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Siena in 1439, was more famous as an architect and
an engineer than as a painter. His paintings are
cold and unrelieved, and the strange conceits in his
composition are both surprising and unpleasant.
Six or eight panels by him are still in the Academy
of Siena, and there is an altar-piece by him with
scenes from the life of ' St. Benedict ' in the Uftizi
at Florence. His brilliant successes in the laying

out of _ fortresses, and in the invention of means
for their attack and reduction, were only surpassed
by Leonardo da Vinci, whom he met in 1490 at
Pavia. He died in 1502

FRANCESCO DI GIOVANNI, who lived at Flor-
ence in the 15th century, is the author of a ' Dead
Christ,' painted in 1491, and now in one of the
chapels of the Pieve of that city. He had a son
named Raffiaello, who finished an altar-piece ordered
of his father in 1504 by the church of Empoli.
It represents the ' Deposition from the Cross,' and
is now in the Uffizi Gallery at Florence.



FRANCESCO DI STEFANO, commonly called
PESELLINO, to distinguish him from his grandfather
Pesello, was born at Florence in 1422. His father,
Stefano, who was a painter, died before 1427, and
left his widow, the daughter of Pesello, in poor
circumstances. It thus happened that the young
Francesco was brought up by his grandfather, with
whom he remained till the old man died, in 1446,
when he continued to carry on the business in the
atelier till he himself died young, in 1457, at
Florence. In his works he, to some extent, copied
the style of Filippo Lippi, and the predella of an
altar-piece by that artist in the Florence Academy
is said to be by him:

The following are the works usually ascribed to
Peeellino :

Florence. Academy. The Nativity; Miracle of St.
Anthony of Padua; Martyr-
dom of St. Cosmo and St.
Darnian. (Part of the predella
of the ( Virgin and Sttints '
by Filippo Lippi, also in the

Buonarroti ) Three scenes from the Life of St.

Coll. J Nicholas. (Predella from the
Cappella Cavalcanti, in Santa
Croce, Florence.)

\ Meeting of David and Goliath
) (cassone).
David Triumphant (cassone).


Santo Spirito
(formerly the
sisterhood of 8.


Frankfort. Stddel.

Liverpool. Gallery.



Nat. Gall.


Virgin and Child.

St. Bernardino preaching in the
Cathedral at Florence.

A Trinita (from the church of
the Trinita, Pistoja).

St. Francis receiving the Stig-
mata; St. Cosmo and St.
Damian healing a sick man.
(Part of the predella of the
* Virgin and Saints ' by Filippo
Lippi, in the Academy, Flor-

The Nativity. (Ascribed in the
catalogue to Filippo Lippi, but
Crowe and Cavalcaselle attri-
bute it to Pesellino.)

Two Scenes from the Life of St.



FRANCHI, ANTONIO, an Italian historical painter,
was born at Lucca in 1634, and settled at Florence.
He was a scholar of Baldassare Franceschini,
called II Volterrano, though he rather followed the
style of Pietro da Cortona. His picture of ' St.
Joseph of Calasanzio,' in the church of the Padri
Scolopi, is admired for the correctness of its de-
sign and the vigour of its effect. His best work,


Rome. Doria Palace.


'Christ giving the Keys to St. Peter,' is in the
parochial church of Caporgnano near Lucca. He
was employed by the Grand-Duke of Tuscany, for
whom, as well as for private collections, he painted
several easel pictures. He wrote a book on art,
entitled ' La Teorica della Pittura,' printed at
Lucca thirty years after his death. He died in
1709. His son and daughter, GIUSEPPE and MAR-
GHEBITA, also became artists.

FRANCHI, CESARE, who gained repute by
painting figures of a small size, was a native of
Perugia, and was instructed by Giulio Cesare
Angeli. Franchi died in 1615.

