which he had begun
in 1772 for Madame Dubarry's Pavilion of Lou-
veciennes, and these he adapted to the walls of
the principal salon on the ground floor of the house
he inhabited, completing the series by the addition
of a fifth subject. These five paintings were sold
on February 8, 1898, for 50,000, and passing
into the possession of Mr. Pierpoint Morgan, were
exhibited by him at the Guildhall in London in
1902. They represent ' The Lovers' Progress.' The
large canvas, 'Love and the Maiden,' begins the
series. The maiden, weary of wandering alone,
rests and dreams at the foot of a column in the
shadow of a little wood, while Love, hovering above,
seems to beckon from afar the lover pictured by
the girl's fancies. In ' The Surprise of Love ' the
lover appears and finds her seated in her garden,
but she turns from him in fear. ' The Offering of
the Rose ' forms the third of the series. In this the
maiden, thinking herself alone with her little sister,
is suddenly disturbed by the advent of her lover,
who propitiates her anger with a rose. In ' The
Love Letter' the girl and boy read the letter
together whilst he holds her closely embraced.
Overhead the leafy branches cut the blue sky and
luxuriant creepers wind round the feet of a marble
statue. The fifth panel shows 'The Crown of
Love ' bestowed on the lover by his mistress. She
holds it above his head, he kneels to receive it,
whilst in the shadow a third figure sits, a youth,
ready with sketch-book and pencil to immortalize
the happiness of his friend. These pictures were
engraved by Desboutins and reproduced in De
Pourtale's ' Fragonard.' They were his last im-
portant work, and breathe the air of amorous gaiety
which rendered his talent so delightful to the Paris
of his youth. He returned thither but found no
place in the new order, dying poor and obscure at
his lodging at the Louvre on August 22, 1806.
His wife, MARIE ANNE GERARD, to whom he was
married in 1769, was distinguished as a miniature
painter. She was born at Grasse in 1745, and died
in Paris in 1823. An account of Fragonard and of
his works will be found in Lady Dilke's ' French
Painters of the Eighteenth Century.' Among his
chief paintings are the following :
Besancon. The Triumph of Bacchus.

Lille. Museum. Adoration of the Shepherds.

London. Wallace Gall. The Chances of the Swing.
? , The Fountain of Pleasure.

" t Garden of the Chateau of Fon-

tainebleau.

r T, ir ' ( The entire decoration of a room,
J.P.Morgans) painted at Grasse, and once
'"" I belonging to M. de Malvilan.
185



Collection



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Paris. Louvre. Coresug and Callirrhoe.

The Music-Lesson.

A Landscape.

,, The Shepherd's Hour.

The Bathers.

A Sleeping Bacchante.

,, ,, Music.

The Storm.

The Inspiration.

,, M. Grov.lt. L'amour folie.

,, ,, Le coucher des ouvriers.

Baron G.de Rothschild. The Sermon of Love.

*** j The ^meditated Flight.

There are by this artist several etchings from his
own designs, and after various masters, among
which are the following :

The Circumcision ; after Tiepolo.

The Circumcision ; after Sebastiano Eicci.

Christ with the Disciples at Eminaus ; after the same.

The Last Supper ; after the same.

St. Eoch ; after Tintoretto.

The Conception ; after the same.

The Presentation ; after the same.

Four Bacchanalian subjects ; after his own designs.

L'Armoire. 1778.

FRAISINGER, KASPAB, a painter and etcher
of Ingoldstadt, in Bavaria, died at that town
in 1600. The following etchings are by him :

The Virgin. 1595.

The suffering Redeemer attended hy two Angels. 1598.
The suffering Redeemer seated on a Stone. 1599.
The Virgin lamenting over the Dead Body of Christ.
1599.

