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gift to the convent of the Carmelites of Sion at
Bruges. This beautiful altar-piece represents the
Virgin and Child seated in the midst of angels and
a company of virgin saints. In the background to
the right the painter has introduced his own figure,
while his wife stands similarly placed on the left.
The convent was suppressed by the Emperor
Joseph in 1783, and the altar-piece sold; it after-
wards passed into the Rouen Museum. David
died on the 13th of August, 1523, as certified by
the register of his burial in Notre-Dame at Bruges,
where he was laid to rest beneath the tower, his
gravestone bearing escutcheons charged with his
own and his wife's arms.

It is not known where Gerard learned his art,
but most probably at Haarlem, or under Dirk
Bouts, but the composition and colouring of his
earliest known pictures show that before settling
in Bruges he had travelled in Italy and come
under the influence of the Venetian school, prob-
ably of Carpaccio. Certain details such as the
amorini, the garlands of fruit and flowers, and the
VIedicean cameos reproduced in these prove him
to have visited Florence. His works were formerly
jften attributed to Memlinc, with whose style they
lave a certain affinity. David lived in Bruges for
'orty years, and received many commissions not
)nly from the magistrates and citizens of that city,
)ut also from France, Italy, Spain, and Portugal.
He is reckoned among the most esteemed Nether-
andish painters, remarkable among other qualities
'or his careful and truthful painting of land-
scape. Some critics suppose indeed that his
andscape backgrounds were executed by Joachim
3 atenir. His best authenticated works are as
follow :


Hanfstangl phot6\ [National Gallery, London



The Judgment of Cambyses, and the Punishment of
Sisamnes ; commissioned by the Magistrates of Bruges
in 1488 and completed in 1498 (note in the Museum
of Bruges).

The Blessed Virgin and Child, SS. Barbara, Mary
Magdalene, and Katherine, and Richard De Visch
Van der Capelle, cantor of the collegiate church of S.
Donatian. It was painted in 1501 for the altar of S.
Katherine in that church.

A Canon protected by three Saints (now in the National
Gallery). This painting was formerly the right wing
of an altar-piece in the church of S. Donatian at
Bruges. It was completed in 1501-2 for a certain
Bernardin de Salviatis, the illegitimate son of a rich
Florentine merchant, who held the office of Canon in
the church, and is represented with three patron
saints SS. Donatian, Bernardine of Siena, anil
Martin of Tours. The landscape background in this
picture is a good example of his treatment ; indeed,
the picture altogether affords English students an
excellent opportunity of judging this master, for it
is a characteristic work, and well preserved.

The Baptism of Christ ; a fine triptych, containing
portraits of the donor's family. 1501-8 (in the
Museum of Bruges).

The Assumption of the Blessed Virgin, S. Andrew, and
S. Katherine (at Grancey le Chdtfau ; Cite if Or).

The Virgin and Child, with Saints (altar-piece, in the
Rouen Museum).

S. Michael expelling the fallen angels from heaven;
SS. Jerome, Anthony of Padua, Sebastian, Julitta,
and Cyriacus (Imperial Gallery, Titnna).

Palma, in Majorca (now in the possession of Lady

The Blessed Virgin and Child enthroned ; S. Jerome

and S. Benedict (Municipal Palace, Genoa).
The Carriage of the Cross and the Resurrection ; on

the reverse, the Annunciation, in grisaille (in the

possession of M. B. Kann, Paris).
The Deposition from the Cross; a triptych in the

church of S. Basil at Bruges (authenticity contested).

These are about the only paintings that can with
certainty be attributed to David, although many
others are now assigned to him by critics.

Bibliography: Weale : ' Le Beffroi,' vols. i., ii.,
and iii. ; ' Gazette des Beaux Arts,' vols. xx. and
xxi. ; ' Gerard David, Painter and Illuminator,'
London, 1895. W. H. J. W.

