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executed with Vasari several works in a palace for
Ottaviano de' Medici, where there were also some of
his own compositions. He executed for the Dukes
Alexander and Cosmo I. several portraits of the
Medici after Sebastiano del Piombo, Titian, and
Pontormo. He was subsequently employed by
the Duke of Urbino in the majolica manufactory
at Castel Durante, and several times at Rome. The
latter part of his life he spent at Venice, where he



died in 1580, leaving unfinished his works in the
chapel of San Francesco dell a Vigna. Among his
paintings may be mentioned :

Florence. Pitti Palace. The Battle of Montemurlo.
Rome. Frat. d. Miseri- } Imprisonment of St. John the
cordia. $ Baptist (fresco).

" S ' *Min2rlT a } Scenes from the Bible (/'<")
Venice. S. Francesco ) m* T> ,- a

della Vigna. \ The Ba P tlsra of Christ -

S. Giobbo. Madonna with Saints.

There are by him 108 etchings, which are very
different in value and in manner of execution.
It is said that only those are by him which are
etched in a broad style and finished off with a light
and spirited point. He handled the graver most
mechanically. It is not known with certainty from
whom he learned this branch of art, but it has
been supposed that he was instructed by Marc
Antonio ; and this conjecture is strengthened by
a near resemblance between his style and that of
Giulio Bonasone, who was unquestionably a disciple
of Marc Antonio. He generally marked his plates
B. F. 7. F., (Battista. Franco Venetus fecit). The
following are his principal etchings :

Moses striking the Rock.

Abraham meeting Melchizedek.

Abraham sacrificing Isaac.

The Israelites gathering Manna in the Desert.

The Captive Kings brought before Solomon.

The Adoration of the Shepherds, with Angels in the
Clouds.

The Virgin and Infant, with St. John.

St. John the Baptist.

St. Jerome holding a skull.

Christ disputing with the Doctors.

The Entombment of Christ.

Simon the Magician before the Apostles.

The Cyclops at their Forge.

Hercules and Deianira.

The Flagellation ; after Titian.

The Raising of Lazarus ; after Raphael.

The Donation made to the Church by the Emperor
Constantine ; after the same.

The Last Judgment ; after M. Rotta.

Christ on the Cross, with two Angels ; after Michel-
angelo.

Cupid and Psyche in the Bath ; after Giulio Romano.

The Clemency of Scipio ; after the same.

The Deluge ; after Pietro da Caravagyio.

FRANCO BOLOGNESE. See BOLOGNESE.

FRANCOFORTO, ADAMO DA. See ELSHEIMER.

FRANQOIS, ALPHONSE, one of the most famous
of modern French engravers, was born in Paris in
1811. Left an orphan in his childhood, he was
early thrown on his own resources, and began life
as a goldsmith's engraver. His skill and industry
soon insured him a modest livelihood in Paris, but,
oppressed by the mechanical drudgery of his craft,
he turned his thoughts to music, and was even
engaged for a time in the orchestra of the Con-
servatoire concerts. He next tried the stage, and
was fond, in after life, of describing a memorable
occasion on which he played with Rachel. Through
his elder brother, Jules, he was introduced at the
mature age of twenty-six to Henriquel-Dupont, the
engraver. Henriquel received him kindly, and
agreed to let him work in his atelier. Though
absolutely ignorant even of the elements of draw-
ing, Francois set to work, confident of success.
It happened during the first year of his apprentice-
ship that he saw a portrait of Titian at the house
of the well-known collector, M. Chaix d'Est-Ange,
and asked leave to make a drawing of it. To the
amazement of Henriquel, he then announced his
intention of engraving it. The result was extra-