FRANCHI, LORENZO, was born at Bologna about
1563, and was instructed by Camillo Procaccini ;
but after leaving that master he attached himself
to the manner of the Carracci, whose works he
copied, or imitated in small. He became eminent
in this way ; but the masters he chose for his
models have the credit of the performance, and
the name of Lorenzo Franchi is scarcely recog-
nized out of his own country. He died about

FRANCHINI, NiccoLd, who was born at Siena
in 1704, and died in 1783, was a son of the sculptor
Giacomo Franchini. Among his pictures in Siena
are ' St. Francis of Sales,' in the Baptistery (now
San Giovanni) ; ' St. Christopher,' in Sant' Agostino ;
and the ' Death of the Virgin,' in San Giorgio.
FRANCI, FRANCESCO, who was born at Siena in
1658, and died there in 1721, has left in that city
a number of pictures, among which may be named
' St. Jerome,' at the church of Fonte Giusta, and a
'Last Supper' in the refectory of the Osservanti.

FRANCIA, DOMENICO, a painter and architect,
born at Bologna in 1702, was a son of the engraver
Francesco Maria Domenico Francia, and studied
under Ferdinando Galli (called Bibiena), whom
he assisted in his paintings at Vienna. He was
afterwards appointed builderto the King of Sweden,
and on the expiration of this service painted at
other European courts. He died in 1758.


FRANCIA, FRANgois Louis THOMAS, a water-
colour landscape painter, was born at Calais in
1772. In early life he settled in London, and
exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1795 to 1822.
He attained considerable reputation, and was ap-
pointed water-colour painter to the Duchess of York.
He was an unsuccessful candidate for the associate-
ship of the Academy in 1816, and shortly after-
wards returned to his native place, where he died
in 1839. There are nine of his works in the South
Kensington Museum.


FRANCIA, PIETRO, was a native of Florence
who painted for the catafalque of Michelangelo a
work representing that artist standing before Pope
Pius IV., holding in his hands the model of the
cupola of St. Peter's at Rome, 1563. Alessandro
del Barbiere was his pupil.


FRANCIONE, PEDRO, was a Spanish artist who
flourished about the year 1521, and whose works
are to be found at Naples.








in 1627, was instructed by his father, Hans Ulrich
Franck. He died at Augsburg in 1687. The
following productions are by him :

Augsburg. St. Anna. The History of Jacob and Esau.

Carlsruhe. Ducal Pal. The Passage of the Red Sea.

Mannheim. Gallery. The Israelites after the Passage

through the Red Sea.

,, ,, A Saloon of Pictures and An-


Ratisbon. Cathedral. St. Francis dying.

Vienna. Gallery. Portrait of a Man.


FRANCK, HANS ULRICH, a German historical
painter and etcher, was born at Kaufbeuren, in
Swabia, in 1603. He resided chiefly at Augsburg,
where he died in 1680. Among other engravings
the following are by him :

Twenty-five plates of scenes in Military Life. 1656.
The Meeting of David and Abigail.
Alexander and the dying Darius. 1644.

FRANCK, JAN WILLEM, a Dutch painter of
flowers, birds, and fruit, was born at the Hague in
1720. He copied after Berchem, Potter, Wynants,
Van de Velde, Van Huysum, &c., and died at the
Hague in 1761.

FRANCK, JOHANN, an engraver, was the son
of Hans Ulrich Franck. He engraved several
portraits for the booksellers, of which are some
of those in Priorato's ' Historia di Leopoldo Ce-
sare,' 1670 ; and in conjunction with Susanna
Sandrart and J. Meyer, he engraved a set of plates
of the gardens and fountains in the vicinity of

FRANCK, JOSEPH, a Belgian line-engraver, was
born at Brussels in 1825. He was a pupil of Cala-
matta, and engraved many portraits and other
plates after ancient find modern masters, besides
which he completed the engraving of Rubens's
' Descent from the Cross,' which had been left
unfinished by Erin Corr. He died in 1883. His
principal works are :

The Virgin with the Lily ; after Leonardo da Vinci.

The Entombment of Christ ; after Quentin Massys.

A Pieta ; after Van Dyck.