FRANC.AIS, FRANCOIS Louis, French painter
born at Plombieres (Vosges), November 17, 1814.
Commenced mathematical studies which he could
not continue, but at fifteen years of age went to
Paris, where he became office boy to a librarian.
After five years of hard struggle he was able
to live by his designs, executing wood-cuts for
Editions de luxe, and made himself a name as a
lithographer. He then studied under Gigoux and
Corot, and produced his first landscape at the
Salon of 1837, entitled ' A Song under the Willows,'
painted with H. Baron. He afterwards exhibited
' Antique Garden, Park of St. Cloud,' with figures
by Meissonier. His picture of ' An Italian Sunset '
is in the Luxembourg. Prince Napoleon pur-
chased his 'View at Basmeudon' in 1863. An
occasional portrait, such as that of M. Ilde-
fonse Rousset in 1874; and a decorative panel,
' L'hiver,' for the Beauvais Manufactory in 1888,
varied his long series of landscapes. He gained a
third class medal in 1841, and a first class in 1848.
He also obtained first class medals at the Universal
Exhibitions of 1855 and 1867, also a medal of
honour at that of 1878, and the medal of honour
at the Salon of 1890. Chevalier of the Legion of
honour in July 1853, he was promoted officer
June 29, 1867. Elected a member of the Academy
des Beaux-Arts, replacing Robert Fleury, July 5,
1890, he also became a member of the Institute of
France. He died in Paris in 1897.

FRANCART, GILBERT, a French painter, whose
only known work is a picture of ' St. Sebastian ' in
the church of Bazoches-du-Morvand. It is well
drawn and coloured in the style of Le Brun, and
dated 1661. He was still living in 1692.

FRANCESCA, PIEKO DELLA. See DEI FRAN-
CESCHI.

FRANCESCHI, PAOLO, called PAOLO FIAMMINGO,
was born at Antwerp in 1540, but went when
186



young to Venice, where he became a scholar of
Tintoretto, and resided during the remainder of
his life. He principally excelled in painting land-
scapes, although he sometimes produced historical
subjects. In the church of San Niccolo de' Frari,
at Venice, are two pictures by this master, of ' The
Descent from the Cross,' and ' St. John preaching
in the Wilderness,' and in the Munich Gallery is
'The Dead Christ in the lap of the Virgin.' He
was employed by the Emperor Rudolph II., for
whom he painted several landscapes and other sub-
jects. He died at Venice in 1596.
FRANCESCHIELLO. See LA MURA.
FRANCESCHINI, BALDASSARE, called IL VOL-
TERRANO, the son of Gaspare Franceschini, a
sculptor, was born at Volterra in 1611. He was
called ' II Volterrano giuniore,' to distinguish
him from Daniele Ricciarelli da Volterra, and first
studied under Matteo Rosselli, but he afterwards
became a scholar of Giovanni da San Giovanni.
He is said to have excited the jealousy of that
master, who, having engaged him as his coadjutor
in some works in the Palazzo Pitti, after witnessing
his capacity, thought it prudent to dismiss him.
He was one of the most distinguished fresco
painters of his time, and was more employed in
that line than in easel pictures. He died at
Florence in 1689. His most important productions
are as under :
Bordeaux. Museum. Moses before Pharaoh.

Apollo and Marsyas.

The Apotheosis of Ovid.

Florence. S.Annun:iata. The Coronation of the Virgin.
(Hi* best work.)

., Ducal Palace. Four large paintings, represent-
ing the Deeds of the Medici.

Pitti Palace. Venus.

Sleeping Cupid.

Vffin. St. Peter.

St. Catharine of Siena.

An Augustinian Friar.

S. M. Magyiore. The Ascension of Elijah.

& M. Nuova. St. Louis.

S. Felicita. The Ascension of the Virgin.
Volterra. Convent of ) ~

BadiadiS l Several lar ? e frescoes, repre-
Giusto. ' J Anting Elijah.

S. Ayostino. St. Roch.

The Purification of the Virgin.

FRANCESCHINI, DOMENICO, was an indifferent
Italian engraver, by whom we have a slight etching
o the ' Amphitheatre of Flavius,' dated 1725.

FRANCESCHINI, GIACOMO, the son and scholar
of Marc Antonio Franceschini, was born at Bologna
in 1672. He painted historical pictures in the style
of his father, and there are some of his works in the
churches at Bologna. In Santa Maria Incoronata
is a picture of ' St. Usualdo, St. Margaret, St.
Lucy, and St. Cecilia ' ; in San Simone, ' The
Crucifixion'; and in San Martino, 'St. Anne.'
Franceschini died at Bologna in 1745.

