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1822. In his early years he was chiefly influenced
by W. J. Muller, and he soon (1840) followed his
brother to London where he studied in the
sculpture-galleries of the British Museum and at
the Royal Academy. Choosing water-colour as a
medium he began his career in 1842 by sending
three drawings to the British Artists' Gallery. In
1844 he was elected an Associate of the Royal
Society of Painters in Water-colour, and thence-
forward his reputation steadily grew. In 1846 he
became a full member of the Society. He went
to Rome in 1850 and remained in Italy till 1859.
In 1870 he was appointed Secretary to the Old
Society. He visited Ireland thrice, and found
there the subjects of some of his most charming
works, e. g. ' Irish Reapers meeting their Friends
after harvesting in England. 1 He painted many
pictures of Italian life and scenery, of which
'Pompeii the City of the Dead' (1853), is the
most important. This is one of the few pictures
where figures are not the leading motive. On his
return he reverted to Welsh and English scenes ;
figure-subjects with a subordinate but often
highly-finished landscape setting. He died in
1895. He contributed to the Gallery about 270
works. Two of his pictures ' Young England '
and 'The Irish Mother ' are widely known through
engravings. He had a delicate and tender touch,
painting rather in low tints, and his drawings
show a poetic refinement, a grace and an idyllic
simplicity that never fail to charm.

J. H.W.I.

FRIPP, GEORGE ARTHUR, the son of a clergyman
and grandson of Nicholas Pocock, one of the
founders of the old Water-colour Society, was born
in Bristol in 1813. Bristol was then the head-
quarters of a notable group of painters ; and from
two of these he received his art-training, leaining
oil-painting from J. B. Pyne, but owing most to
Samuel Jackson, his master in water-colour. He
painted portraits in oil in his native town for
some years, maintaining a close friendship with
W. J. Muller with whom he travelled in Italy.
In 1841 he migrated to London, and in the same
year was elected an Associate of the Royal Society
of Painters in Water-colour. A large landscape in
oils, ' Mount Blanc from near Cormayeur, Val
d'Aosta,' which was exhibited at the Academy in
1848, elicited the praise of Turner, and was bought
and presented to the Corporation of Liverpool, in
whose gallery it now hangs. He painted but little
in oil, and soon devoted himself entirely to water-
colour. In 1845 he became full member of the
Society, and in 1848 was appointed Secretary, a
post he retained till his resignation in 1854. He
was elected a member of the Belgian Society of
Painters in Water-colour in 1872 or 1873. He
was a regular contributor to the Exhibitions of his
Society (sending in fifty years nearly 600 drawings),
and was always active and zealous in its service.
He died in Hampstead in 1896 after a period of
failing health. He was an accomplished landscape-
painter. Early in his career he painted some
Swiss and Italian scenes, but most of his work was
done at home. He particularly excelled in river-

scenery, and his numerous views on the Thames
are of high merit. Picturesque ruins, Scottish
and Welsh mountain scenery, rustic subjects and
rocky coast-pieces (Dorset, Cornwall and Sark),
were treated by him with firm draughtsmanship,
close fidelity to natural truth, and much feeling
for pure colour and tender atmospheric effect.
He painted in transparent colours, avoiding the use
of body-colour.

His son, C. E. FRIPP, is an Associate of the
Royal Society of Painters in Water-colour.

VAUX-ROSE, or VAUROZE, was born in 1648. Little
is known of this artist except that he was a scholar
of Bourdon, and painted, after the drawings of his
master, the gallery of the hotel of M. de Breton-
villiers, president of the Chambre des Comptes.
He also painted, in 1667, an allegorical picture of
the campaign in Flanders, and another of the
conquest of Franche Comte in the following year.
He was elected a member and professor of anatomy
in the Academy of Paris in 1670: his reception
work, 'The Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle,' is in the
Louvre. He also engraved some of the works of
Bourdon. He died in Paris in 1716.

