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born in 1765. He was for a short time with
Richard Wilson, who died before Freebairn's educa-
tion was completed, and afterwards went to Italy,
where he remained about ten years, but never rose
above mediocrity. His pictures are simply pleas-
ing, never striking. On his return to England,
Freebairn met with several patrons, and as he was
slow in performance, it is probable they were the
chief purchasers of his works. He died in 1808.
There are about forty prints of Italian and English
scenery published by him.

FREEMAN, JAMES EDWARD, painter, was a
native of Nova Scotia, but was educated in the
National Academy in New York. He settled in
Rome, where he painted genre pictures, mostly of
Italian subjects. He is known also by his publica-
tion, 'A Portfolio of Italian Sketches.' He died
in 1884.

FREEMAN, JOHN, an historical painter, flourished
in the latter half of the 17th century. He was
also scene painter to Covent Garden Theatre.
There are five works attributed to him in the
Louvre.

FREEMAN, SAMUEL, an engraver, was born in
1773, and died in 1857. Amongst his plates are :

A Holy Family ; after Correggio.
A Madonna ; after Raphael.
The Infant Christ and St. John ; after the same.
St. Ambrose refusing admission to the Church to Theo-
dosius ; after Van Dyck.

FREESE, JOHANN OSKAR HERMANN, a painter of
animals and hunting scenes, was born in Pom-
merania in 1813. He was destined by his father
to be a farmer, in spite of his early inclination
to art, but in his 34th year he devoted himself,
after many heavy misfortunes, to painting as his
vocation. He visited for a short time the atelier
of Briicke, then that of Steffeck in Berlin. In
1857 his first work, ' Stags Fighting,' appeared.
His subjects of study were field and wood, and
principally hunting, which he loved passionately.

02



He died at Hessenfelde, near Furstenwald, in
1871, of brain fever, which he contracted whilst
out shooting in trying to cross a river when in a
heated state. He is very happy in his bolder
designs, but less so in his idyllic representations.
Among his works are especially to be mentioned,
' Deer Fleeing,' ' Stags attacked by Wolves,' and
a 'Boar Hunt,' all in the Berlin National Gallery.

FREESE, N., a miniature painter, exhibited at
the Royal Academy from 1794 to 1814.

FREESEN, JOHANN GEORQ, (or FREEZEN,) a
portrait painter, was born at Palts, near Heidel-
berg, in 1701. He first studied under Jan van
Nikkelen, and afterwards under Philip van Dyk,
of whom he became one of the best scholars, and
with whom he stayed seven years at the Hague.
He was patronized by the Duke of Hesse, and was
appointed historical and portrait painter to the
court of Cassel. He possessed a great knowledge
of paintings, which he acquired in Germany, Italy,
France, and in the school of Philip van Dyk an
acquisition which was of the greatest use in the
establishment of the Cassel Gallery. He died at
Cassel in 1775.

FREGEVIZE, FRIEDRICH, a Swiss landscape
painter, was born in Geneva in 1770, and died there
in 1849. He lived for a long time in Berlin, where
he was elected in 1820 a member of the Academy;
he returned to Geneva in 1829, and went to Dessau
in 1839. The Berlin National Gallery contains
views painted by him of 'The Lake of Geneva,'
and 'The Valley of the Rhone, near Geneva.''

FREIDHOFF, JOHANN JOSEPH, a German mezzo-
tint engraver, born at Heggen, in Westphalia, in
1768, studied under J. G. Huck. He visited Hol-
land and France for his improvement, and died at
Berlin in 1818. There are by him:

Night ; after Correggio. 1800.

The Death of Germanicus ; after Poussin. 1798.

Joseph and Potiphar's Wife ; after Cignani. 1796.

Alexander von Humboldt ; after Weitsch.

A Waterfall ; after Euisdael. 1797.

FREMIET, SOPHIE. See RUDE.

FREMIET, VICTORINE. See VAN DEB HAERT.