FRANCESCHINI, Cavaliere MARC ANTONIO,
who was the founder of the Upper Italian school,
and whose first performances are to be met with
at Imola, Ozzano, and Piacenza, was born at Bologna
in 1648. From the Academy of Giovanni Maria
Galli he passed into that of Carlo Cignani, of whom
he became the most assiduous assistant. Together
with that master he completed the works in the
Palazzo del Giardino of the Duke Ranuccio II. at
Parma, which were begun by Agostino Carracci.
Franceschini also painted under Cignani at Bologna,
Piacenza, Modena, Reggio, and other places, in
fresco, tempera, and oil. Endowed with such
capacities, Franceschini met with great encourage-



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Brunswick. Gallery.
Copenhagen. Gallery.
Dresden. Gallery.

Edinburgh. Nat"Gall.
Florence. Uffi:i.

Modena. Estense Gall.
Petersburg. Hermitage.
Vienna. Gallery.



ment. In 1702 he painted scenes from the history
of the Republic in the Council-palace at Genoa, and
in 1711 designed at Rome for Pope Clement XL
several cartoons for the mosaics in St. Peter's, for
which he was honoured with the Order of Christ.
On returning to Genoa in 1714, lie executed several
frescoes and paintings in the church of the Padri
Filippini,and in the Pallavicini and Durazzo palaces.
After having adorned the chapel of the Madonna
del Carmine at Crema, in 1716, he returned to
Bologna, and did not let his brush rest until he
was nearly eighty years of age. He died there
in 1729. His principal works at Bologna are a
ceiling in the Palazzo Ranuzzi ; a fine picture of
the 'Annunciation' at the Pinacoteca; the ' Death of
St. Joseph,' in the church of Corpus Domini; 'St.
John in the Isle of Patmos,' in La Carita ; and ' St.
Francis of Sales kneeling before the Virgin and
Infant,' in La Madonna di Galeria. At Rimini, in
the church of the Augustines, is a fine picture of
' St. Thomas of Villanova giving Alms to the
Poor.' His picture of the ' Founders of the Order,'
at the Padri Servi at Bologna ; and his ' Pieta,' at
the Agostini at Imola, painted when he was near
eighty, have no appearance of feebleness or senility.
Other paintings by him are :
Bologna. Pinacoteca. Holy Family.

Joseph and Potiphar's Wife.

Diana as a Huntress.

A Magdalen.

Birth of Adonis.

St. Jerome.

Cupid.

Genii bearing flowers.

The Judgment of Paris.

The penitent Magdalen.
Charity.

St. Charles Borromeo during the

Plague at Milan. 1578.
Venus and Cupid.

Jacob and Rachel.

FRANCESCHINI, VINOENZO, was probably a
relation of Domenico Franceschini. He executed
part of the plates for the 'Museo Fiorentino,'
published in 1748.

FRANCESCHINO. See CARRACCI, FRANCESCO.

FRANCESCHITTO, (or FRANCISQDITO,) is stated
to have been a native of Spain, born at Valladolid
in 1681, and a scholar of Luca Giordano, who was
accustomed to assert that the disciple would surpass
his master. He accompanied that painter to Italy,
on his leaving Madrid, and at Naples gave proof of
the prediction of Luca, in a picture which he
painted for the church of Santa Maria del Monte,
representing ' St. Pasquale,' with a beautiful choir
of angels, and a grand landscape. This promising
artist died at Naples in 1705.

FRANCESCO. See LIECHTENREITER, FRANZ.

FRANCESCO D' ALBERT1NO. See UBERTINI.

FRANCESCO DA COTIGNOLA. See DEI ZAGA-

NELLI.

FRANCESCO DI CRISTOFANO. See BIQI.

FRANCESCO DI GENTILE DA FABRIANO. See
FABRIANO.

FRANCESCO DI GIORGIO, who was born at



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