FRISCH, JOHANN CHRISTOPH, an historical painter,
was the son of the designer and engraver, Ferdi-
nand Helfreich Frisch, and was born at Berlin
in 1737. He was a pupil of B. Rode, but after-
wards studied further at Rome. He died at Berlin
in 1815, while holding the posts of court painter and
director of the Academy. He painted numerous
ceilings in the palaces at Berlin, Potsdam, and
Sans Souci, with portraits, mythological repre-
sentations, and scenes from the life of Frederick
the Great.

FRISCH, JOHN DIDRIK, a Norwegian landscape
painter, was born at Charlottedal, near Slagelse, in
1835, and studied in the Academy at Soro under
Harder, and afterwards in that at Copenhagen.
In 1867 he went to Italy for further improvement,
but died at Florence in that year. He was fond of
introducing animals into his landscapes. One of
his pictures is entitled ' Two old Neighbours pro-
curing a Night's Lodging.'


FRISIUS, JAN EILLART, was very likely one of
the De Vries family. He was chiefly employed by
the booksellers, for whom he engraved some plates
of portraits ; among others :

Henry IV., King of France.
Henry of Nassau, Prince of Orange.

FRISTER, KARL, an Austrian painter, was born
at Vienna in 1742, and died in the same city in

FRITS, PIETER, a Dutch painter, was born pro-
bably at Delft about 1627. He spent some time
in Italy, and was employed at several European
courts. In 1683 he established himself at Delft. He
painted incantations, spectres, and other eccentric
absurdities, in the style of Jerom Bosch ; but not
meeting with sufficient encouragement in this line,
he abandoned it for that of a printseller, in which
he amassed a large fortune. He was still living in

FRITSCH, DANIEL, a German painter, lived in
the latter part of the 16th century. He copied, or
imitated, the works of Lucas Cranach, as appears
by a picture in the church at Tempelhof, near
Berlin, mentioned by Kugler, and supposed to be
by Lucas Cranach, but which, on cleaning, was



discovered to be the work of Fritsoh, and painted
in the year 1596. Kugler observes that in power
of colouring it is inferior to the later works of
Cranach, but is distinguished by the excellence
and individual truth of the heads.

FRITZSCH, CHRISTIAN, an engraver, was a
native of Hamburg. He was chiefly employed in
engraving portraits, among which are:

Pope Benedict XIV.

John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough.

painter, was born at Kiel in 1765, and died at
Copenhagen in 1841. There are some specimens
of his art in the Gallery of the latter city.

FROHLICHER, OTTO, was born in Solothurn,
Switzerland, in 1840. He studied in Munich, and
was influenced by Schleich and Lier. In 1868-69
he lived a year in Paris, and painted in the forest
of Fontainebleau, receiving a powerful stimulus
from Theodore Rousseau and the Barbizon painters.
The wide plains of Peissenberg, seen under
brooding rain-clouds, Alpine and Bavarian land-
scapes are the subjects of his best pictures. His
studies of forest scenery are fresh and powerful,
but the finished pictures less successful. He died
in Munich in 1891. J H W L.



FROMENTIN, EUGENE, a French painter of
Algerian subjects, and an art writer, was born at
La Rochelle in 1820. He studied under Cabat,
and travelled in the East from 1842 to 1846. He
died at St. Maurice, near his birthplace, in 1876.
Amongst the books he wrote are ' Les Maitres
d'autrefois,' ' Un Ete' dans le Sahara,' ' Une Annee
dans le Sahel,' and a romance called 'Dominique.'
His chief paintings are:

The Gorge of the Chiffa.

Hawking in Algeria. (Luxembourg Gallery.)

Arab Encampment (unfinished). (Luxembourg Gallery.)

The Simoom. 1859.

Arabs attacked by a Lioness. 1868.

The Halt of Muleteers. 1869.

Rendezvous of Arab Chiefs.

A Souvenir of Esneh. 1876.

The Nile. 1876.

A memoir of Fromentin by M. Louis Gonse was
published in 1881, and has since been translated
into English.

