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The Last Supper fresco.

S. Maria \ Scenes from the Life of Christ

Novella. ) frescoes.

The Triumph of St. Thomas

Aquinas. (A grand compo-
sition, attributed to Gaddi, but
bearing all the marks of the
Sienese school.')
S. Felicitb. Virgin surrounded by Saints


Gotha. Gallery. Christ.

Paris. Lou-ore. Scenes from the Beheading of

St. John the Baptist ; Calvary ;
Christ and Judas Iscariot ;
Martyrdom of a Saiut. (Pre-
della in three compartments.^

Pisa. S. Francesco. The Apostles ; St. Francis ;

several Saints : Allegorical

Figures of the Virtues.

Frescoes. 1342.

Poggibonsi. S. Pietro, > Virgin enthroned, surrounded

Megognano. j by Saints. 1355.

Prato. Gallery. History of the Girdle of the

Virgin. (A predella.}


GAELEN, ALEXANDER VAN, who was born at
Amsterdam in 1670, was the scholar of Jan van
Huchtenburgh. He went to Germany, and he
passed some time at Cologne, in the employment
of the Elector. After a few years he returned to
Holland, where he did not long remain, but


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\Spanish Chapel, Sta. Maria Novella, Florence


determined to visit England. He accordingly
came to this country, and is said to have painted
a picture of Queen Anne in a coach drawn by
eight horses. He also painted pictures of the
principal battles between the Royal Army and that
of the Commonwealth, and the ' Battle of the
Boyne.' He died in 1728.

GAESBEECK, A. VAN, a Dutch painter of genre
subjects and portraits, flourished from about 1670
to about 1700, but no particulars of his life are
known. His works, which are rare, are in the
manner of Gerard Dou and Pieter van Slingeland.
The Berlin Gallery possesses ' The Seamstress,'
and the Amsterdam Museum a portrait of a young


1555, is said to have been a painter of some repu-
tation. He executed works after the manner of
Michelangelo. There are also several plates by
him, both etched and finished with the graver,
among which is a large print representing an
emblematical subject, executed in a style resem-
bling that of Cherubino Alberti, though very
inferior. He died in 1620.

GAGLIARDI, BERNARDINO, was born at Citti
di Castello in 1009. He was a scholar of Avanzino
Nucci. In the cathedral at Citta di Castello, he
painted the ' Martyrdom of St. Crescentianus,' but
his best performance is his picture of ' St. Pelle-
grino,' in the church of San Marcello at Rome.
He died in 1660.

GAGLIARDI, FILIPPO, is mentioned as having
executed architectural paintings about the year
1640. The Madrid Gallery possesses an ' Interior
of St. Peter's at Rome,' by him.

GAGNERAUX, B^NIGNE, born at Dijon in 1756,
was first instructed in the school at Dijon under
Frangois Devosge, from whence he proceeded to
Rome, where he acquired a reputation by his
picture of the 'Meeting of Gustavus III. of
Sweden with Pope Pius VI.,' which is now at
Stockholm. In Dijon are several of his pictures.
Owing to the disturbances in Rome he quitted
that city, and retired to Florence, where he died
in 1795. In the Uffizi at Florence are his own
portrait, a ' Battle Scene,' and a ' Lion Hunt.'


painter, was born in Paris, January 7, 1834. He
entered the Ecole des Beaux Arts in 1850, and
worked under Le'on Cogniet. He won the Prix
de Rome as an engraver in 1856, and from 1863
onwards was a constant contributor to the Salon,
of portraits, classical and sacred subjects, both
painted and engraved. He executed several
important commissions for the Chalcographie du
Louvre, among them the reproduction of Leonardo's
' Mona Lisa ' and ' Last Supper,' and engraved a
number of plates for the 'Gazette des Beaux
Arts." His plates were principally after the old
masters, but he also engraved occasionally from
his own pictures, and those of other modern
painters. His style, both with paint-brush and
burin, was a marvel of accurate minuteness.
Several of his works are in the Luxembourg. He
died in January, 1887.

