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which was praised by Addison. He also painted
five pictures of the 'Escape of Charles II. after the
battle of Worcester,' which were presented to the


Irish Parliament. His own portrait, which is at
Queen's College, Oxford, though eccentric, is
touched with great force, and full of character.
Fuller etched some plates for a drawing-book,
called ' Libro da disegnare'; and in conjunction
with Tempesta and Henry Cooke, etched the plates
for the ' Moral Emblems,' by Cesare Ripa ; they are
very indifferently executed. He died in London
in 1672.

FULLER, RICHARD, an American landscape
painter, was born at Bradford, in New Hampshire,
in 1822. In 1840 he was apprenticed to a cigar
manufacturer at Boston, and later on he was made
street inspector and night watchman. From 1852
to 1866, however, he made attempts at the pursuit
of art in his leisure hours, deriving his instruction
from the pictures which he saw in shop-windows.
From 1867 until his death he was able to devote
himself entirely to painting, and depicted American
landscapes with much poetical feeling. He died
at Chelsea, near Boston, in 1871, and bequeathed
to the art club of that city ninety of his paintings,
which entitle him to rank among the best land-
scape painters of his country.


Venice in 1643, and was educated at Bologna.
After acquiring an excellent style of design and
composition in that school, he returned to Venice,
where he studied for some time the works of
Paolo Veronese. Lanzi considers his picture of
'Christ disputing with the Doctors,' in the church
of La Cariti, as his best performance. Among
other things the immense ceiling painting in
San Pantaleone, representing the ' Glorification
of St. Pantaleon,' is remarkable. He died in

FDMICELLI, LODOVICO, was a native of Trevigi,
who flourished about the year 1536. It is not
known with certainty whether he was a scholar of
Titian or not ; but Lanzi regards him as one of the
ablest and most memorable of his imitators. In
1536 he painted the principal altar-piece of the
church of the Padri Eremitani at Padua, represent-
ing the 'Virgin and Infant seated in the clouds, with
St. Augustine, St. James, and St. Marina below ' ;
which, according to Ridolfi, is designed and coloured
in a style worthy of the greatest masters. In the
church of the Padri Serviti, at Trevigi, he painted
a picture of 'St. Liberale and St. Catharine, 1 with
two laterals, representing ' St. Sebastian and St.
Philip," the latter the founder of their order. It is
to be regretted that the offer of an advantageous
situation in the engineers tempted him to abandon

FUNGAI, BERNARDINO, was a native of Siena,
who was born about 1460, and died in 1516. He
was instructed in the art of painting by Benvenuto
del Guasta. His style retains something of the
dry, stiff manner which preceded him, though not
more so than that of many of his contemporaries.
Among the works of this artist, in which he was
partly assisted by Pacchiarotti, the following are
the most important :

Chiusi. Cathedral. The Nativity of Christ. (As-

sisted by Pacchiarotti.)

London. South Kensiny- \ The Virgin with the Child.
ton Museum. ) (Falsely ascribed to Vivarini.)
Siena. iS. M. de' Servi. Coronation of the Virgin.
,, Madonna dj Fontegiusta. 1500.

Carmine. The Virgin and Child, witli

Saints. 1512.

Siena. Academy. The Ascension.

Christ between St. Francis and

St. Jerome,

A Madonna. (Assisted by Pac-


FUNK, HEINRICH, born at Herford, in West-
phalia, in 1809, learned the rudiments of art from
his father, and studied in 1829 under Schirmer at
the Academy at Diisseldorf. He soon became
known as an excellent painter of landscapes, and
was employed at Frankfort from 1836 to 1854.
Subsequently he settled at Stuttgart, where he
became professor of the art school, and died
in 1877. Funk was a student of nature, who
possessed a fine taste for the beautiful, and painted
in a simple manner. The following of his paintings
are noteworthy :

Berlin. Gallery. A Summer's Day on the Rhine.

>. A Euin in the Evening Light

Frankfort. Stiidel lust. The Lower Valley of the Inn.