FROMMEL, KARL LUDWIO, born at Birkenfeld
in 1789, was instructed in painting by Philipp Jakob
Becker, and in engraving by Haldenwang. He
afterwards went to Paris and Italy for improve-
ment, returned to Germany in 1817, and became
professor of painting and engraving at Carlsruhe.
He visited England in 1824, and founded, with
H. Winkles, an atelier for engravers on steel.
In 1829 he was made director of the Gallery at
Carlsruhe. He died at Ispringen, near Pforzheim,
in 1863. Frommel's landscapes are very spirited
and tasteful compositions. Among them are :


The Eruption of Vesuvius.
The Blue Grotto at Capri.
Scylla in Calabria.
The Convent Garden at Sorrento.
The Churchyard at Salzburg.
The Castle of Hohenstaufen.
A View of Rome.
^Etna and Taormina.
Bellaggio on Lake Como.
The House of Tasso at Sorrento.
The Villa Serbelloni on Lake Como.

Among his engravings are :

Ariccia, near Rome.

View of the Villa d'Este at Tivoli.

A Landscape with Goats and Shepherds.

A View of Vesuvius.

A View of Mount ^Etna.

La Grotta delle Sirene.

FRONTIER, JEAN CHARLES, was born in Paris in
1701. He was a pupil of Claude Guy Halle 1 , and
took the first prize at the Academy in 1728, with
a picture of ' Ezekiel abolishing Idolatry and estab-
lishing the Worship of the true God.' He was
received as an academician in 1744, with the pic-
ture ' Prometheus bound on Caucasus,' now in the
Louvre. He exhibited at the Salon from 1743 to
1751, and became director of the Academy of
Lyons, where he died in 1763.

FROSNE, JEAN, a French engraver, was born in
Paris about the year 1630, and was Btill living in
1676. He was principally employed in engraving
portraits, of which the Abb6 de Marolles collected
forty-three. He also engraved part of the large
ornamental plates for the collection of views, &c.,
by S. de Beaulieu. Among others, the following
portraits are by him :

Claude Baudry, Abb<5 de La Croix ; after Le Bon. 1657.

Louis de Lorraine, Due de Joyeuse.

Henri d'Orl&ms, Due de Longueville.

Nicolas Dauvet, Comte de Desmarez ; after Stresor.

Nicolas Potier, President of the Parliament.

M. Dreux d'Aubray.

FROST, GEORGE, an English landscape painter,
son of a builder, was born at Barrow, in Suffolk, in
1744. He was employed in connection with the
Ipswich coach, and only pursued art as a pleasure.
He was a follower of Gainsborough, and on friendly
terms with Constable. He died at Ipswich in 1821.
In the Glasgow Gallery is a sketch by this artist
entitled ' Courtship.'

FROST, WILLIAM EDWARD, an English mytho-
logical and allegorical painter, was born at Wands-
worth in 1810. He received his first instruction in
art from an amateur, then at Sass's academy, and
finally at the schools of the Royal Academy, which
he entered in 1829, and where, in 1839, he won the
gold medal with his ' Prometheus bound.' For the
first fourteen years of his career he painted por-
traits, and then relinquished that branch of art to
follow in the footsteps of Etty, to whom he had
been introduced at the age of fifteen, and who had
given him much advice. At the Westminster Hall
competition in 1843 he obtained a prize of 100 for
his ' Una surprised by Fauns.' He was elected
an Associate of the Royal Academy in 1846, but
did not become an Academician until 1871, when
he deposited as his diploma picture ' A Nymph and
Cupid.' He died in London in 1877. His chief
works are :

Sabrina. 1845.

Diana surprised by Actreon. 1846.

Una and the Wood Nymphs. 1847.

The Disarming of Cupid. 1850.

Chastity. 1854.

Narcissus. 1857. (International Exhibition, 1862.)

The Syrens. 1860.

A Dance. 1861.

The Graces and Loves. 1863.

Hylas and the Nymphs. 1867.

Puck. 1869.