GAILLARD, ROBERT, a French engraver, born
in Paris in 1722, executed a considerable number
of plates and portraits, historical and other sub-
jects, and landscapes. He died in Paris in 1785.
The following are his best prints :

Cardinal fitienne Ren6 Potier de Gesvres ; after
P. Batoni. Christophe de Beaumont, Archbishop of
Paris ; Jean Joseph Languet, Archbishop of Sens ; afttr
Chevalier. The Queen of Sweden; after Lantinville.
Venus and Cupid ; Jupiter and Calisto ; Bacchantes
sleeping ; Sylvia delivered by Amyntas ; Villagers fish-
ing; after Boucher. The Cabaret; The Russian Con-
cert ; after Le Prince. The Father's Malediction ;
The Son's Punishment; after Greuze. The Lace-maker;
A Girl spinning ; after Schenau.

a French amateur engraver, etched several small
plates for his amusement ; among others, a set
of views of the ' Antiquities of Aix,' dated 1750.

GAILLOT, BERNARD, a French historical painter,
born at Versailles in 1780, was a pupil of David.
He died in Paris in 1847. His principal pictures
are :

Cornelia, 1817 ; St. Martin ; Conversion of St. Augus-
tine, 1819; Dream of St. Monica, 1822; St. Louis
visiting the Holy Sepulchre ; St. Louis bearing the
Crown of Thorns, 1824; Holy Angels, 1824; Dream of
St. Joseph, 1824 ; The Assumption, 1827 ; Christ bless-
ing little Children, 1831.

GAINSBOROUGH, THOMAS, who was born at
Sudbury in 1727, was the youngest son of John
Gainsborough, a clothier. He very early discovered
a propensity for art, which was nursed, as he
loved to acknowledge in after 3'ears, by the Suffolk
scenery with which he was surrounded. Before
he was ten years old he was sent to the Grammar
School, of which his uncle, the Rev. Humphrey
Burroughs, was master; but he does not seem to
have made much progress, as he employed himself
chiefly in making sketches. At last, when he was
in his fifteenth year, it was decided to send him to
London, and so in 1741 he was intrusted to the
care of a silversmith, who introduced him to
Gravelot, an engraver and teacher of drawing,
from whom he learned the art of etching. Grave-
lot, recognizing his talent, obtained for him ad-
mission to the Martin's Lane Academy, where he
worked for three years with Francis Hayman, the
historical painter, and then set up for himself in
Hatton Garden, where he did a little modelling and
produced a few landscapes. After a year's experi-
ence of Hatton Garden, he returned, in 1745, to
Sudbury, where he set up as a portrait painter, and
in the same year married a young lady named
Margaret Burr, whose brother was a traveller in
his father's employ. After a brief residence at
Sudbury. he removed to Ipswich in 1746, and
there made the acquaintance of Joshua Kirby,
which ripened into a warm friendship, and lasted
till the death of the latter in 1771. When Kirby left
Ipswich for London, it was Gainsborough's destiny
to become acquainted with Philip Thicknesse, who
bad just been appointed Governor of Landguard
Fort, Ipswich, and who afterwards influenced the
painter's career, and became his first biographer ;
for it was at his suggestion that in the year 1760
he removed to Bath. There he took apartments in
the newly-erected Circus at the rent of 50 a year,
and business came in so fast that the price of a
portrait was raised from five to eight guineas, and
eventually settled at forty guineas for a half-length,
and a hundred guineas for a whole-length. On the
foundation of the Royal Academy in 1768, Gains-
borough was one of the thirty-six original members,
though he does not seem to have taken any part in
the work, for which in 1775 the Council moved
that "the name of Mr. Gainsborough be omitted