191



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



ordinarily successful for a first effort. With each
fresh undertaking his powers developed. His plates
began to attract attention at the Salon, where he
first exhibited in 1842, and Paul Delaroche per-
suaded Messrs. Goupil to intrust one of his own
pictures to the debutant, the ' Napoleon crossing
the Alps.' This was followed by numerous com-
missions from the same firm, and by plates after
Fra Angelico's ' Coronation of the Virgin,' and
Cabanel's ' Birth of Venus,' for the Chalcographie
du Louvre. Henceforth commissions poured in on
him, and the story of his later years is one of
uneventful prosperity, up to the time of his loss
of sight. Debarred by this calamity from the work
in which he delighted, his health and spirits alike
gave way, and he died in Paris July 6, 1888.
Among his later undertakings was a commission
from the directors of the Dord Gallery, in London,
to reproduce the pictures in their exhibition. This
long and laborious work was carried out with the
help of pupils and assistants, the plates being
finally worked over by Fran$ois himself. Of his
finer plates after other masters we may also
name :

The Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine; after Memlinc.

The Virgin on the Steps ; after Titian.

Marie Antoinette leaving the Revolutionary Tribunal ;
after Delaroche.

The Youth of Pico de la Mirandola ; after the same.

Psyche ; after Jules Lefebvre.

FRANQOIS, CHARLES REMY JULES, a French en-
graver, was born in Paris in 1809. He was a
scholar of Henriquel-Dupont, and died in 1861.
Some of his plates are :

Hebe ; after Ary Scheffer.

Napoleon at Foutainebleau ; after Delaroche. 1830.

Pilgrims in the Square of St. Peter's at Rome ; after

the same. 1847.

The Happy Mother ; after the same. 1853.
Le galant Militaire ; after Terborch.

FRANQOIS, JEAN CHARLES, a French engraver,
was born at Nancy in 1717. He is said to have
been the first who engraved in Paris in the style
representing drawings made in crayons, and for this
he received a pension of 600 francs from the king,
and was entitled ' Graveur des dessins du Cabinet
du Roi.' He also executed some portraits, the
most important of which are those for the quarto
edition of Saverien's ' Histoire dea Philosophies
modernes,' 1761-69. He died in Paris in 1769.
Among other plates by him are the following:

A Body Guard ; after Vanloo,

The Virgin ; after Vien.

Benedetto Spiuosa ; after Deshays.

Louis XV., King of France.

Marie Leszczintka, Queen of France.

Pierre Bayle ; after Carle Vanloo.

Desiderius Erasmus ; after Holbein.

Thomas Hobbes ; after Pierre.

John Locke ; after Vien.

Nicolas Malebranche ; after Bachelier.

The Dancers ; after F. Boucher.

A March of Cavalry ; after Parrocel.

FRANQOIS, LUCAS, (or FRANCHOYS,) the elder, a
painter and engraver, was born at Mechlin in 1547.
It is not mentioned by whom he was instructed
in art, but he painted historical subjects with con-
siderable skill, and was also much employed as a
portrait painter. He passed the early part of his
life at the courts of France and Spain, but after
an absence of six years he returned to Flanders,
where he painted several altar-pieces for the
churches, which are deservedly admired. He died

192



Among the productions of

Education of the Virgin.
Apparition of the Virgin to St.

Simon Stock.

Martyrdom of St. Lawrence.
Portrait of Phihppus Snoy. 1619.
St. Agatha.



at Mechlin in 1643.
Lucas Frangois are :

Antwerp. Gallery.


Mechlin. St. Catharine.

Museum.

St. John.

Toumai. ^*%o/ St. j _

Among his engravings may be mentioned :

The Adoration of the Magi ; after Van. Dyck.
The portrait of an old Man ; after the same.

His two sons, Pieter and Lucas, were also success-
ful painters.

FRANQOIS, LUCAS, the younger, a son of Lucas
Francois the elder, born at Mechlin in 1616, was a
pupil of his father, whom he assisted in his works.
He afterwards entered the studio of Rubens, where
he imitated the style of Bockhorst. Following his
father and brother, he went to France, but after
some years he returned to his native city, in the
churches and Museum of which may be found
several of his works. He died at Mechlin in 1681.