FROYEN, , the name of an obscure and very
indifferent engraver, is affixed to a print repre-
senting the head of our Saviour. It is executed
entirely with the graver.


FRUMENTI, NiccoL6, who flourished about 1460,
was the painter of a triptych in the Uffizi at Florence,
representing the ' Raising of Lazarus,' dated 1461.

FRUTET, FRANCISCO. This name appeared first
in the pages of Cean Bermudez, whence it has
been copied again and again during the present
century. Cean Bermudez appears to have been
misled by certain documents in the archives of the
convent of La Merced Calzada at Seville, and so to
have ascribed to an artist who never existed the
triptych of the ' Adoration of the Magi,' now in
the Brussels Gallery, which was probably the last
work of Frans Floris. The question has been dis-
cussed by M. Fetis in the ' Bulletin des Commissions
royales d'Art et d'Archeologie ' for 1880.


FRUYTIERS, PHILIPPUS, a Flemish painter and
etcher, was born at Antwerp about the year 1610.
He first painted historical subjects in oil, and had
given proof of considerable ability in an altar-piece
representing the ' Virgin and Infant seated on a
Globe, with a Choir of Angels,' painted for the
cathedral, when he quitted oil-painting for dis-
temper and miniature, and became the most cele-
brated artist of his time in those branches. His
colouring is excellent, and his compositions evince
a ready invention. His works were greatly es-
teemed by Rubens, and it is no slender proof of his
merit that he was employed to paint the portraits
of that great master and his family, which he
executed entirely to his satisfaction. There is at
Windsor Castle a miniature by him of the wife and
family of Rubens. He died at Antwerp in 1665.
Fruytiers etched some plates in a very masterly
style.; they are principally portraits. The most
important are :

Jacob Edelheer, the Ambassador.

M. Ambrosius van Capelle, Bishop of Antwerp.

Gottfroy Wendelinus. 1648.

Hedwiga Eleonora, Queen of Sweden.

Don Laur. Eamires de Prado, Eques. 1649.

Innocens a Calatayerone, head of the Capuchins in


Benj. Sardagna. 1650.
St. Joachim and St. Anna presenting the Child Mary to

the Trinity.

FRY, WILLIAM THOMAS, who was born in 1789,
and died in 1843, practised engraving with some

FRYE, THOMAS, a portrait painter and engraver
in mezzotint, was born in the vicinity of Dublin
in 1710, but afterwards resided in London, and
in 1749 established a porcelain manufactory at
Bow, which did not prove a successful venture.
He painted portraits with success, both in oil and
in miniature. His portrait of Jeremy Bentham at
the age of thirteen is in the National Portrait
Gallery. He also scraped in mezzotint several
plates of portraits, most of which are as large as
life. He died in 1762. Among his engraving-
are the following heads :

George III.

Queen Charlotte.

His own Portrait.

Portrait of his Wife.

Miss Pond.

FUCHS, ADAM, an engraver on copper anc
wood, flourished in Germany in 1550-80. Among
his plates, which are marked with his name o
initials, or with one or other of
the accompanying monograms,

are :

7 s ?

The Elector Frederick the Wise.
Martin Luther kneeling before a Crucifix. 1568.
A Hare mounted as General.

Twelve Plates of Love-pieces of Sea-horses and

n 1767, became deservedly known for his archi-
ectural design for the cathedral at Cologne. He
estored with ability the ' Crucifixion of Peter,' in
3t. Peter's church in that city, and Stephan'spaint-
ng in the cathedral. He died at Cologne in 1848.

FUCKERAD, BERNARD, a Jesuit, born in Thu-
ingia in 1601, executed a number of paintings for
he Jesuits' Church and that of St. Andrew at
Cologne. He is said to have been so skilful in
copying the works of other artists, that an imitation
)y him of a picture by Johann Hulsman deceived
,hat painter into the belief that it was his own
jroduction. He died at Cologne in 1662.