from their lists," which was, however, rescinded at
the next general meeting. On his original election
to the Academy he contributed ' A Romantic Land-
scape, with Sheep at a Fountain.' In 1774, owing
to a quarrel with the Thicknesses, Gainsborough
left Bath, and for a second time set up in London,
taking up his residence at Schomberg House, a
noble mansion in Pall Mall, where commissions
came in so fast that he was unable to keep up with
the demand made on his services. In 1779 he was
at the very height of his fame ; all the eminent
men of the day sat to him, and he was the favourite
painter of the King and Royal Family. From
1769 to 1783 (excepting in the years 1773 to 1776)
he was a constant contributor of portraits and land-
scapes to the exhibitions of the Royal Academy ;
but in the year 1783, owing to a disagreement with
the Council about hanging the picture of the three
Princesses, he withdrew his pictures, and never
again contributed to the exhibitions. In 1787 a
lump in his neck, which lie first felt when present
at the trial of Warren Hastings in Westminster
Hall, developed into a cancer, of which he died in
the next year. He was buried at his own desire
in Kew churchyard, where a simple flat stone
records his name, age, and date of death. Gains-
borough will always occupy the highest place in
the English school, whether as a portrait painter
or a landscape painter. In his early landscapes
he showed traces of the influence of the Flemish
school, but as time went on Nature alone became
his mistress. As a colourist he ranks with Rubens,
and in technical work Ruskin says that "Turner
is a child to him." In his life and character
Northcote says that "he was a natural gentleman,
and with all his simplicity had wit too." The
principal features in his character were his kind-
ness and his passionate love of music. His failings
seem to have been his capriciousness and infirmity
of temper.

Gainsborough designed and etched with much
spirit at least eighteen plates, among which are :

A plate for Kirby's ' Perspective.'

An Oak Tree, with Gipsies.

A Man ploughing.

The "Watering Place.



Besides these he executed three plates in aqua-
tint, one of which is most carefully finished. His
life work consisted of upwards of 300 paintings,
of which over 220 were portraits. George III. was
painted eight times, Pitt seven times, Garrick five
times. Among other names are those of Lord
Camden, Sir William Blackstone, Dr. Johnson,
Laurence Sterne, Richardson, Cli ve, Burke, Sheridan,
Windham, Franklin, Canning, Mrs. Graham, Lady
Mary Wortley Montagu, Lady Vernon, Lady May-
nard, Quin, and Mrs. Siddons. Lists of his works
are to be found in Fulcher's ' Life of Thomas
Gainsborough, R.A.,' London, 1856. The follow-
ing are some of his most famous pictures in public
galleries and well-known private collections :

London, National Gallery.
The Market Cart.
The Watering-Place.
Musidora bathing her Feet.
Woody Landscape, Sunset.
Landscape: ' Gainsborough's Forest.'
Rustic Children.

Study for a Portrait of Abel Moysey.
Portrait of Mrs. Siddons.

Portrait of Ralph Schomberg, M.D.
Portrait of Orpin, Parish Clerk of Bradford, Wilts.
Portraits of Mr. J. Baillie, Wife, and Four Children.
Portrait of Rev. Sir Henry Bate Dudley, Bart.
And many others.

Dulwich Gallery.

Portrait of Mrs. Sheridan and Mrs. Tickell.
Portrait of P. J. de Loutherbourg, E.A.
Portrait of Thomas Linley.
Portrait of Samuel Linley, K.N.
Portraits of Mrs. Moody and her Children.

National Portrait Gallery.
Portrait of Jeffery, first Lord Amherst.
Portrait of Charles, first Marquis Cornwallis.
Portrait of George Colman.

Hampton Court.

Portrait of Fischer, the Musician.
Portrait of Colonel St. Leger.

Grosvenor House.
The Blue Boy (Master Buttall).
The Cottage Door.

Buckingham Palace.
Duke and Duchess of Cumberland.

Cambridge. Fitzwilliam ) Hon _ ^ FitzwilUam .

Museum. )

Dublin. Nat. Gall. Duke of Northumberland.

Edinburgh. Nat. Gall. Hon. Mrs. Graham.
Glasgow. Gallery. Donkeys in a Storm.

Greenwich. Hospital. Lord Sandwich.