The Prisoner ; after Gerome.

Paul and Virginia; after Van Leriua.

La Glycine ; after Portaels.

Meditation ; after A . Robert.

FRANCKALLS, BAPTIST, an obscure engraver,
is mentioned by Florent Le Comte, who says he
excelled in engraving tournaments, theatrical
scenes, and magnificent decorations.

FRANCKEN (or, as it is sometimes written,
FRANCE,) is the name of a numerous family of
Flemish painters, whose works are found in many
of the public galleries of Europe. Owing to the
fact that they all painted much in the same style
as Frans Francken the elder, who was a pupil of
Frans Floris, and the chief of the family, their
works have doubtless been ascribed in some cases

Nicolaes Francken
(1520?- 1596)

Hieronymus I.

Frans I.

Ambrosius I.

Hieronymua 1L

Frans II

Frans III.

Ambrosius II.
(? 1632)

Hieronymus ILL



FRANCKEN, AMBROSIUS, the elder, a younger
son of Nicolaes Francken, was born at Herenthals,
in 1544. He was instructed in the art of painting
by Marten De Vos, or, according to other writers,
by Frans Floris. About the year 1570 he visited
France, and in 1573 became a master, and in
1581-82 the dean of the Guild of St. Luke at
Antwerp. Though his productions are too over-
charged in every respect, Ambrosius possessed a
fecundity and warmth of invention which was
superior to that of his brothers. He died at Ant-
werp in 1618. His most important works are the
following :
Antwerp. Gallery. Martyrdom of St. Crispin and

St. Crispinian.

Scenes from the Lives and

Martyrdom of St. Cosmo and

St. Damian. (The winys of a


Scenes from the Life of St.

The Miracle of the Loaves and

Fishes. 1598.

The Last Supper. (A triptych.)

The Disciples at Emmaus. (The

left winy of the above triptych.)
Melchizedek sacrificing. (The

reverse of the same.)

j, The Ordination of St. Paul and

St. Barnabas. (The right wing
of the above triptych.)
., Visit of the Angel to Elijah. (The

reverse of the same.)

Scenes from the Life of St.

George. (The wings of a trip-
,. St. George and St. Margaret.

(The reverses of the above.)

The Martyrdom of St. Catharine.

a St. Jacques. Christ raising the Daughter of

jj St. Jacques. Christ and the Adulteress.

(The two laterals of an altar-piece

painted in 1600.)

Christ on the Mount of Olives

with the Disciples. (The reverse

of both wings.)

Dresden. Gallery. Mary, the Queen of Heaven.

FRANCKEN, AMBROSIUS, called the younger,
to distinguish him from his uncle of the same
name, was born at Antwerp in the latter part of
the 16th century. He studied under his father,
Frans Francken the elder, whose style he imi-
tated. In 1624 he was registered as a master in
the Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp, and he is said
to have painted some time in Louvain. He died
in 1632. Little else is known of him.

FRANCKEN, CONSTANTINDS, a skilful painter of
siege and battle scenes, born at Antwerp in 1661,
was the son of Hieronymus Francken the third,
and grandson of Frans Francken the younger.
In 1694 he became dean of the Guild of St. Luke.
' The Siege of Namur,' with William III. and his
generals, is by some considered his best work.
He died at Antwerp in 1717.

FRANCKEN, FRANS, the elder, the second son
of Nicolaes Francken, was born at Herenthals in
1542, and learned painting in the school of Frans
Floris. In 1567 he received the freedom of the
city of Antwerp, and became a master in the Guild
of St. Luke, of which he was dean in 1588-89. He
possessed great ability in design and in colouring,
but his pictures are wanting in depth and spirit.
After 1597 he signed his paintings D o F. (den
Widen Frans), ' the elder Francis.' He died at
Antwerp in 1616. His portrait has been etched
by Van Dyck. Among his pupils were his sons.

Hieronymus, Frans, and Ambrosius Francken, G.
Goltzius, Jan De Waal, and Herman van der
Maest. The following are among his principal
works :

Amsterdam. Museum.