., Landscape.

Stuttgart. Gallery. An approaching Thunderstorm in
the Eifel Mountains.

engraver, was born at Alterkiilz, Hundsriick, about
1589. In the early part of his life he resided at
Rome, where he engraved some plates as early as
1612. From 1620 to 1630 he was established at
Frankfort-on-the-Main. He engraved many por-
traits and historical pieces, chiefly for the book-
sellers, among which are those of the Colonna
family ; also some plates after Titian, and other
masters. He died at Frankfort in 1666. He
worked principally with the graver, though there
are a few etchings by him. When he did not sign
his plates with his name, he marked them with

. The following prints are by

the cipher

The Last Judgment ; after Michelangelo.

St. Sebastian ; a half-length figure.

An ornamental Frontispiece to the works of Gul. Fabri-

cius, dated 1646. It is etched hi a very spirited style,

and is signed S. Furck,f.

FURICH, JOHANN PHILIPP, born at Strassburg in
1655, studied under Johann Heinrich Roos at
Frankfort, and became so successful an imitator
of that master, that his works are often mistaken
for those of Roos. He died after 1735.

FURINI, FRANCESCO, who is styled by Lanzi the
Guido and Albani of the Florentine school, was
the son of Filippo Furini, a respectable portrait
painter, and was born at Florence in 1604. He
was first instructed by his father, and afterwards
studied under Passignano and Roselli ; and on
leaving their schools, visited Rome and Venice.
In 1644 he was appointed curate at Mugello, near
Borgo San Lorenzo, where he painted some of
his best pictures. But he acquired the high
reputation in which he is held by his admirable
easel pictures, which are found in the first collec-
tions in Florence. He had a preference for imi-
tating the style of Albani, in which he was very
successful. He drew with elegance and correct-
ness, particularly the delicate forms of women and
children, and he generally made choice of those
subjects in which they could be introduced with the
happiest effect. Such are his pictures of the ' Three
Graces,' in the Palazzo Strozzi, and of ' Nymphs
carried off by Satyrs,' in the Casa Galli. Furini died
at Florence in 1649. Among his paintings are the
following :



Borgo San


Copenhagen. Gallery.
Darmstadt. Museum.
Dresden. Galleri/,

Edinburgh. Nat. Gall.

Florence. Pitii Pal.

St. Francia receiving the Stig-

The Ascension of the Virgin.
The Penitent Magdalen.
A Female Saint.
St. Cecilia.

A Head of St. Sebastian.
A Poetess.

Adam and Eve in Eden.
An Allegorical Figure.
Lot and his Daughters.
David and Abigail.
Mythological Subjects.
The Magdalen.


Madrid. Gallery.

Borne. Pal. Capponi.

Pal. Corsini.

Vienna. Gallery.

FURNIUS, PIETER JALHEA, a Flemish designer
and engraver, was born in Flanders about 1540, and
was residing at Antwerp about the year 1570. He
was a contemporary of the Galles and the Sadelers,
who engraved some plates from his designs. His
style of engraving bears a near resemblance to that
of those artists. Though he drew the figure
correctly, in attempting to imitate the lofty style
of Michelangelo he fell into affectation and ex-
travagance. He worked entirely with the graver
in a slight, feeble manner. The many plates which
he engraved after M. Heemskerk, J. Stradanus,
M. De Vos, P. Brueghel, M. van Coxie, and others,
are signed with the accompanying monogram
The date of his death is not mentioned.
Among other prints the following are by him :

The Parable of the Good Samaritan : a set of six plates.
The Martyrdom of St. Felicia; P. Furnius in. et fee.
The Escape of Cloelia ; P. Furnius ftcit.

FURST, ROSINE HELENS, was an embroiderer
and engraver of Nuremberg in the 17th century.
Her sister, MAGDALENE FfiRST, painted flowers.