DAVID, JACQUES LOOTS, an eminent Frenth his-
torical painter, was born at Paris in 1748. His father
lost his life in a duel, and the care of his early years
devolved on his mother, who intended that he
should follow the profession of an architect. By
the advice, however, of his uncle Boucher, from
whom he received his first instruction, he became
a pupil of Vien at the age of twenty-one. His
master does not appear to have behaved altogether
well to him, for, owing- to pique, he prevented his
obtaining the 'prix de Rome' in 1771. In the two
following years he competed unsuccessfully, and
it was not till 1774 that lie obtained the blue ribbon
of French art. In the next year he set out for
Rome, accompanying Vien, who had just been ap-
pointed director of the French Academy in that
city. While in Italy he painted but few pictures,
directing his attention sedulously to drawing from
the antique. He returned to France in 1780, and
his ' Belisarius ' procured his election at the Academy,
for his admission into which, in 1783, he painted the
' Death of Hector.' Shortly afterwards he married,
and again visited Italy, and also Flanders. It wag
during this period that he painted ' The Oath of
the Horatii,' ' Brutus,' and other works of a similar
character, which were the first steps in the classic
movement of which he was the prophet, and which

exercised an influence, not only on the politics,
but even on the furniture and passing fashions
of the day. Elected in 1792 a representative of
Paris in the Convention, he sided with the extreme
party of Robespierre, after whose fall he was twice
thrown into prison, and narrowly escaped with
his life. On his release, in 1795, he considered
it prudent to abandon politics, and to devote him-
self to art. He was one of the original members
of the Institute, in connection with which he be-
came acquainted with the first Napoleon, who ever
proved himself his warm friend and patron. He
made David his first painter, and gave him many
important commissions, such as the pictures of his
' Coronation,' the ' Distribution of the Eagles,' &c.
This friendship effected a strange metamorphosis
in the politics of the painter, for from an ardent
republican he became an equally staTfch imperialist,
so that, on the restoration of the Bourbons, he
Bought refuge at Brussels. In this city he remained,
notwithstanding an offer from the King of Prussia
of the directorship of Fine Arts at Berlin, until his
death in 1825. The influence of David on the
French schoul was very great. He rescued it from
the littleness and trivialities to which it had been
reduced by the followers of the Watteau school ;
but, on the other hand, he established a despotism,
which in several respects was baneful to the pro-
gress of art. For many years he reigned with an
absolute supremacy, and amongst his pupils and
disciples were Girodet, Gros, Gerard, the elder
Isabey, Leopold Robert, Abel de Pujol, and Ingres.
It was not until the rise of the Romantic school,
under the leadership of Gericault and Delacroix,
that any real opposition was offered to the all-
prevalent classicism. David's chief excellence is
in the correctness of his drawing, which, however,
it must be said, frequently becomes hard and
statuesque, whilst his weakness is most apparent
in his treatment of light and in his colouring, which
is monotonous and frequently unpleasant. The
following is a list of hie chief works :

Avignon, Museum, Death of Joseph Barra. Cher-
bourg, Museum, Philoctetes in the Island of Lemnos.
Dublin, National Gallery, Death of Milo. Lille,
Museum, Belisarius asking alms, 1780. Montpellier,
Museum, Portrait of Alphonse Leroy ; Portrait of
M. de Joubert (sketch) ; Three studies. Nantes,
Museum, Death of Cleonice (sketch). Paris, Louvre,
Leonidas at Thermopylae, 1814 ; The Sabine Women,
1799 ; The Oath of the Horatii, 1784 ; Brutus, 1789 ;
Belisarius asking alms, 1784 ; Combat of Minerva and
Mars, 1711; The Loves of Paris and Helen, 1788;
Academic figure, 1779; Portrait of himself when
young (sketch) ; Portrait of M. Pecoul, 1783 ; Portrait
of Madame Pecoul ; Portrait of Pope Pius VII., 1805 ;
Portrait of Madame Recamier (sketch) ; Portrait of
Bailly (sketch) ; Comidie Fran/;aise, Portrait of
Mademoiselle Joly. Rouen, Museum, Portrait of
Mme. Vigee Le Brun. Valence, Museum, Ugolino.
Versailles, Museum, Bonaparte crossing Mount St.
Bernard, 1805; The Coronation of Napoleon I. and
the Empress Josephine, 1808 ; The Oath of the
Army at the Champ de Mars, 1810; Portrait of
Barere (unfinished), 1790 ; Portrait of Pius VII. (a
replica of the Louvre picture). Warwick, Castle,
Portrait of Napoleon I. 0. J. D.