FREMINET, MARTIN, a French historical
painter, born in Paris in 1507, received his first
instruction from his father, a tapestry designer.
He soon made some progress in his career in Paris,
and executed several commissions, including a
picture of ' St. Sebastian ' for the church of St.
Joseph. But it was to Italy that his thoughts
turned, and about 1592 he set out thither. At this
time the controversies raised by the Naturalist!
were at their height, and into them Freminet
entered with ardour. His time was chiefly passed
at Rome, Parma, and Venice, and he directed his
most serious attention to the works of Parmigiano
and Michelangelo, the study of the latter having a
great influence on him. After an absence of about
sixteen years he returned to his native country by
way of Lombardy and Savoy, and in the latter he
painted some important works for the ducal palace.
His fame had preceded him, for on the death of
Toussaint Du-Breuil in 1602 he was appointed by
Henry IV. his principal painter, obtaining at the
same time by purchase a sinecure post about the
court. In 1608 he commenced for the king the de-
coration of the chapel at Fontainebleau, which was
executed in oil on plaster. In the five compartments
of the ceiling he depicted ' Noah entering the Ark,'
the 'Fall of the Angels,' 'Our Lord in Glory,' the

195



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



'Angel Gabriel,' and the 'Creation.' Behind the
altar he painted the 'Annunciation,' and he also
executed other frescoes representing kings, pro-
phets, &c., and scenes from the life of Christ
This masterpiece was not finished until the suc-
ceeding reign, and on its completion, in 1615, he
received the cross of the Order of St. Michael.
Frfoiinet died in Paris in 1619, and was buried, in
accordance with his desire, in the Abbey of Bar-
beaux, near Fontainebleau, for which he had
painted several pictures, which were destroyed
when that Abbey was burnt in 1793. He left a
son Louis, who followed in his father's footsteps as
a painter. The poet Regnier was his friend, and
dedicated to him his tenth Satire. Freminet had a
good knowledge of architectural perspective and of
anatomy, though his aspirations after the grandeur
of Michelangelo frequently led him into exagger-
ations, and have caused him to be much decried.
To do him justice, however, it must be owned that
he marks a great advance in the history of the
French school. The works of his predecessor,
Cousin, are no doubt the earliest which show the
impress of Italian art, but it was Fre'minet who
first fully felt and evidenced the influence of the
great Italian masters. He is seen at his best in
those works in which the spirit of Parmigiano is
most apparent. His style of working was singular :
he painted a picture in separate portions, without
sketching or designing the rest of the composition.
The following are some of his existing works :

Liverpool. Institution. The Birth of Venus. (A sepia

draining.)

Orleans. Museum. St. Matthew.

St. Mark.

St. Luke.

St. John.

St. Augustine.

St. Ambrose.

St. Gregory.

St. Jerome.

Paris. Louvre. Mercury ordering jEneas to aban-
don Dido.

Tours. Museum. The Last Judgment (doubtful).

A ' Virgin and Child ' is the only etching by
Freminet which is known. O.J.D.

FRENCH, HENRY, an Irish historical painter,
was born about the end of the 17th century. He
studied at Rome, and gained a medal in the Academy
of St. Luke. He came to England, but did not
meet with success. His death took place in 1726.

FRENZEL, JOHANN GOTTLIEB ABRAHAM, born
at Dresden in 1782, was instructed by Darnstedt,
and excelled in engraving landscapes. He was
director of the Royal Collection of engravings at
Dresden, and wrote several works on his art. He
died at Dresden in 1855. Among his best plates



Ruins ; after Ruisdael.
Evening ; after the same.

A Landscape with Cattle in the Water ; after Poelen-
torch.

FRERE, CHARLES THEODORE, (BEY,) painter, was
born in Paris in 1815. He was a pupil of Roque-
plan and L6on Cogniet, and made his debut at
the Salon in 1834 with landscapes from Northern
France. Two years later he went to Algiers, arid
afterwards spent some time in Africa, whence lie
drew his subjects for the rest of his life. He died
in Paris March 24, 1888.