FURTMAYR, PERCHTHOLD, a miniature painter
of the Upper German School, flourished between
1470 and 1501. There are by him in the castle
of Wallerstein, Maihingen, near Nordlingen, a
Chronicle in two folio volumes, with a great number
of miniatures, and a Bible, with vignettes ; and at
Munich, in the Royal Library, a Missal in five
folio volumes, with miniatures, beautiful ruono-

frams, and flowers, executed for the Archbishop
ernhard of Salzburg in 1481.


FUSS, HANS. See Stress, HANS.

FUTERER, ULHICH, who was born at Landshut,
and flourished at Munich, is the author of a ' Cruci-
fixion,' painted in imitation of sculpture, in the
Gallery at Schleissheim. It was painted about 1480,
and is a specimen of very undeveloped art. Fiiterer
is better known as a poet than as a paiuter.

genre and portrait painter, was born at Dundee
about 1836. He became a student of the Royal
Scottish Academy, and exhibited his first picture
of importance, ' Queen Mary resigning her Crown
at Loch Leven Castle,' in the Exhibition of 1861 ;
but this was surpassed in later years by ' The Raid
of Ruthven.' In 1863 he settled in London, and
from that time onward was busily engaged with
portraiture, which he varied with landscapes and
genre subjects of interest and merit. Some of
his most important portraits are those of the
Earl and Countess of Duiferin, Admiral Grenfell,
Alderman Sir William McArthur, Dr. Lorimer
and John Faed, R.S.A. He died suddenly in
London in 1882. His best-known genre pictures


On Household Cares intent.

What can a Young Lassie dae wi' an Auld Man ?

FYOLL, CONRAD, who flourished at Frankfort-
on-the-Main from the year 1464 to 1476, the only
space of time of which record concerning him
has been handed down to us, is a painter whose
works display graceful drawing and subdued
colouring. The chief picture ascribed to him is an
altar-piece in the Sta'del Institute at Frankfort. It
represents, in the centre, ' Christ on the Cross,' with
the donor and his sons on the right wing, and his
wife and daughters on the left wing. There is
also a picture of the ' Family of St. Anne.' Mention
may also be made of a triptych in the Berlin
Gallery formerly assigned to him, but now thought
to be of rather later date, representing the 'Virgin
and Child with St. Anna,' and ' SS. Barbara and
Catharine ' and the ' Annunciation ' on the wings ;
and of another in the Antwerp Museum, with the
'Adoration of the Magi' in the centre, and the
'Nativity ' and 'Circumcision ' on the wings.

FYT, JAN, a Flemish painter and etcher, was born
at Antwerp in 1609. He studied in the atelier
of Jan van Berch in that city in 1621, became a
master in the Guild of St. Luke in 1629, and after-
wards visited Rome. When he returned to Antwerp
he joined the Guild of the Romanists in 1650, and
became its dean in 1652. He excelled in the re-
presentation of every species of animal, but in
dogs he is perhaps without a rival. It is impossible
for art to approach nearer to nature than in the
pictures of Fyt of that description. His touch is
without manner, or the formality of practice ; it is
loose, spirited, and playful, but peculiarly charac-
teristic, and full of energy. Such was his extra-
ordinary merit, that he was courted by the greatest
painters of his time to embellish their works with
the additional attraction of his admirable animals.
Rubens, Janssens, De Craeyer, and Jordaens em-
ployed him in that way, which was the more
flattering to his talent as Rubens himself excelled
in painting animals of every description. His
works are to be met with at Antwerp (the ' Meal
of the Eagle' and the 'Sleeping Hound '), Augsburg,
Berlin, Brunswick, Dresden, Cassel, Munich, Madrid,
Paris, Venice, and Vienna. A group of ' Dead
Birds ' is in the National Gallery. He died at
Antwerp in 1661. There are by Fyt some admirable
etchings, executed in the bold and spirited style of
his pictures ; they are as follow :

A set of eight of Dogs and other Animals. 1640.

A set of seven of Dogs, of different species, with back-
grounds of landscapes ; dated 1642, and inscribed
Johannes Fyt,pinx. et fecit.