FRANQOIS, PIERRE JOSEPH CELESTIN, a Flemish
historical, genre, and miniature painter, as well as
an etcher, was born at Namur in 1759. He was a
pupil of Lens, and travelled in France, Italy, and
Germany, but finally established himself at Brussels,
where he became a professor in the Academy.
His pupils were very numerous, including Navez,
Decaisne, Madou, and others. He died in 1851.
Amongst his works are :

Marius sitting on the Ruins of Carthage. (Brussels

Gallery.)
A Physician consulted by two old Women. (Haarlem

Jlfuseum.)
The Assumption. (Ghent Academy.)

FRANQOIS, PIETER, the son of Lucas Frangois
the elder, was born at Mechlin in 1606. For some
time he studied under his father, and followed his
style in his larger historical works ; but he after-
wards entered the school of Gerard Seghers,
whose academy was then in great repute, and
adopted a mode of painting history and portraits
of a size smaller than life. The Archduke Leopold
invited him to his court, where he was favoured with
the esteem and patronage of that prince. He was
also solicited to visit Paris, where he met with the
most flattering encouragement, and rendered him-
self extremely acceptable to the Parisians by his
accomplishments as a man of the world, and his
knowledge of music. After passing four years in
France he returned to Flanders, where he continued
to exercise his talents with great success. He died
at Mechlin in 1654. Pieter Francois was ingenious
in his compositions, firm and correct in his draw-
ing, and clear and seductive in his colouring.
The Museum at Lille possesses a portrait by him
of Gisbert Mutzarts, Abbot of Tongerloo, dated
1645, and in the Dresden Gallery is a picture of
a ' Man in Armour.' There exists also an etching
by him, which is very rare and of great spirit ; it
represents ' Christ and St. John as children, seated
under a tree and kissing each other.'

FRANQOIS, SIMON, a French painter, was born
at Tours in 1606. Without the help of a master,
he had made some progress in the art, when he
went to Italy, where he studied some years. At
Bologna he became acquainted with Guido Reni,
who made him a present of his portrait, painted by
himself. On his return to France he settled in



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Paris, where he painted the portrait of Louis
XIV. as Dauphin, and many other distinguished
personages, so much to the satisfaction of the
court, that he looked forward with confidence
to the acquisition of fortune and fame. In
these flattering expectations lie was, however, dis-
appointed, for he fell into disgrace, and died in
obscurity in Paris in 1671. He painted for several
churches, and is said to have etched a ' Magdalen
in a Cavern,' and a ' St. Sebastian,' two plates of a
good design and a noble expression.

FRANCQUART, JAQUES, a Flemish painter, was
born at Brussels in 1577. He received a liberal
education from his parents, who were of good
position, and having shown an early inclination
for art, he was sent to Italy to study painting
and architecture, and remained there some years.
On his return to Flanders he was appointed prin-
cipal painter and architect to Albert and Isabella,
then governors of the Low Countries. He was
greatly esteemed by those illustrious personages,
who employed him in several public works, both
in painting and architecture. The church of the
Jesuits, at Brussels, was built from his designs,
and ornamented with some of his pictures. He
died at Brussels in 1651.

FRANCUCCI, INNOCENZO, called INNOCENZO DA
IMOLA, was born in 1494 at Imola, but principally
resided at Bologna. In 1508 he entered the
school of Francesco Francia, but, according to
Malvasia, he afterwards passed some years at
Florence, under Mariotto Albertinelli. His style
partakes of that of Fra Bartolommeo and Andrea
del Sarto, whose works he appears to have
studied attentively. His pictures are numerous in
the churches at Bologna ; and in some of them he
approaches so near to the beauty and simplicity of
Raphael, that they appear to have been painted
from his designs. Some of his altar-pieces have
small pictures under them, which are extremely
beautiful. In the church of San Giacomo, under
his large painting of the ' Marriage of St. Catharine,'
there is an exquisite little picture of the ' Nativity ' ;
and in San Matteo is an altar-piece of ' The Virgin
and Infant, with several Saints,' and below five
small pictures, representing ' Christ appearing to
the Magdalen in the Gardon,' 'The Presentation
in the Temple,' ' St. Peter Martyr,' ' The Nativity,'
and ' Christ disputing with the Doctors.' That he
was well skilled in architecture Francucci has
shown in his immense fresco in the cathedral at
Faenza, and in the Osservanti at Pesaro, in which
his landscape and perspective are compared by
Lanzi to those of Leonardo da Vinci. He died in
1550, according to Vasari, of a pestilential fever.
Of his paintings, in addition to the above, mny be
mentioned :

Berlin. Gallery. Virgin and Child with Saints.