Portraits of the Royal Family,

London. Eoyal Academy. His own Portrait.
Stratford-on-Avon. Mus. David Garrick.
Windsor. Castle. George III.; full-length.

Portraits of the Eoyal Family.


and sometimes IL PRETE GENOVESE, was born at
Florence in 1627, and was for some time a scholar
of Padre Stefaneschi, through whose influence he
became a monk of the order of the Capuchins,
whence the two names by which he is frequently
known. He was sent as a missionary to India,
where he passed several years, and on his return
to Europe painted several pictures for the churches
of his order. In the Uffizi is his own portrait. He
died in 1706, in the monastery of Montughi, near

GALARD, GUSTAVE DE, Count, a French painter
ind designer, was born at the chateau of Lille,
near Lectoure, about 1777, and died at Bordeaux in
1840. In the Bordeaux Museum there is by him
a ' View at La Teste.' His son, GEORGES DE GALARD,
was born at Bordeaux, and died there in 1834, and
there is in the Museum of that city a ' Study of
a Sweep,' by him.

GALASSI, GALASSO, (sometimes called GALASSO
ALGHISI,) the son of a shoemaker of Ferrara,
was born about 1423. From the account-books
of the House of Este, it appears that he was
called Maestro Galasso de Mattheo Calegaro,
and was employed in the decorations of the
palace of Belreguardo between the years 1450
and 1453. In 1455 he composed the 'Assump-
tion,' and finished the portrait of Cardinal
Bessarion, at Santa Maria in Monte, Bologna.
Amongst his early paintings were the 'Trinity,'
in the Museum of Ferrara; and the 'Entomb-
ment,' and a 'Virgin and Child, with donor and
patron _ Saint,' in the Costabili Gallery in the
same city. Professor Saroli possesses a ' Christ
on the Mount of Olives,' and the Marquis Strozzi
a 'Crucifixion,' both in Ferrara. Galassi died
in 1473.

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GALCERAN, ANTONIO, who was a pupil of Es-
quarte, was brought from Italy to Zaragoza in
1580. He painted in the palace of the Bishop of
Barbastro, and enriched the cathedral there with
historical pictures.

GALCERAN, VICENTE, a Spanish engraver, was
born in 1726, and studied under Ravanals and
Rovira, executing a print of St. Vincent Ferrer,
when only eleven years old. Leaving Valencia
for Madrid in 1750, he was soon after employed
by the Chapter of Toledo to retouch some plates
sent from Rome by Cardinal Portocarrero. He
executed plates for works on natural history and
horsemanship, and the portraits of the kings of
Spain for Berni's 'Titulos de la Castilla,' printed at
Valencia in 1769, the last but little to his credit.
He returned to Valencia in 1768, where he engraved
portraits of Bishop Cervera of Cadiz, and others.
He died at Valencia in 1788, leaving, it is said, no
less than 700 plates, great and small.

GALEAS, Fray FRANCISCO DE, an excellent
Spanish illuminator and miniaturist, was born at
Seville in 1567. He studied law until 1590, when
he entered the convent of Santa Maria de las
Cuevas. He was afterwards promoted to the priory
of Cazalla, but he resigned this dignity after two
years, and returned to his Sevillian convent, to die
of vexation in 1614. The convent possesses two
of his miniatures, 'The Saviour dead' and 'The
Saviour rising '; also some illuminations in books,
which display great clearness and beauty.

GALEN, THYMAN VAN, a native of Utrecht, who
flourished early in the 17th century, is chiefly
known by a picture of the ' Ruins of a Temple '
placed in the Hospital of St. Job in Utrecht.