Antwerp. Gallery.

Berlin. Gallery.

Brunswick. Gallery.

Darmstadt. Gallery.

> >'

Dresden. Gallery.




Nat. Gall.





The Holy Family.

Eteocles and Polynicefl.
Christ on the Cross.

Overthrow of Pharaoh in the
Red Sea.

Neptune and Galatea.

King Midas.

The Opening of Joseph's Coffin.

The Adoration of the Magi.

The King's Marriage Feast.

Christ stripped of His Garments.

Esther before Ahasuerus.

Christ going to Calvary. 1597.

The Flight into Egypt.

Innocence and Slander.

The Creation of Eve.

The Creation of Animals.

St. Christopher and the Infant

The Procession to Calvary.

Christ on the Mount of Olives.

A Banquet, with Musicians.

Esther appearing before Ahas-

Gallery. The Seven Works of Mercy.



The Annunciation to the Shep-

The Sacrifice at Lystra.
Museum. Lazarus and Dives.
Gallery. The "Wise Men presenting their


Gallery. A Saloon with Pictures.
A Cavalier leading a Lady out to

The Scourging of Jesus.

FRANCKEN, FRANS, the younger, called DON
FRANCISCO, was a younger son of Frans Francken
the elder, and was born at Antwerp in 1581. He
was instructed in the art by his father, whose
style he followed for some time. He afterwards
visited Italy, and resided chiefly at Venice, where
he studied the works of the great colourists of
that school. After an absence of three years he
returned to Antwerp, and in 1605 was received
into the Guild of St. Luke, of which he was
dean in 1614-15. He died at Antwerp in 1642.
His paintings represent scenes from the Bible and
mythology, allegories, balls, masquerades, festi-
vals, and landscapes, with figures of a small size.
The figures in the works of the younger De
Momper, the elder Neeffs, and Bartelmees van
Bassen were inserted by him. He was undoubtedly
superior in design, colouring, and expression to
his brothers Ambrosius and Hieronymus, and
even to his father. Before his father's death he
signed D. j. F. (den jongen Frans), but after-
wards D. o. F. (den ouden Frans), to distinguish
himself from his nephew. Among his works are
the following :
Amsterdam. Museum. The Adoration of the Virgin and

Child. 1616.
Antwerp. Gallery. The Miracles at the Tomb of St.


The Martyrdom of the Four with
the Crowns. 1624.
The Works of Mercy. 1608.

Auesburg. Gallery. Seven paintings: Christ with
Martha and Mary ; Christ bear-
ing the Cross, &c.
The Continence of Scipio.

Berlin! Gallery. The Temptation of St. Anthony.

Christ washing the Apostles' Feet.
Christ on the Mount of Olives.






Dresden. Gallery.

Florence. Ufflzi.

Pitti Pal.

Hague. Museum.






Solon and Crcesus.

Christ at Calvary.

Different ways of gaining Im-

Crcesus, King of Lydia, showing
his treasures to Solon.

A Holy Family.

The Adoration of the Virgin.

The Kiss of Judas.

The Painter Apelles.

The Adulteress before Christ.

Flight into Egypt.

Christ on the way to Calvary.

Ball at the Court of Albert and
Isabella in 1611. (Seven fgures
are by the younger Pourlus.)

Jesus going to Calvary.

A Skirmish of Cavalry. 1631.

The Works of Mercy. 1630.

Allegorical Picture.

Christ on the Cross.

A Prince visiting a Church. 1633.

The Prodigal Son. 1633.

Seven Works of Mercy.

The Witches' Sabbath. 1607.

Christ crucified. 1606.
>, Meeting of Christ and Nicodemus.

Cro3sus and Solon.