Bologna. fiervi. Annunciation.

11 Marriage of the Virgin.

Ptnacoteca. Madonna glorified, with Saints

(painted for San Michele in
Bosco). 1517.
" .. Madonna with SS. Francis and

Clara.
" n The Virgin coming forth from a

Church.

" 11 Madonna and Child with Saints

,, S. Michele } .

inHosco. j Annunciation.

n Death and Assumption of the

Virgin.

,, The Four Evangelists.

K The Virgin and Child in the

VOL. II.



Bologna. & Salvatore.
Frankfort. Stldel.
London. Solly Coll.

Modena. Estense Gall.
Munich. Gallery.

Petersburg. Hermitage



Clouds, and below SS. Michael,

Peter, and Benedict (in the

style of v aphael).
Christ on tiie Cross, with Saints

1549.
The Virgin Mary with St. John

the Baptist and St. Sebastian.
Virgin enthroned (chef-d'oeuvre

formerly at Faenza). 1527.
A Virgin (in the style of Raphael).
Virgin and Child with Saints.
Virgin and Saints.



FRANGIPANE, NICCOL&, is believed by some to
have been a native of Padua, by others of Udine.
He flourished from the year 1565 till 1597, and
executed a number of church pictures, but was
more successful in mythological scenes, particularly
the legends of Bacchus. At Padua, in the church
of San Bartolommeo, is a fine picture by him of
'St. Francis,' painted in 1588; and at Pesaro, an
altar-piece in San Stefano. But his most admired
work is an ' Assumption,' in the church of the
Conventuali, at Rimini.

FRANK, MICHAEL SIGISMUND, born at Nuremberg
in 1769, was instructed there in the art of painting
on porcelain by Trost. He afterwards painted
on glass, in which he was very successful, and
helped to raise the almost forgotten art from its
long decline, by discovering in 1804 the method
which was formerly in use. He executed for the
chapel of the Castle of Stauffenberg in Franconia
several devices of coats of arms, and in 1808
those for the court of Bavaria, for which he was
highly praised. King Maximilian I. gave him a
building in which to paint on glass. Among the
works of that period executed on a large scale are
a ' Circumcision ' after Goltzius, and a ' Nativity
of Christ ' after Bolswert. From 1814 to 1818 he
was employed by the Prince of Wallerstein ; he
afterwards returned to Munich, where he was made
royal glass-painter for his 'Treatise on Glass-
Painting.' In 1827 he was appointed director of
the Institute founded by King Louis, and executed
the large windows for the cathedral at Ratisbon,
which constituted his chief production. He died
at Munich in 1847.

FRANK, PAULINE. See STEINHADSER.

FRANKEN, THEODOR, a genre painter, was born
at Geilenkirchen, near Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1811.
He studied under Schadow at Dusseldorf, and pro-
duced spirited scenes of popular and home life. He
died at Dusseldorf in 1876.

FRANKENBERGER, JOHANN, an Austrian por-
trait painter, was born at Hadamar in Nassau in
1807, and died at Vienna in 1874.

FRANKENDORFFER, CONRAD, a native of
Nuremberg, flourished about 1498, and was an
excellent miniature painter.

FRANKFORT, HIERONYMUS VON. See GBEFF.

FRANQUE, JEAN PIERRE, a French painter, was
born at Le Buis in 1774. He studied under David,
and excelled in historical subjects and portraiture,
imitating the style of his master. He married
Lucile Messageot, also an artist, who died in 1802,
at the age of twenty-two years. Franque died in
1860, leaving among others the following works:

Versailles. Gallery. The Passage of the Rhine ; after

Le Brun. 1835.
The Siege of Lille ; after Van der

Meulen and Le Jinn. 1836.
The Battle of Lens. 1841.