DAVID, JEAN Loois, a French painter in water-
colours, was born in Paris in 1791. He executed
chiefly military subjects and landscapes, and died
in Paris in 1868.

DAVID, JEROME, a French engraver, brother to
Charles David, was born in Paris about the year
1638, and died at Rome about 1670. He engraved
a considerable number of plates in the same style



as his brother, many of them being portraits. The
work of the two brothers consists of about two
hundred and twenty prints. Jerome marked his
plates either with the letters H. D. F., or with the

cipher T fft or t*M) We have by him :

r ranee. i>aston, JJUKC or urieans. ^arumai
Richelieu. Giovanni Battista Montano, sculptor,
1621. The Heads of the Philosophers, thirty-six
plates from his own designs. Adam and Eve driven
from Paradise ; after himself. Christ bearing the
Cross; after Ercole Ferrata, 1630. Ecce Homo;
after Guercino. The Virgin of the Rosary ; after
Guido, 1633. The Assumption of the Virgin ; after
Camillo Procaccino. St. Francis of Paolo ; after
Eobert Picon.

DAVID, LODOVICO ANTONIO, was born at Lugano
in 1648. After studying for some time at Milan,
under the Cavaliere Cairo and Ercole Procaccini, he
went to Bologna, where he entered the school of
Carlo Cignani. In the church of San Silvestro, in
Venice, is a picture by him of the Nativity.

DAVID, Louis, a French engraver, was a native
of Avignon, who worked there and at
Rome from 16(35 to 1706. We have by
him an upright plate of the ' Descent
from the Cross,' marked with the cipher

DAVID, MAXIME, a French miniature painter,
was born at Chalons-sur-Marne in 1798. He was
a pupil of Madame de Mirbel, and died at Passy in
1870. Three portraits of Abd-el-Kader by him are
in the Luxembourg.

DAVIDSON, GEORGE DUTCH, the only child of
Dundee parents, was born in 1879. A severe ill-
ness in his seventeenth year left him an invalid,
and for amusement he attended drawing classes.
Enthusiastic in his new interest, he worked as
hard as strength permitted, drawing from the
antique and from life, and, in 1898, completed in
water-colour his first symbolical design, ' Envy.'
He studied Celtic ornament, and its spirit appears
in several designs. In 1899 he visited London,
where the early Italian masters and the Greek
| vases most impressed him. After a short resi-
dence in Antwerp he went to Italy and remained
some months, chiefly in Florence. Cimabue, Gaddi,
Memmi, Giotto, and Angelico were his constant
study. On his return he took a studio in Dundee,
and worked happily for a few months until, quite
suddenly, he died, early in January 1901. His
character was one of great sweetness, and his work
corresponds. Refined and delicate pen drawings,
a few lovely water-colours instinct with the early
Italian spirit, and designs for embroidery make up
a life-work of rare accomplishment and yet
rarer promise. Ancient stories and beliefs, Omar
Khayyam, and Celtic romance furnished his chief
subjects. A memorial volume with collotype re-
productions of his works was published in Dundee
in 1902. j. H. W. L

DAVIDSON, JEREMIAH, a Scottish portrait
painter, was born in England, of Scotch parentage,
about 1695. He had a large practice both in Edin-
burgh and in London, and died in 1745. A por-
trait of Richard Cooper, the engraver, by him, is
in the National Gallery of Scotland, and a por-
trait of Admiral Byng is in Greenwich Hospital.
Roubiliac's statue of President Forbes in the
Parliament House, Edinburgh, is after a portrait
by him.



painter of portraits and miniatures, whose maiden
name was Mirvault, was born in Paris in 1773.
She studied under Suve'e, David, and Augustin,
and afterwards established a school of drawing
and painting, in which she had many pupils.
Madame Davin died in Paris in 1844.