A set of eight small plates of a Cart, a Horse, a Dog,
Foxes, Goats, and three of Cows. These are very

Lanzi mentions a Gio. Fayt di Anversa, who
resided for some time at Venice, and was employed
in the Casa Sagredo and Casa Contarini : this
etatement, if correct, cannot apply to Jan Fyt


GAAL, BARENT, (or GAEL,) a Dutch painter,
was born at Haarlem in 1650. He was a scholar
of Philip Wouwerman, until the death of that
master in 1668, when he found himself capable
of dispensing with further instruction. He painted
hunting parties, battles, horse-fairs, and other sub-
jects similar to those of his instructor, and he
frequently painted figures in the landscapes of


Isaac Koene, a scholar of Jacob Ruisdael. He
died in 1703. The Rotterdam Museum has paint-
ings by him of 'A Woman making Cakes,' and
'The Village Inn'; and the Brunswick Gallery
one of ' Soldiers playing Cards.' In the Hermitage
at St. Petersburg are a ' Coast Scene ' and a land-
scape, and in the Augsburg Gallery is 'A Pig

GAAL, PIETER, was born at Middelburg in 1769,
and received his first instructions from his father,
Thomas Gaal, under whom he made some progress ;
he afterwards became a pupil of Schweickhardt,
at the Hague. After visiting London, Paris, and
several places in Germany, he settled in his native
city, where he painted portraits, landscapes, animals,
live and dead game, and subjects of ordinary life,
some of which were of large dimensions. He died
at Middelburg in 1819.

GAAL, THOMAS, a painter of portraits, birds,
and flowers, was born at Dendermonde in 1739.
He fixed his residence at Middelburg, and was one
of the founders and directors of the Academy in
that town. J. Perkois, J. H. Koekkoek, and S. De
Koster were his pupils. He died at Middelburg
in 1817.

painter, was born at Florence in 1652. After he had
studied some time under Justus Sustermans and Vin-
cenzo Dandini, the Grand-Duke Cosmo III., having
been made acquainted with his promising talent,
took him under his protection, and sent him to the
Florentine Academy at Rome, where he frequented
the school of Giro Ferri. After passing three years
at Rome he visited Venice, and improved his style
of colouring by the study of the great painters of
that school. He was invited to the court of Vienna,
where he painted the portrait of the Emperor and
some historical subjects for the Imperial Gallery.
On his return to Florence he painted several altar-
pieces for the churches, particularly a fine picture
of the 'Assumption,' and a 'Repose in Egypt' ;
also his celebrated picture of ' St. Philip,' in the
church of the Padri dell' Oratorio. For his easel
pictures he generally selected subjects into which
he could introduce children, in which he excelled.
He continued to paint until he was killed by a fall
from a scaffold at Florence, in 1726. His principal
works in public galleries are :

Cambridge. Fitiwilliam \ p or trait.

Museum. J
Dresden. Gallery. Christ at the house of Simon

the Pharisee.

Florence. Uffi:i. His own Portrait.

Rape of Ganymede.


Munich. Gallery. St. Francis of Assisi performing

St. Peter of Alcantara.

Four engravings by him are known:

The Madonna ; after Parmigiano.
Portrait of an old Man.
Portrait of a young 'Woman.
A Landscape.

GABBIANI, GAETANO, the nephew of Antonio
Gabbiani, studied under his uncle, and became a
meritorious portrait painter in pastel. He worked
at Florence, and died about 1750.

GABBUGIANI. BALDAssARE.an Italian engraver,
executed some of the plates for the ' Museo Fioren-
tino,' published at Florence between the years 1747
and 1766.

painter of miniatures and of portraits in water-
colours, was born at Courbevoie in 1793. He is
also known as the author of a ' Dictionnaire des
Artistes de 1'Ecole Franjaise au xix* siecle,'
published in 1831. He died in Paris in 1860.