FRERE, PIERRE EDOUARD, a French genre painter,
was born in Paris January 10, 1819. He studied
under Delaroche, and made his debut at the Salon of
196



1843. His early pictures were chiefly interiors of
cottages, workshops, &c., with cobblers, coopers,
cooks, and other industrious members of the lower
classes at work. They were warm and transparent
in colour, and often forcible in chiaroscuro. In
later years he almost entirely confined himself to
painting incidents of child life, and became cold in
colour and feeble in his light and shade. He
produced a great number of drawings in which
coloured figures are set against monochrome back-
grounds, generally sketched in black chalk. His
works are well known in England, where he
frequently exhibited, first at the French Gallery in
1854. His first picture in the Royal Academy was
one of his most characteristic works, the 'Girls
leaving School. 1 Frere lived at Ecouen, and died
there May 23, 1886.

FRERES, DIRK, or THEODORUS, a Dutch painter,
was born at Enkhuizen in 1643. He was of an
ancient and opulent family, who gave him an
education suited to his birth ; and, among other
accomplishments, he was taught drawing, for which
he showed so strong a predilection, that his parents
acceded to his desire of visiting Italy, and he passed
several years at Rome, studying after the antique,
and the best productions of modern art. He
returned to Holland with a large collection of
drawings which he had made in Italy, and dis-
tinguished himself by several historical works ;
among which were the ceiling of a public hall at
Amsterdam, and some pictures in one of the
palaces of the Prince of Orange. In his studies
in Italy he appears to have been more attentive
to purity and correctness of design than to the
blandishments of colouring, in which he is less
successful. He is said to have been invited to
England by Sir Peter Lely, but finding on his
arrival that the situation he expected was filled by
Antonio Verrio, he returned to Holland. He died
at Enkhuizen in 1693.

FRESNE, Du. See Du FRESNE.

FRESNOY, Du. See Du FRESNOY.

FREUDENBERGER, SIGMUND, born at Berne in
1745, was a painter and engraver, who was instructed
in the rudiments of art by Em. Handmann. He
afterwards went to Paris, and improved himself
under Wille, Boucher, Greuze, and Roslin. His
scenes of Swiss life in the Bernese Oberland were
first engraved and afterwards painted. In the
town-library at Berne there is a portrait of Haller
by this artist. He died in 1801.

FREDDWEILER, HEINRICH, a Swiss portrait
and genre painter, was born at Zurich in 1755, and
was first instructed by H. Wtist ; he afterwards
Btudied at the Academies at Diisseldorf and Mann-
heim, and visited Dresden and Berlin, where he
became acquainted with Graf and Chodowiecky.
In 1785 he returned to Zurich, and died in 1795.
He painted several historical scenes relating to his
country.

FREY, JAKOB, a grandson of Johann Jakob Frey,
is known by a plate of Leonardo da Vinci's ' Last
Supper,' which, however, is taken from the old
copy by Marco d'Oggione.

FREY, JOHANN JAKOB, a Swiss engraver, was
born at Lucerne, in 1681. After learning the
principles of design he went, when he was twenty-
two years of age, to Rome, where he received
some instruction from Arnold van Westerhout,
and had afterwards the advantage of studying in
the school of Carlo Maratti, at the same time
with Robert van Auden-Aerd. His progress was



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



rapid, and he was soon regarded as one of the
ablest artists at Rome. His drawing is correct
and tasteful, and he was a perfect master of
harmony and efieot. He etched his plates with
spirit, and worked over the etching with a firm
and masterly hand. Few artists have approached
nearer to the style of the painters from whom they
engraved than Frey. He died at Rome in 1770.
His prints, which exceed the number of one
hundred, are generally of a very large size. The
following are the principal :

PORTRAITS.

Carlo Maratti ; after a picture by himself.
Pope Innocent XIII. ; after A.Masuca.
Pope Benedict XIII. ; after the same.
Pope Gregory XIII. ; after the marble by Camilla Rus-

coni.

Girolamo Pico della Mirandola ; after P. Nelly.
Mary Clementina Sobieska, wife of the Old Pretender.

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS.
The Holy Family ; copied from Edelinck's print after

Raphael.

Charity, with three children ; after Albani.
The Death of St. Petronilla ; after Guercino. 1731.
The Coronation of the Virgin ; after Annibale Carracci.
The Virgin giving the Scapular to St. Simon Stock ;

after Seb. Conca.

The Adoration of the Shepherds ; after the same.
St. Francis of Paola restoring a Child to lif e ; after B.