DAVIS, J. P., a portrait and subject painter,
first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1811. In
1824 he went to Rome, and painted 'The Talbot
Family receiving the Papal Benediction : ' whence
his cognomen of ' Pope Davis.' He next year
received a prize of 50 from the British Institution.
With his friend Haydon, he was a great opponent
of the Academy, where he did not exhibit after
1843. He died in 1862, and after his death was
published his 'Thoughts on Great Painters.' His
best-known work is ' The Love-Letter,' exhibited
at the British Institution in 1826.

DAVIS. JOHN SCARLETT, a subject painter, was
born at Hereford in the beginning of the 19th
century. He studied and spent much time abroad.
He first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1825
with ' My Den,' and his views of the interiors of
public buildings had considerable success ; but he
fell into dissipated habits, and died soon after 1841.
At the South Kensington Museum is a water-colour
drawing by him of the ' Porte St. Martin, Paris.'

DAVIS, RICHARD BARRETT, an animal and land-
scape painter, was born at Watford in 1782. He
studied under Evans of Eton, under Beechey,
and in the schools of the Royal Academy, where
he first exhibited in 1802. He joined the Society
of British Artists in 1829, and was appointed
animal painter to William IV. in 1831. He died
in 1854. Amongst his works are :

Mares and Foals from the Royal Stud, 1806. Going
to Market, 1814. Horse Fair, 1821. Travellers
attacked by Wolves, 1831. Near Virginia Water
(South Kensington).

DAVIS, WILLIAM, a landscape painter, was born
at Dublin in 1812. Having studied at the Dublin
Academy of Arts, he afterwards came to Liverpool,
where he at first practised as a portrait-painter.
After some time he was elected a member of the
Liverpool Academy, in which institution he was
appointed Professor of Painting, having by this
date almost entirely devoted himself to landscape.
He exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1851, and
was from that time an occasional contributor. A
picture by him called 'Harrowing' was also in the
International Exhibition of 1862. His landscapes
show a truthful feeling for nature, and are highly
finished, though somewhat varying in merit. He
died in London in 1873.

DAWE, GEORGE, a portrait painter, was born in
London in 1781. He was the son of Philip Dawe,
the mezzotint-engraver, by whom he was brought
up to his own branch of art, but he abandoned it
for painting, after having executed a few plates of
great merit. In 1819 he went to Russia, where
he painted for the Emperor about 400 portraits
of the chiefs of the Russian army, who had, with
the assistance of the snow, vanquished Napoleon.
He became an Associate of the Royal Academy in
1809, and an Academician in 1814. He made
much money by his expedition to Russia, but did
not live to enjoy it ; for he died six weeks after
his return to England in 1829, and was buried in
St. Paul's Cathedral. His portraits are reckoned
good likenesses of the persons, but not expressive
of character.


t '










DA WE, HENRY, an engraver and subject painter,
was born at Kentish Town, near London, in 1790.
He was taught by his father, Philip Dawe, the
engraver, and he also studied in the schools of the
Royal Academy. He assisted Turner in the ' Liber
Studiorum,' and mezzotinted many of his brother's
portraits. As a painter, he exhibited at the Society
of British Artists, of which he was elected a member
in 1830. He died at Windsor in 1848.