FUENTES, GIORGIO, born at Milan in 1756,
studied under Gonzaga, and distinguished himself
as a painter of decorations in the Scala at Milan, at
Frankfort (17961805), and in the Grand Opera
in Paris. He died at Milan in 1821.

of the first artists who worked in mezzotint, is
said to have been instructed by Ludwig von
Siegen. All that is now known of this artist is
that he was a prebendary at Mayence in 1624, and
provost in 1673. He died at that town in 1675.
His very rare and beautiful plates are :

The Portrait of the Archduke Leopold William of
Austria. 1656.

Christ with the Crown of Thorns; after Mbrecht

The Bust of a Prince. 1658.

The Head of St. John.

Herodias with the Head of St. John.

The Portrait of the Margrave Frederick of Baden.

FUES, FRIEDRICH CHRISTIAN, an historical, genre,
and portrait painter, was born at Tubingen in 1772,
and was educated at Stuttgart under Harper and
Hetsch. He then found employment in Stob-
wasser's varnish factory at Brunswick, and after
that with J. D. von Mayr at Nuremberg, in the
preparation of pictures for snuff-boxes and orna-
ments, until he was appointed professor of painting
in the art school of the latter city. He died in
1836. He etched thirteen plates of landscapes,
and lithographed four. Among his paintings

The Minnesingers.

The Family of an old Knight in the Castle Hall.

A Peasant laughing.

Summer and Winter, 1835.

Consecration of a Swabian Church. 1839.

Nine Portraits of distinguished Nurembergers. (Town
Hall, Nuremberg.)

FUESSLY is the name borne by a numerous
family of artists, who flourished at Zurich in the
18th and 19th centuries. The most important
member was Heinrich Fuessly, better known as
Henry Fuseli, R.A. The others painted portraits,
flowers, miniatures, &c., and some of them wrote
on art.

FUESSLY, HEINRICH, or, as he is commonly
known in England, HENRY FUSELI, second son
of Johann Kaspar Fuessly, was born at Zurich in
1741. He was originally intended for the Church,
and 'actually entered it, but compelled by the
enmity of a magistrate, whose dishonesty he had
exposed, to leave his native town, he went to



Berlin, and for some time devoted himself to
literature, in which he was engaged at intervals
throughout his life. In 1765, at the instigation of
the British ambassador at the court of Berlin, he
visited England, and in 1767 an introduction to
Reynolds, who praised his drawings, induced him
to become a painter, and in the following year he
went to Italy, where he stayed for nearly nine
years, studying the works of Michelangelo ; but
he never fairly mastered the principles of drawing
or colouring, and his works are esteemed more for
the powerful imagination they display than for any
artistic merit. He was of most eccentric habits and
extravagant ideas, and these ideas are everywhere
apparent in his pictures. Leaving Italy in 1778,
and passing through Zurich, he reached England
in the following year, and in 1782 produced his
famous picture of 'The Nightmare.' In 1786 he
became a zealous worker in Boydell's Shakespeare
Gallery, for which he executed nine paintings.
In 1788 he was elected an Associate of the Royal
Academy, and an Academician two years later, and
in 1790, too, he married one of his models. In
1799 he opened his Milton Gallery, comprising
forty-seven paintings, the result of several years
of labour. In the same year he was elected
Lecturer on Painting at the Royal Academy, and
in 1804 he was made keeper, the bye-laws being
altered to allow him to retain the lectureship.
He died at Putney in 1825. Fuseli was an artist
in mind, but devoid of technical knowledge.
His most famous productions are, perhaps, his
illustrations to Shakespeare.