GALEOTTI, SEBASTIANO, born at Florence in
1676, first studied under Alessandro Gherardini,
but afterwards went to Bologna, where he be-
came a scholar of Giovanni Gioseffo dal Sole.
He possessed a ready invention, and was a good
designer ; and his powers were well adapted to
fresco painting, in which, according to Ratti, he
executed some considerable works in the church
of La Maddalena at Genoa. Few of his works are
to be found in his native city, from which it would
seem that he was not held in so much reputation
there as in Upper Italy ; but there are several at
Piacenza and Parma, and particularly at Turin,
where he was made director of the Academy. He
died at Turin in 1746, leaving two sons, GIUSEPPE
and GIOVANNI BATTISTA, who were also painters.

and engraver, was born at Florence in 1618. He
studied painting under Francesco Furini, and after-
wards went to Rome, where he was received into
the Academy of St. Luke in 1652. The date of
his death is uncertain, but he was still living in
1661. He was the friend of Stefano della Bella,
whose style he imitated, and, according to Huber,
finished some of the plates left imperfect at his
death. He etched a great number of plates, of
which there is a catalogue by Giacomo Rossi.


torical, portrait, and landscape painter, was born
in Paris in 1813. He studied under his uncle,
Auguste Hesse, and with Ingres, and soon became
known for his pictures, chiefly of Biblical subjects.
He painted the 'Disciples at Emmaus' for St
Germain-l'Auxerrois, and mural decorations in St.
Germain-des-Pres, Paris. His picture of 'The
Ode, 1 exhibited at the Salon in 1846, is now in the
VOL. n. p

Luxembourg Gallery. Many of Galimard's works
have been engraved by Aubry-Lecomte and others.
He made several designs for stained-glass windows,
and wrote treatises on the subject. He died at
Montigny-les-Cormeilles (Seine-et-Oise) in 1880.

GAL1NDEZ, MARTIN, a Spanish painter, was
born at Haro in Old Castile, in 1547. In 1584 he
entered the Chartreuse of Paular, where he devoted
his leisure to the arts and to mechanical pursuits,
and where he died in 1627, after executing a num-
ber of tolerable devotional pictures, and a variety
of wood-carvings, sundials, and alarums.

GALIZIA, FEDE, (or GALLIZI,) was a native of
Trento, in the Milanese, who flourished about the
year 1616. She was the daughter of Annunzio
Galizia, a miniature painter, who resided at Milan,
from whom she received her instruction in art.
She painted historical subjects and landscapes, in
a pleasing and finished style, resembling that of the
Bolognese school anterior to the Carracci ; but she
excelled in small portraits. One of her best his-
torical pictures is ' Christ appearing to Mary Mag-
dalen,' in the Brera at Milan, from the church of
La Maddalena.

GALLAIT, Louis, painter, was born at Tournay
in 1810, and was educated in his native town. He
showed his artistic talent at a very early age, and
gained a prize from the Ghent Academy while
still a boy. The municipal authorities of Tournay
bought one of his early performances, a ' Christ
restoring sight to the Blind Man,' and presented it
to the cathedral. The city further granted him
a sum of money in 1835, which enabled him to
study in Paris under Hennequin. Henceforth his
career was one of assured success. His ambitious
and melodramatic pictures were received with
great favour by the public, though condemned by
artists and connoisseurs. His art had much in
common with that of his contemporary, Scheffer,
with whom he was often compared, though Gallait
was a very much more accomplished craftsman.
He was a member of the Institute of France, and
an honorary foreign Royal Academician. Several
of his pictures were at the International Exhibition
of 1862. He died November 20, 1887.

GALLAND, PIERRE VICTOR, distinguished deco-
rative artist, born at Geneva July 15, 1822. His
first artistic efforts were devoted to metal work,
but he subsequently studied architecture and paint-
ing in the studios of Labrouste and Drolling, while
earning a livelihood as a decorative artist. His work
may be admired in many of the public and private
buildings not only of Paris, but also of Madrid, St.
Petersburg, New York and London. He filled the
post of Professor of Decorative Art at the Ecole
des Beaux Arts in Paris, and was Director of Works
of Art at the Gobelins. In 1883 he was appointed
officer of the Legion of Honour. He died suddenly
in Paris on November 30, 1892.