FRANCKEN, FBANS, the third, called 'den
rubenschen Francken ' (Rubens's Francken), but
for what reason is not known, was a son of Frans
Francken the younger. He was bom at Antwerp
in 1607, and became dean of the Guild of St. Luke
in 1655 He usually painted small figures, with
which he often decorated the interiors of churches
by the younger Pieter Neeffs. Before the death
of his uncle he signed his paintings denjonge, and
after 1642, F. F. He died in 1667. The following
works by him are known :

Antwerp. Gallery. Family Group in a Picture Gal-

Augsburg. Gallery. St. John preaching.

Moses striking the Rock. 1654.

Dresden. Gallery. Interior of Antwerp Cathedral.

Petersburg. Hermitage.
Vienna. Gallery.


Gallery. Interior of a Cathedral. (Signed
ty him and Pieter Neeffs!)

FRANCKEN, GABRIEL, a son of Sebastiaen
Francken, of whom it is only known that he was
a pupil of one Gerard Schoofs in 1605, and a mem-
ber of the Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp in 1634.

FRANCKEN, HIERONYHDS, the elder, the eldest
son of Nicolaes Francken, was born at Herenthals,
near Antwerp, in 1540, and was a disciple of
Frans Floris. He afterwards visited France on
his way to Italy, and passed some time in Paris ;
he painted in 1565 at Fontainebleau, and about
the same time, in the church of the Augustinians
in Paris, a 'Crucifixion.' He afterwards went to
Rome, where he studied for some time, and then
returned to Paris. He was employed by Henry
III., and was appointed portrait painter to the king.
In Flanders he established an academy, and after
the death of Frans Floris, the scholars of that
master placed themselves under his tuition, and
even Abraham Bloemaert attended his school.
When Henry III. was murdered in 1589, he re-
turned to Antwerp, but being patronized by Henry
IV. and Louis XIII., he again took up his residence
in Paris in 1595, and died there in 1610. His
best productions are his portraits, which may be
compared with those of Pourbus. Among his
paintings may be noted :

Amsterdam. Museum. Allegory of the Abdication of

Charles V. at Brussels.

Antwerp. Cathedral. The Miracles of St. Gomer. 1307.

Dresden. Gallery. The Beheading of St. John the


Fontainebleau. Palace. Several paintings.
Lille. Museum. Charles V. taking the Religious

Paris. A ugustinian ) The Cruc ; fix ;on.

Church. f

11 Franciscan f mi XT .. ., f *., . . *wnr

Church I Nativity of Christ. 15S6.

Stockholm. Museum. Assembly of Sea Gods.

FRANCKEN, HIERONYMUS, called the younger
to distinguish him from his uncle, was born at
Antwerp in 1578. He studied under his father,
Frans Francken the elder, and under his uncle
Ambrosius. He was free of the Guild of St. Luke
in 1607, and died at Antwerp in 1629. He was
especially successful in his portraits. In the
Antwerp Gallery is a picture by this artist of
Horatius Codes at the Sublician Bridge.' painted
in 1620.

FRANCKEN, JAN BAPTIST, the son of Sebas-
tiaen Francken, was born at Antwerp in 1599.
He received his first instruction from his father,
and for some time followed his style, which he
afterwards improved by an attentive study of
the works of Rubens and Van Dyck. His first
efforts were historical subjects ; but he adopted
a mode of representing the interiors of saloons
and galleries, embellished with pictures and
statues, &c., with gallant assemblies of figures
and conversations. His works of that description
were painted with great beauty of colouring, and a
very spirited touch. They were greatly sought
after, and were placed in the choicest collections.
He possessed a talent of imitating so exactly the
peculiar touch and style of each master in the small
pictures he introduced into his galleries, that it
was easy to point out the original painter. It was
the possession of this talent that induced so many
contemporary artists to solicit his assistance to
decorate their pictures with small figures, both in
landscapes and interiors. Many of Pieter Neeffs' a
are so ornamented. He died in 1653. Pictures
by him of the ' Beheading of St. John the Baptist '
are at Augsburg and Brussels, and at Bruges there
is a picture of ' Christ among the Doctors.'