Lambertini.

The Archangel Michael ; after Guido.
The Four Fathers of the Church ; after the same.
Aurora, with the Hours dancing before the Chariot of

the Sun ; after the same ; in two sheets.
Bacchus consoling Ariadne after the Departure of

Theseus ; after the same ; in two sheets.
The Death of St. Anne ; after A. Sacchi.
St. Romualdus ; after the same.
The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian ; after Domenichino.

1737.

The Communion of St. Jerome ; after the same. 1729.
The Four Angels of St. Carlo a Catenari at Rome,
representing Justice, Temperance, Fortitude, and
Prudence ; after the same.
The Rape of Europa ; after Albani.
St. Charles Borromeo interceding for the Plague-
stricken ; after Pietro da Cortona. 1744.
An allegorical picture of Clemency ; after Carlo Maratti.
A Reposo, with St. Joseph presenting cherries to the

Infant Christ ; after the same.
Augustus shutting the Temple of Janus ; after the same.

1738.

St. Andrew kneeling before the Cross ; after the same.
St. Bernard ; after the same.

FREY, JOHANN MICHAEL, who was born at Bibe-
rach in 1750, painted at Augsburg, and excelled
in landscapes, and also as an engraver. His plates
are executed in the manner of Bega ; the best
is a large landscape, after Ruisdael. He died at
Augsburg in 1813.

FREY, JOHANNES, a Swiss landscape painter, a
native of Basle, studied principally in Italy, and
his views of that country are much valued. From
Egypt, whither he accompanied Professor Lepsius,
hebrought many excellent sketches of the Pyramids,
Labyrinths, &c. It is to be regretted that he was
obliged to make but a short stay on account of his
health. His painting of ' Chamsyn in the Desert,'
in the possession of the Emperor of Germany, was
produced in 1845, and is greatly admired. He died
at Frascati, near Rome, in 1865. The Modern Gallery
at Munich has his ' Two Memnons near Thebes.'
FREY, JOHANNES PIETER DE. See DB FRET.
FREY, MARTIN, born at Wurzach in 1769, was a
scholar of Johann Gottlieb von Mu'ller at Stuttgart,
and subsequently resided at Vienna, where he was
still living in 1821. Among his best etchings are :



The Temptation of St. Jerome ; after Domenichino.
The Virgin with Jesus and John ; after the painting in

the Estcrhazy collection at Pesth, attributed to Raphael.
The Infant Christ on a bed, and holding the Cross;

after A Ibani.

St. Justina ; after Pordenone.
An Old Man ; after G. Maes.

FREY, SAMUEL, a Swiss painter of landscapes,
the father of Jobannes Frey, was born at Sissach
in 1785. He devoted himself first to engraving
under Von Mechel, but at Antwerp he studied oil-
painting. In 1810 he returned to Basle, where he
died in 1836.

FREYBECHKE, JOHANN, a monk of the convent
of Konigsbriick, in Alsace, who flourished about
the year 14'28, mentions himself at the end of a
Bible containing some good miniatures, as its
author. Whether he executed the miniatures is
considered by Dr. Waagen to be an open question.
The Bible is in the Royal Library at Munich.

FREYBERG, ELEKTRINE, born at Strassburg in
1797, was the daughter and pupil of Johann
Stuntz, a painter of landscapes, under whose tuition
she gave proof of great ability. She visited
France and Italy, and stayed at Rome some time.
Her paintings of historical scenes are distinguished
for a tender touch, and she was not less success-
ful in portraiture and landscape painting. One of
her best works is a ' Holy Family.' ' The Birth
of St. John,' and two landscapes, in the album
of King Louis of Bavaria, are by this artist ; in
the Leuchtenberg Gallery ' The Virgin and Child,'
and ' The Three Maries at the Tomb ' ; and in the
Munich Gallery a 'Holy Family,' 'The Naming
of St. John the Baptist, 1 and ' A Boy playing the
flute.' She died at Munich in 1847.