GALLAUDO, MATED, was a Spanish painter,
who resided at Madrid in 1657. There is a figure
of Christ, signed with his name, and several of the
Virgin, of the size of life.




Cornells I.



Jan or Joannes
(1600 16781.

Cornells II.


Cornells III.




GALLE, CORNELIS, the elder, a younger son of
Philipp Galle, was born at Antwerp in 1576, and
was taught engraving by his father. He followed
the example of his brother Theodoor in visiting
Italy, where he fell under the influence of Titian
and Palma Vecchio. He resided several years in
Rome, and acquired a correctness of design, and a
freedom of execution, in which he greatly surpassed
both his father and his brother. After engraving
several plates at Rome from the Italian masters,
he returned in 1601 to Antwerp, passing through
Siena and Florence. He set up in business as a
printseller and collector, with so much success,
that he came to be regarded as the chief authority
on the subject in the Netherlands. He worked
also assiduously at his proper calling, and en-
graved many plates after the works of his country-
men and his own designs. " He equalled," say
Huber and Rost, " the most famous engravers, and
surpassed all the Galles." He had two styles, one,
somewhat stift' and hard ; the other, much more
easy and attractive. The first is seen in his early
Antwerp work after M. de Vos and J. Stradanus ; the
second, with his Italian inspirations, after G. Paggi,
F. Vanni, A. Carracci, Salimbeni, and Villamena.
Towards the end of his life Rubens affected him
greatly, and his work is marked by a delightful
freedom. His naked figures are beautifully finished,
and his landscapes are done with perfection. His
work was signed Cornells Galle simply ; and
consequently there is some confusion between him
and the two others of his family bearing the same
name. He died in 1656. Previous to going to
Italy he engraved these plates :

A part of the plates of the Life of Christ ; after Martin
de Vos. A set of plates of the Life of the Virgin
Mary ; A set of plates of the Life of St. John the
Baptist; after Stradanus.

The following are some of his best prints :

St. Charles Borromeo, Cardinal Archbishop of Milan.
Philipp Rubens, the brother of Peter Paul Rubens.
Ferdinand III. ; after Van Dyck. Jan van Havre ;
after Rubens. Charles I., King of England; in an
allegorical border ; Henrietta Maria, Queen of
Charles I . ; with a border of flowers and figures ;
after Van der Horst. Artus Wolfart, painter ; after
Van Dyck. Jan Wiggers ; after H. de Smet. Isa-
bella of Arenberg ; after Ch. Wautier. Abraham
Ortelius ; after H. Qoftzius, Henri IV. and Marie de
Medici, done at Siena in 1600. Adam and Eve; The
Holy Family returning from Egypt, with a Choir of
Angels ; Venus caressing Cupid ; St. Peter baptizing
St. Priscia ; after Giov. Ban. Paggi. The Virgin and
Infant, to whom St. Bernard is offering a Book ; The
Crucifixion, with the Virgin, St. Francis, and St.
Theresa ; after Francesco Vanni. Venus bound to a
Tree, and Minerva chastising Cupid ; Procne showing
the Head of her sen Itys to her husband Tereus ;
Seneca in the Bath ; after Agostino Carracci. The
Virgin caressing the Infant Jesus ; The Entombment
of Christ ; after Raphael. The Virgin Mary, under
an arch, ornamented with flowers by Angels ; Judith
cutting off the Head of Holofernes ; The Four
Fathers of the Church. A Banquet, with Musicians.
Commentaria Acta Apostolorum, 1647. Ten Plates,
' Missale Romanum,' 1650. Ecce Homo ; Christ
and St. John the Baptist ; many Frontispieces to
religious works ; Judith ; after Rulens. St. Martin
and the Beggar ; after Van Dyck. Five scenes from
the Life of Christ; after A. Carracci. Plates for
the Life of St. Ignatius Loyola. Legend of St.
Cecilia ; after Vanni. Magdalene at Simon's Feast ;
after Cigoli.

GALLE, COENELIS, the younger, the son of

Cornells Galle the elder, was born at Antwerp in

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