Heilbronn in 1751. Some of his works exhibit
elegance of form and an agreeable colour ; but he
is very unequal, as may be seen from those in the
Vienna Gallery, which are not his best. He first
learned painting under Guibal at Stuttgart, but
finding himself not yet apt enough for the art, he
studied jurisprudence at Halle in 1768. In 1770
he took up the brush again, and painted under
Oeser at Leipsic. He then went to Dresden, where
he executed several portraits. In 1772 he returned
to Stuttgart in order to study composition under
Guibal. At Vienna, to which city he went in 1774,
he was patronized by Maria Theresa, who assisted
him to visit Rome, in which city he studied after
the antique and the great masters, especially after
Mengs and Battoni. After having finished several
frescoes in the Caserta Palace, near Naples, in
1782, which represent 'Allegories upon the Origin
of the Sciences,' he was appointed vice-director
of the Academy at Vienna in 1783. He died at
Vienna in 1818. His most important paintings

Brunswick. Gallery. The Portrait of Count Ludolff.
London. Nat. Port. \ Portrait of Nelson ( painted at

Gallery. J Vienna in 1800).
Munich. Gallery. The Magdalen.

Vienna. Gallery. St. John the Baptist.

The Magdalen.

Ariadne at Naxos.

Orpheus in the Lower World.

Dido on the Funereal Pile.

Adam and Eve lamenting over

the body of Abel.

The Judgment of Brutus.



The Farewell of Coriolanus.

A cademy. The Death of Germanicus.


n - Prometheus.

Other portraits by him are :
The Emperor Joseph.
The Elector of Mentz.
General Loudon.
The Princess of France.
The Countess Rzewuska with her Children.

He illustrated Klopstock's 'Messiah' with twenty
designs which were engraved by Leybold, and
likewise executed fifteen etchings of portraits and
mythological subjects.

FUHRICH, JOSEPH, was bom at Kratzau, in
Bohemia, in 1800, and studied first at Prague under
Bergler, and in 1827 at Vienna, where he designed
and painted several romantic scenes. In 1829 he
went to Rome, and executed three frescoes in the
Villa Massimi, representing scenes from Tasso's
' Gerusalemme liberata.' He afterwards became
a follower of Overbeck. In 1854 he began his
great works in the Altlerchenfelder Church at
Vienna, representing the ' Raising of Lazarus '
and the 'Last Judgment.' He died at Vienna in
1876. Though his religious subjects are not free
from fault, they are well conceived, the figures
being natural and the draperies simple. Among
hia numerous paintings and drawings may be
mentioned :

Fif teeu drawings for Tieck's ' Genovefa.'

Illustrations to Goethe's ' Erlkonig.'

Twelve drawings for Goethe's ' Hermann and Dorothea.'

Jesus entering the Garden.

Joshua and his army giving thanks on the Fall of the
Walls of Jericho.

The Nativity of Christ.

The Creator in the Clouds giving Moses the Command-
ments. ( Vienna Gallery.)

The Appearance of fighting Horsemen in the Clouds,
terrifying the inhabitants of Jerusalem, before the
occupation by Antiochus. (Vienna Gallery)

The Virgin going over the Mountain. ( Vienna Gallery.')

Fourteen scenes from the Crucifixion. (St. John
Nepomuk) Vienna,)

Eight scenes in the life of the Prodigal Son.

Sixteen scenes of the Spiritual Rose.

Fifteen scenes of the Resurrection.


FULCO, GIOVANNI, was born at Messina in 1615.
After having learned the first principles of design
in his native city, he went to Naples, where he
entered the school of Cavaliere Massimo Stanzione.
He is said by Hakert, in his ' Memorie de' Pittori
Messinese,' to have been a firm and correct designer,
and to have excelled particularly in the representa-
tion of children. Many of his pictures have been
destroyed by the earthquakes, to which his country
is subject. Of those that remain are his fresco
works, and a picture in oil of the 'Birth of the
Virgin,' in the chapel of the Crucifixion, at the
Nunziata de' Teatini, at Messina. He died about
the year 1680.


FULIGNO, PIER ANTONIO DI, flourished about
the middle of the 15th century, and executed the
frescoes in Santa Cattarina at Assisi.

FULLER, ISAAC, an English painter, was born in
1606. Nothing is known of his family, or of Lia
instructor in his own country, but he studied some
years under Francois Perrier, in Paris. He was
principally employed in England, and especially at
Oxford, in wall pieces. In the chapel at Wadham
College he painted the ' Children of Israel gathering
Manna,' and at Magdalen College an altar-piece

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