DA WE, PHILIP, an engraver in mezzotint, worked
under Hogarth about 1760, and must have died
about the end of the century. He engraved several
subjects after George Henry Norland, and among
other portraits by him we have those of Mrs.
Yates, in the character of Electra, after Cotes, and
Admiral Sir Charles Hardy, after Hudson.

DAWSON, HENRY, a landscape painter, was
born in Hull in 1811, but came with his parents
to Nottingham when an infant, so that he always
regarded the latter as his native town. His parents
were poor, and he began life in a Nottingham lace
factory. But even while engaged in lace-making
he continued to find time for art, and used to paint
small pictures, which he sold at first for about half-
a-crown each. In 1835 he gave up the lace trade
and set up as an artist, his earliest patron being
a hairdresser in Nottingham, who possessed a taste
for art. In 1844 he removed to Liverpool, where
after a time he got into greater repute, and received
higher prices for his works. In 1849 he came with
his family to London, and settled at Croydon, where
some of his best pictures were painted. Among
these may be reckoned ' The Wooden Walls of Old
England,' exhibited at the British Institution in
1853, ' The Rainbow,' ' The Rainbow at Sea.' ' London
Bridge,' and 'London at Sunrise.' With the ex-
ception of six lessons from Pyne received in 1838,
Henry Dawson was entirely a self-taught artist, and
his art shows much originality and careful realism.
He studied nature for himself, but he seems in
later life to have been moved by Turner's influence
to try more brilliant effects than he had before
dared. Many of his works indeed are very Turner-
esque in treatment, though he can scarcely be called
an imitator of Turner, for he had a distinct style of
his own. Henry Dawson, though painting much,
and selling his pictures for high prices in his later
life, remained, strange to say, very little known
except to artists and connoisseurs until the large
and very interesting collection of his works that
was made for the Nottingham Exhibition in 1878
brought him wider fame. This exhibition showed
him to be a genuine English landscape painter, of
no great imaginative or intellectual power, but
who delighted in nature, and represented her faith-
fully to the best of his ability. He died in Decem-
ber, 1878, at Chiswick, where he had for some time
resided. M.M.H.

DAX, PAUL, was born in 1503, in the Tyrol. He
led a very unsteady life, and after having gained
reputation as a painter, he gave up art, and entered
the army, engaging in several campaigns and
the sieges of Naples, Florence, and Vienna. In
1530 he devoted himself to glass-painting, and his
works, which are of considerable merit, are now in
the court-house of Innsbruck, and in the town-hall
at Ensisheim, Alsace. He also published several
maps of his country. His death occurred in 1561.
DAY, ALEXANDER, a miniature painter, was born
in 1772. He resided for several years in Rome,
whence he brought with him on his return to Eng-
land in 1800 many fine works by the old masters,

which passed into the Angerstein and other collec-
tions. Among these were Titian's ' Rape of Gany-
mede and 'Venus and Adonis,' Raphael's ' St. Catha-
rine ' and ' Madonna. Infant Christ, and St. John '
(the Garvagh Raphael), Leonardo da Vinci's ' Christ
disputing with the Doctors,' Domenichino's 'St.
Jerome and the Angel,' Annibale Carracci's ' Christ
appearing to Simon Peter after his Resurrection,'
and Gaspard Poussin's 'Landscape with Abraham
and Isaac,' which are now in the National Gallery.
His miniatures of ladies are particularly graceful
He died at Chelsea in 1841.

DAY, THOMAS, a miniature painter, exhibited at
the Royal Academy between the years 1772 and
1778. He also painted water-colour landscapes and
drew crayon portraits.

DAYES, EDWARD, a water-colour painter, was

born in 1763. He studied under W. Pether, and

first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1786. His

works are topographical, drawn in Indian ink, and

tinted, with figures introduced. He also painted

miniatures, and engraved in mezzotint. He died

by his own hand in 1804. Amongst his works are :

The Royal Procession to St. Paul's in 1789. The Trial

of Warren Hastings. Buckingham House, 1790. Ely

Cathedral, 1792. Windermere. Keswick Lake. View

of Bath (all at South Kensington).