FRANQDE, JOSEPH, the twin brother of Jean
Pierre Franque, was born at Le Buis in 1774, and

193



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



died in 1812. He also was a painter, and there is
by him at Versailles a picture of the Empress
Maria Louisa and the King of Rome.

FRANQUELIN, JEAN AUGUSTIN, born in Paris
in 1798, was instructed by Regnault, and became
known through his works, representing scenes in
public life, conversation-pieces, &c., which have
often been copied. He died in Paris in 1839. The
painting of ' The Occupation of Brissac,' by this
artist, is at Versailles.

FRANQUINET, WILLEM HENDRIK, born at
Maeetricht in 1785, was instructed by Herreyns at
Antwerp. He afterwards visited Germany, and was
a drawing-master at his native town from 1804 to
1815. In 1816 he settled in Paris, and in 1821
painted the ' Bacchanal,' and in 1822-34 published
a ' Galerie des Peintres,' for which J. Chabert wrote
the text. He died at New York in 1854.

FRANS, NICOLAES, was born at Mechlin in 1539.
It is not said under whom he studied ; it is only
known that at an early age he entered the order of
the Franciscans, in which he continued to exercise
his art, and became a fair historical painter. In
the collegiate church of Our Lady at Mechlin is
an altar-piece by this master, representing the
' Flight into Egypt '; and in the church of Hans wyck,
near Mechlin, are two pictures by him of the ' Visit-
ation' and the 'Annunciation.' His drawing is
correct, and he was an excellent colourist.

FRANSSIERES, J. DE, was a French engraver
of little celebrity. He engraved part of the plates
for a set of Turkish costumes, published in Paris in
1714, by M. de Ferriol.

FRANZ, C., who studied under Schwind, prac-
tised first as an historical painter, but afterwards
turned his attention towards genre subjects. He
died at Munich in 1876.
FRANZ-DREBER, HEINEICH. See DREBER.
FRANZSCHEN. See DEI Rossi, FRANCESCO.
FRASER, ALEXANDER, a Scottish painter, was
born at Edinburgh in 1786, and commenced
his artistic career by studying at the Trustees'
Academy in that city, where he had David Wilkie
and Watson Gordon for fellow-students. He first
exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1810, settling in
London three years later. Soon after this Wilkie
employed him to fill in the minor details and still-
life of his pictures, a practice which he continued
for a good many years. Among the works exhibited
by him at the Royal Academy may be mentioned
1 The Village Sign-Painter,' ' The Blackbird and his
Tutor,' and 'Tapping the Ale-barrel.' He does
not appear to have exhibited after 1859, and during
the latter years of his life seems to have been quite
an invalid. His death occurred at Wood Green, near
London, in 1865. A great part of his earlier works
consisted of coast scenes, and at a later date he
painted pictures in illustration of the ' Waverley
Novels,' some of which have been engraved. He
became an Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy
in 1842. In the National Gallery is the ' Interior
of a Highland Cottage' by him, and in the National
Gallery of Scotland is a view 'At Barncleuth.'

FRASER, ALEXANDER, was born in 1828 at Wood-
cockdale, near Linlithgow. Even as a boy he was
employed in stippling in backgrounds for portraits.
His father, an able amateur artist, sent him to study
in Edinburgh. He was first represented in theRoyal
Scottish Academy Exhibition by a figure subject,
but his true forte was landscape. He was early
appreciated, and was elected an Associate of the
Royal Scottish Academy in 1858. In 1862 he
194



became Royal Scottish Academician, and his
diploma work ' At Barncleuth ' hangs in the
gallery. Some of his best landscapes were painted
in Surrey and in Cadzow Forest. He died in
Musselburgh in 1899. His principal works com-
prise ' Among the Surrey Hills,' ' Sunshine in
Spring-time,' ' Glenfalloch,' 'The Margin of the
Forest,' and 'A Trout Stream in the Highlands.'
He depicted especially the brighter moods of
Nature, delighting in the changing lights on hill
and moor and the rich colour of summer woodland
and autumn fields ; and the fine composition, sound
technique, and fresh atmospheric quality of the
pictures of his best period entitle him to an honour-
able place among our landscape painters.