FREZZA, GIOVANNI GIROLAMO, an Italian en-
graver, was born at Canemorto, nearTivoli, in 1659,
and died at Rome in 1730. He was instructed
in engraving at Rome by Arnold van Westerhout.
His plates are etched with care, and very neatly
finished with the graver, but without much force
or effect. The following, among others, are by
him :

The Gallery of the Verospi Palace ; seventeen plates

after the frescoes by F. Albani.

A set of ten plates, including the title, after the nine
pictures by Niccolb Serrettoni, in the church of
Santa Maria in Monte Santo, at Rome.
The Virgin suckling the Infant; after Lodovico Carracci.
The Holy Family ; after Carlo Jlfaratti.
The Assumption of the Virgin ; after the same.
The Twelve Months ; after the same.
The Judgment of Paris ; after the same.
The Riposo, called the Zingarella ; after Correogio.
The Descent of the Holy Ghost ; after Guido.
Polyphemus on a Rock, and Galatea and her Nymphs

on the Sea ; after Sisto Badalocchio.
Polyphemus hurling a Rock at Acis and Galatea ; after

the same.
Venus ; after an antique painting ; for the Crozat

Collection.
Pallas; after an antique painting; for the Crozat

Collection.

FREZZA, ORAZIO, a native of Naples, lived in
the 17th century, and was instructed by G. B.
Benaschi. He afterwards studied the works of
Lanfranco and Domenichino, whom he imitated
with some success.

FRICK, J. F., born in 1774, was an engraver and
a professor at the Academy of Berlin, who gained
much repute for his aquatints. His best work is
the series of illustrations of 'The Castle of Marien-
burg in Prussia,' in nineteen plates, 1799. He died
in 1850.



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



FRIDERICH, JACOB ANDREAS, a German en-
graver, was born in 1683. He engraved some
plates of Hussars and other horsemen, after
Rugendas. He died in 1751.

FRIED, HEINRICH JAKOB, born at Queichheim,
near Landau, in 1802, studied at Stuttgart and
Augsburg, and from 1822 under Langer and
Cornelius at the Academy of Munich. In 1834 he
went to Rome, and afterwards to Naples, and from
thenee returned to his native country in 1837.
Being patronized by Prince Karl von Wrede,
he settled at Munich in 1842, and became con-
servator of the Artistic Society in 1845. He died
at Munich in 1870. Fried was a great lover of
legends, often taking these and similar sources for
the subjects of his best pictures. He also executed
a great number of landscapes, as well as genre
and historical pieces and portraits, the best of
which are :

A Hunting Party before the Castle of Trifels.

The Blue Grotto at Capri. (Munich Gallery.)

A View of Hohenschwangau.

The Wounded Knight.

Italian Flute-Players.

The Cloister of San Scolastica.

Views of the Palaces of Italy.

FRIEDERICI, JOLIUS, a painter of Trfeves, who
was educated at the Diisseldorf Academy, has left
two paintings of merit, ' Adam and Eve,' and a
' Flight into Egypt.' He died quite young in
1833.

FRIEDL.ZENDER, JULIUS, a genre painter, was
born at Copenhagen in 1810, and entered the
Academy there in 1824, afterwards studying under
Lund. In 1843-44 he visited Paris and Italy,
whence he derived additional subjects for his art.
Still later he took to depicting military and naval
life. He died in 1861. Among his pictures are :

Polish Exiles.

A Doctor by a Sick Bed.

Eope-Dancers about to perform. (Copenhagen Gallery.)

The Spanish Staircase at Rome. (Copenhagen Gallery.)

Boys at Play at Capri.

Scene in a Children's Bedroom.

FRIEDRICH, CAROLINE FRIEDERIKE, a flower
painter, was born at Friedrichsstadt in 1740, and
died at Dresden in 1812. She was court painter
and a member of the Dresden Academy, and pro-
duced a number of admired bouquets in oil and
water-colours.

FRIEDRICH, CASPAR DAVID, born at Greifswald
in 1774, studied first at the Academy at Copen-
hagen under Quisdorf, and went to Dresden in
1795. where he painted landscapes. Subsequently
he visited Rugen, the Giant and the Harz Moun-
tains, and Italy. He also etched several plates of
landscapes and trees. In 1817 he became professor
at the Academy of Dresden, and in 1840 a member
of that at Berlin. He died at Dresden in 1842.
His best landscapes are :

Berlin. Castle. An Abbey in an Oak Forest, on a
Winter Evening.