His wife, who exhibited repeatedly at the Royal

Academy, was also a painter of miniatures.

DEAN, HUGH PEIMBOSE, a landscape painter,
was born in Ireland towards the middle of the
18th century, and was known as the ' Irish Claude.'
Assisted by Lord Palmerston, he spent several
years in Italy, returning in 1779. He was of un-
principled character, and in his latter years his art
failed him. He died about 1784. Amongst the
works he exhibited at the Spring Gardens Exhibi-
tion and at the Royal Academy were :
View of the Danube, 1768. View of Naples, 1775.
Morning, 1778. Evening, 1778. Eruption of Mount
Vesuvius, 1779. The Banks of the Tiber, 1780.
DEAN, JOHN, an engraver in mezzotint, was a
pupil of Valentine Green. He scraped several
plates of portraits and other subjects in a very
respectable style, and died in London in 1798. The
Following are among his best works :
James, Earl of Abercorn : George, Lord Vernon ; after
Gainsborough. James Caulfield, Earl of Charlemont ;
after Liresy. The son of Sir Watkin Williams
Wynne, when a child, as St. John ; Lady Elizabeth
Herbert, afterwards Countess of Carnarvon, with
her son ; Lady Gertrude Fitzpatrick ; after Sir
Joshua Reynolds. Elizabeth Hamilton, Countess of
Derby ; after Romney. The Four Evangelists ; after
Rubens and Jordaens. St. Anthony of Padua after

DEANE, WILLIAM WOOD, an architectural water-
colour painter, was born at Islington in 1825. He
entered the schools of the Royal Academy in 1844,
where he gained the silver medal of that year.
He was at the same time a member of the Insti-
tute of British Architects, from which association
be received two premiums. Having travelled in
Italy, he exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1853
a view of ' St. Peter's, Rome,' arid continued for
many years an occasional contributor of archi-
tectural subjects treated in a pictorial manner. In
1863 he relinquished the profession of an architect,
which he had pursued, not very successfully, and
aecame an Associate of the Institute of Painters in
Water-Colours, of which in 1867 he was made a
member. Here he exhibited until 1870, when he
resigned, and in the following year became an



Associate of the old ' Society of Painters in Water-
Colours.' He died in 1873. His pictures display
individuality and sympathetic blending of colours.

DEARMAN, THOMAS, a landscape and cattle
painter, exhibited at the Royal Academy between
1842 and 1856. He lived at Shere, near Guildford,
and died young about 1857.


DE BACKER, FRANS, was a painter of historical
subjects and portraits, who practised in Italy and
Germany as a portrait painter and engraver from
about 1704 to 1752, but it is uncertain whether he
belonged to the Dutch or Flemish families of this
name. There are a ' Death of Abel,' after Schoon-
jans, and a portrait of William V., Prince of Orange,
after A. Rotterdam, engraved by him. His own
Portrait, painted by himself at Rome in 1721, is
in the Uffizi at Florence.

DE BACKER, JAQUES, a Flemish historical paint-
er, who was born at Antwerp in 1530, was the son
of an artist of no great celebrity, from whom he
received his instruction in art. His father dying
when he was young, he was taken into the employ-
ment of a dealer in pictures, named Palermo ; on
which account he was sometimes called Jacopo
Palermo. Whilst in the employment of this person,
he gained a great facility of handling, and, from
the practice of copying the works of the great
masters, became an excellent colourist. He, how-
ever, painted several historical pictures from his
own designs, which are highly praised by Van
Mander, who states him to have been one of the
most promising young painters of his time. Three
works, which he particularly commends, represent
' Adam and Eve,' a ' Charity,' and the ' Crucifixion.'
The altar-piece of the chapel of the Plantin family,
in the cathedral at Antwerp, was painted by this
artist : it represents the ' Last Judgment,' and is

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