FRANCKEN, JOHANNES, called by the Italians
GIOVANNI FRANCO, entered the school of Jacob van
Utrecht in 1512, and afterwards went to Italy, and
established himself at Naples in 1550. In San
Francesco, at Naples, the painting of the ' Adoration
of the Magi,' dated 1556, is by this artist.

FRANCKEN, LAURENS, was instructed in paint-
ing by his uncle, Gabriel Francken, in 1623. He
chiefly excelled in historical and landscape subjects.
About 1660 he established himself in Paris.

FRANCKEN, NICOLAES, born at Herenthals about
1520, is said to have been instructed by Frans
Floris, and was the father of Hieronymus, Frans,
and Ambrosius Francken. He died at Antwerp
in 1596.

FRANCKEN, P. H., who flourished about the
middle of the 17th century, painted for the Car-
melite Church at Antwerp a picture of ' Elijah on
Mount Carmel,' which has disappeared, and for the
church of the Recollets, pictures of 'St. Francis
of Assisi,' ' St. Anthony of Padua,' ' St. Louis,' and
one called ' The Poisoned Blow,' in reference to
the attempt made on the life of St. James, Arch-
bishop of Milan. These pictures are now in the
Antwerp Gallery.

at Antwerp in 1578. He was a disciple of Adam


Petersburg. Hermitage.
Rotterdam. Museum.
Stockholm. Museum.

van Noort, and distinguished himself in painting
battles and cavalry skirmishes, also conversation
pieces, hunting parties, and landscapes with figures
and animals. He likewise executed several paint-
ings in conjunction with his son, Jan Baptist, and
adorned the works of Pieter NeefEs, De Momper, and
Other artists, with figures. Several etchings were
also made by him of European costumes. He
died at Antwerp in 1647. His portrait, painted
by Van Dyck, has been engraved by Hondius.
Among his works, which are sometimes _,
signed with the accompanying monogram, >i T
are the following: V^

Dresden. Gallery. Temptation of St. Anthony.

Lille. Museum. A Virgin. (Painted in conjunction

with Jan Brueghel.')
Passage of the Red Sea.
A Pillaged Village.
Arrival of Mary de' Medici at


Vienna. Gallery. Interior of the Church of the

Jesuits at Antwerp.

FRANCO, AQNOLO, or ANGIOLO, was a Neapolitan
artist whose death occurred about 1455. The
frescoes in the Cappella Brancaccio at San
Domenico Maggiore, Naples, representing the
' Crucifixion,' and scenes taken from the lives of
the saints and martyrs, are assigned to him.

FRANCO, ALFONSO, was born at Messina in
1466, and died there in 1524. He is the author of
a ' Pieta,' dated 1520, in the church of San Francesco
di Paola, Messina.

FRANCO, GIACOMO, an Italian designer and
engraver, was a relation of Giovanni Battista
Franco. He was born at Venice in 1566, and
instructed by Agostino Carracci. He generally
signed his plates with his name, but sometimes
with a monogram. The following prints are the
most worthy of notice :

Part of the plates for an edition of Tasso's ' Gerusa-
lemme liberata,' published at Genoa in 1590 ; after
the designs of Bernardo Castelli ; the rest were
engraved by Agostino Carracci.

Habiti delle Donne Venetiane ; published in 1626.

A collection of portraits of Great Men ; dated 1596.

St. Jerome ; J. Franco Roma, sc.

The Crucifixion ; signed Giacomo Franco, fee.

Hercules between Virtue and Pleasure; from an antique


was born at Udine in 1510, and distinguished him-
self as an historical painter and an etcher. He
went to Rome when he was young, devoted himself
to an attentive study of the works of Michel-
angelo, and became one of the ablest designers of
his time. He excelled especially in representing
mythological and allegorical decorations of small
size, but was less successful in larger works. He
was engaged by several masters to assist in the
execution of their designs. In 1536 he painted
at the triumphal arch for the entry of Charles V.
into Rome, and went afterwards to Florence with
Raffaello da Montelupo for a similar purpose, and

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