T H W T

FRASER, CHARLES, an artist born at Charleston
in 1782, studied law, but afterwards devoted him-
self to art In 1825 he painted the portrait of
Lafayette. His talent was very diversified, and in
1857, at an exhibition of his works at Charleston,
there were shown 313 miniatures and 139 land-
scapes and other pieces by him. He died at
Charleston in 1860.

FRASSI, PIETRO, born at Cremona in 1706, was
a pupil of Angiolo Massarotti. He went to Florence,
but afterwards to Rome, where he died in 1778.
His best work was a picture of 'The Miracle of St.
Vincent Ferrer,' painted for the Dominicans in
Cremona, which caused him to be made a member
of the Academy of St. Luke.

FRATACCI, ANTONIO, born at Parma in the
beginning of the 18th century, received his first
lessons in art from Ilario Spolverini. He after-
wards entered, at Bologna, the school of Carlo
Cignani, whose style he imitated. There is a
picture in the church of San Giorgio at Bologna of
' Christ healing St. Pellegrini Laziozi,' and at Sant'
Eustorgio, at Milan, a ' St. John ' and an ' Adoration
of the Magi.'

FRATELLINI, GIOVANNA, was born at Florence
in 1666. The early disposition she showed for
art recommended her to the notice of the Grand-
Duchess Victoria, who took her under her pro-
tection, and had her instructed by the best
masters in drawing and music. She was afterwards
taught miniature painting by Ippolito Galantini,
and finished her studies under Antonio Domeuico
Gabbiani. She painted historical subjects and
portraits in oil, pastel, enamel, miniature, and
crayons, but chiefly excelled in the last, in which
she is no way inferior to the celebrated Rosalba.
Her reputation spread throughout Italy, and she
painted the portraits of Cosmo III. and his wife,
her patroness, the principal nobility of the court,
and the most illustrious personages of the country.
One of her best works is in the Ducal Gallery at
Florence ; it represents her painting the portrait of
her son. This distinguished lady died at Florence
in 1731.

FRATELLINI, LORENZO MARIA, the son of
Giovanna Fratellini, by whom he was instructed
in the elementary principles of design, was born
at Florence in 1690. He afterwards studied under
Antonio Domenico Gabbiani, who had been the
instructor of his mother. Under that master he
acquired a ready and correct manner of designing,
and became a promising painter, both of history
and of portraits, but he died in the prime of life, in
1729.

FRATREL, JOSEPH, born at Epinal in 1730, was
a scholar of Baudouin in Paris, and distinguished



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



himself as a painter and etcher. He was court
painter of King Stanislaus and the Elector-Palatine
Charles Theodore : in the Darmstadt Museum is a
portrait of the Electress. He died at Mannheim in
1783. The following are his best-known works :

Joseph's Dream ; after L. Krahe.

The Miller's Son.

St. Nicholas.

FRATTA, DOMENICO MAKU, born at Bologna in
1696, studied under Giovanni Viviani, Carlo Ram-
baldi, and Donato Creti. He abandoned the art of
painting, and devoted himself entirely to drawing
with the pen, in which he acquired such perfection
as to give to his productions a European fame.
He died in 1763.

FREDEAU, AMBROISE, called FRERE FREDEAU,
who flourished about the middle of the 17th century,
was a monk of the Augustinian order. He imitated
Vouet in his paintings.

FREDERICK, EDUARD, born at Hanover in 1813,
attended the Academy at Diisseldorf from 1836 to
1843, and studied in particular landscape and genre
painting, which he, however, changed afterwards
for scenes of encampments and manoeuvres. He
was court painter, and died at Hanover in 1864.

FREDI, BARTOLO DI. See BARTOLO.

FREEBAIRN, ALFRED ROBERT, an engraver, is
chiefly known by his engraving of Flaxman's
'Shield of Achilles.' He died in 1846, in his 53rd
year.

FREEBAIRN, ROBERT, a landscape painter, was



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