GABET, FRANZ, an Austrian etcher, was born
at Vienna in 1762, and died in the same city in
1847. He executed several landscapes after M.
Molitor, as well as some from his own designs,
and six plates of Ruins, &c., after F. E. Weirotter


GABLER, AMBROSIUS, a German painter and
engraver, born at Nuremberg in 1764, painted
beautiful miniatures. His father, Nikolaus Gabler,
painted in oils and etched.

GABLER, JOB ANN JAKOB, an engraver, was a
native of Augsburg. He worked at Leipsic, and
engraved the ' Battle of Lutzen ' in 1632.

miniature painter and designer, born in Paris in
1775, was a pupil of Naigeon and Regnault.
Among his designs are those ordered by the
French Government for the great work of the
Institute on Egypt ; and among his portraits is
one of Madame de Maintenon, engraved by M^cou,
which forms the frontispiece to her memoirs by
Lafont d'Ausonne. The date of his death is

GABRIEL, PAULUS JOSEPH, a painter and sculp-
tor, was born at Amsterdam in 1785. He learned
sculpture from his father and Canova, and devoted
himself principally to that branch of art ; but he
at first practised miniature painting, and in his
twentieth year proceeded to Paris specially to
improve himself therein. In 1820 he was made
a member of the Institute at Amsterdam, and
director of the Royal Academy there. He died at
Amsterdam in 1833.

GABRIELLI, CAMILLO, a native of Pisa, was
a scholar of Giro Ferri. Lanzi states that he
was the first who introduced the style of Pietro
da Cortona among his countrymen. He painted
some oil pictures at the Carmelites, and for private
collections ; but he was more distinguished for
his fresco paintings, which were much esteemed.
His principal work was the decorations of the
great saloon in the Palazzo Allicata. He died
in 1730.

GABRIELLO, ONOFRIO, was born at Messina in
1617. After studying six years in his native city,
under Antonio Ricci, called Barbalonga, he went
to Rome, and entered the school of Pietro da Cor-
tona. He afterwards visited Venice, and on his
return to Messina he was much employed in the
churches, for private collections, and in portrait
painting. He was in great repute when the Revo-
lution, which took place in 1674, obliged him to
quit Sicily, and he settled at Padua, where he
resided several years, and was usually called Onofrio
da Messina. Some of his best works are in the
church of San Francesco di Paola at Messina, and
in the 'Guida di Padova' are mentioned several
of his pictures in the public edifices and private
collections of that city, particularly in the Palazzo
Borromeo. He died in 1706.

GABRON, WILLEM, born at Antwerp in 1625,
was a good painter of fruit and flowers, and ex-
celled in the representation of gold and silver
vases, porcelain, and ornaments of a like kind.
He spent several years in Italy, but died at


Antwerp in 1679. The Munich, Brunswick, and
Darmstadt Galleries have works by him.

GADDI, AGNOLO, the son of Taddeo Gaddi, was
born at Florence apparently after 1333, and at his
father's death was left under the joint tutorship
of Giovanni da Milano and Jacopo del Casentino.
In the early portion of his career he painted the
' Resurrection of Lazarus," in the church of San
Jacopo tra Fosse, at Florence. The frescoes in
the Pieve of Prato, representing the two legends
of the Virgin and the Sacred Girdle, that were
painted in his prime, and show evident traces
of Giotto's principles, are still to be seen there.
Unfortunately they are much damaged both by
time and by repairs, but they still show consider-
able power and ability. Many other productions
from his brush exist in Prato. In the choir of
Santa Croce, at Florence, are eight frescoes illus-
trating the Legend of the Cross. Altar-pieces by
him may also be found in many of the churches in
and around Florence. He is said to have lived for
some time at Venice, engaged in mercantile pur-
suits. He died at Florence in 1396, and was
buried in the church of Santa Croce. Among his
paintings are the following :

Florence. Academy. Virgin and Child in Glory, sur-
rounded by Saints.

Evangelists and Doctors of the


Scenes from the Lives of St.