A Traveller on the Seashore.

Ifat. Gall. Evening View in the Harz Forest.

The Moon rising over the Sea.

Dresden. Gallery. Two Men looking at the Moon.

A Giant's Grave.

Kest after Haymaking.

FRIEDRICH, FRANZ, (or FRIEDERICH,) a designer,
engraver, and carver, worked at Frankfort-on-
the-Oder about the year 1550. He was_employed
by the printer Eichhorn, and was considered the
first engraver of his district at that time. His
198



v/oodcuts are signed with two monograms, with the
addition of 'Peter Hille'; this is supposed to mean
that the design only is by him. He died after
1583. Some of bis copper-plates are marked with
a different monogram, and are very rare. The
following are perhaps the best :

Portrait of the Elector Joachim II.

Portrait of Ludolph Schrader. 1581.

Portrait of the Archbishop Heinrich Julius of Brunswick.

Portrait of Heinrich Paxmann. 1580.

FRIES, BERNHARD, a German landscape painter,
was born at Heidelberg in 1820. He studied suc-
cessively at Carlsruhe, Diisseldorf, and Munich, and
for many years resided in Italy, where he produced
his most important work a series of forty Italian
landscapes. He died at Munich in 1879.

FRIES, ERNST, a landscape painter, and brother
of Bernhard Fries, was born at Heidelberg in 1801,
and died at Carlsruhe in 1833. He was taught
first by the elder Rottmann, and then by K. Kuntz
at Carlsruhe. The English painter Wallis, who was
then residing in Heidelberg, made a great impres-
sion upon him. Afterwards he went to Darm-
Btadt, where he studied architecture and perspec-
tive under Moller. In 1821 he removed to Munich,
where he visited the Academy. From 1823 to
1827 he lived in Italy, and returned to Munich and
Carlsruhe in 1831, but died in the prime of his
activity in 1833. Among his paintings are :

A View of Tivoli.

Sorrento and the House of Tasso.

Pozzuoli and the Gulf of Baiae.

Capo Misene.

The Waterfall of Liris at Isola di Sora. ] 833. (Munich
Gallery.)

The Castle of Massa.

A View of Heidelberg.

Valmontone. (Berlin National Gallery.)

He lithographed six plates, representing views
Of Heidelberg Castle, 1820-21, and the ' Death of
Siegfried,' from the Nibelungen Lied, after C.
Ganglof. With Thurmer he executed an etching
of the Roman Forum.

FRIES, HANS, a Swiss painter, was born at
Freiburg in the middle of the 15th century. It is
probable that he studied in Germany. He was a
member of the Guild at Basle in 1487-88, and at
Freiburg in 1501. He died subsequently to 1518.
The following paintings are by him :

Basle. Museum. Scenes from the Life of the Virgin

(painted for the Johanniter-
Comthurei). 1514.
Six Scenes from the Life of the

Virgin (painted for Berne).

Freiburg. Council ) The Last Judgment (now re-

Chamber. ) moved). 1501-6.
Franciscan \ The Legend O f g t . Anthony.

Convent. )
Arsenal. Coats of Arms and seventeen

Flags. 1506.

Vienna. Gallery. A young Man, with Death behind

him. 1524.

FRIES, KARL FRIEDRICH, born at Winnweiler,
in the Palatinate, in 1831, studied first at the
Academy at Munich, and afterwards under Ber-
del!6. He visited Vienna, and painted there under
Rahl ; then went to Venice, Florence, and Calabria,
where he studied the old masters. He died at
St. Gall, Switzerland, in 1871. His style much
resembles that of the Venetian painters. The
following are some of his works:

Wine, Woman, and Song; in the style of Paolo Veronese.

1862.
The Mineral Bath in the Abruzzi.



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVER&



FRIES, WILHELM, a brother of Bernhard and
Ernst Fries, was a landscape painter, and the
conservator of the Wessenberg Museum. He
was born in 1819, and died at Constance in
1878.

FRIPP, ALFRED DOWNING, younger brother of
George A. Fripp (q. v.), was born in Bristol in



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