John the Evangelist, St. John
the Baptist, St. Nicholas, and
St. Anthony.

iS. Croce. Eight subjects from the Legend

of the Cross -frescoes.

Figures of Saints.

Uffi:i. The Annunciation.

Paris. Louvre. The Annunciation.

Prato. Cathedral. Thirteen subjects from the Life

of the Virgin, and the Legend
of Dagomari (who carried the
Holy Girdle from Palestine to

Museum. Virgin and Saints.

GADDI, GADDO, the intimate friend and con-
temporary of Cimabue, was born at Florence about
1260. From Tafi, Gaddo learned the art of mosaic,
and one of his earliest works was the figures of the
prophets beneath the windows in the baptistery
of San Giovanni at Florence. The influence of
Cimabue is chiefly shown in his mosaic inside
and above the portal of Santa Maria del Fiore at
Florence, representing a 'Coronation of the Virgin,
with Saints and Angels.' This artist seems to have
visited Rome, and to have been employed in mosaic
work in Santa Maria Maggiore, and in the choir
of St. Peter's. He also painted in the upper church
of St. Francis at Assisi, and executed the mosaics
of the old Duomo outside Arezzo. His portrait,
as well as that of Tafi, was painted by his son
Taddeo Gaddi in the ' Sposalizio ' in the Baron-
celli Chapel at Santa Croce. Gaddo Gnddi was
still living in 1333, but probably died about that
year, and was buried in the cloisters of Santa

GADDI, GIOVANNI, an inferior artist, was a son
of Taddeo Gaddi, and a pupil of his brother Agnolo.
He painted in San Spirito at Florence a ' Dispute
of Christ with the Scribes in the Temple,' and
some similar works, but they were all destroyed
on the rebuilding of the church. He died in

GADDI, TADDEO, the son of Gaddo Gaddi, waa
born at Florence about 1300, and was first in-


structed by his father, but afterwards by his god-
father Giotto, whose assistant he became for twenty-
four years. When Giotto left Florence to visit
Naples, the Baroncelli Chapel in Santa Croce was
completed, and Taddeo, after painting the ' Virgin
and Child between four Prophets ' on the funeral
monument at the entrance, executed on the walls
of the chapel itself scenes from the life of the
Virgin, and in the diagonals of the double ceiling
the Eight Virtues. One of these works was an
altar-piece now in the Berlin Gallery, and inscribed
" Anno Dni Mcccxxxim mensis septembris Tadeus
me fecit. " The centre panel represents the ' Virgin
and Child,' with the patrons kneeling at the foot
of the throne. On the right wing is the ' Birth,
of the Saviour,' and a scene from the life of St.
Nicholas of Bari, and on the left wing, beneath
two prophets, is the ' Crucified Saviour,' with the
Magdalen grasping the foot of the cross, and the
Virgin and St. John on either side. Another is
an altar-piece in the sacristy of San Pietro at
Megognano, near Poggibonsi, inscribed " Taddeus
Gaddi <J Floretia me pixit MCCCLV.," representing
the ' Virgin and Child enthroned among angels.'
Taddeo's activity may well be compared with that
of his master, though but few of his works survive.
His frescoes in San Spirito, the altar-pieces in San
Stefano del Ponte Vecchio.the frescoes in the church
of the Serviti, the allegories in the tribunal of the
Mercanzia, have all disappeared. He laboured also
at Pisa, where a portion of his work executed in
San Francesco in 1342 still remains. He afterwards
w r orked in Arezzo and Casentino. Taddeo Gaddi
died at Florence in 1366, and was buried in the
cloisters of Santa Croce.

Giovanni da Milano and Jacopo del Casentino
were his pupils. He was also celebrated as an
architect. The following are among his works :

Berlin. Gallery. Virgin adored by Saints and

Donators. 1334.

Academy. History of St. Francis.

Scenes from the Life of Christ.

Florence. S. Croce. Subjects from the History of

the Virgin -frescoes.

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