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1615, and was instructed in the art of engraving
by his father. It does not appear that he had the
advantage of studying in Italy, which may account
for his drawing being less correct than that of
his father or his uncle. His elegance and his
facility have gained him much renown. He some-
times signed his name Cornells Galle, junior ;
but very many plates undoubtedly by him pass
muster as the work of his father. His portraits
are more meritorious than his larger pieces. These
are of great interest and value, and form almost an
unique gallery of literary and commercial worthies
of the period. The features, in each case, are done
with the greatest care, and the accessories are
characteristic. Several of this series are now in
the celebrated Plantin Museum at Antwerp. He
died at Antwerp in 1678. The following are his
most esteemed prints.

The Emperor Ferdinand III., 1649 ; Mary of Austria,
his Empress, 1649 ; Henrietta of Lorraine ; Jan
Meyssens, painter and engraver; after Van Dyck.
Jodocus Christophorus Kress de Kressenstein,
Senator of Hamburg ; Ottavio Piccolomini ; in a
border of fruit and flowers ; after Anselmus van
Hulle. Job and his wife ; St. Dominic receiving
the Rosary from the Virgin ; Descent from the
Cross ; The Crucifixion ; Jupiter and Mercury, with
Baucis and Philemon ; after J. van den Hoeck. The
Nativity, with the Angels appearing to the Shep-
herds ; after David Teniers the elder. The Resurrec-
tion ; after Gaspar de Craeyer. Venus suckling the
Loves ; Flight into Egypt ; Christ in the Tomb ;
after Rubens. Christ at the Pharisee's Table ; after
L. Cigoli. Frontispiece, ' De Hierarchia Mariana,'
1640 ; Frontispiece, ' Opera Lintripandi,' 1640 ; Three
plates, 'Legatus Frederici Marselere,' 1666; after
Rubens. Frontispieces, 1647, 1648; after A. Diepen-

GALLE, CORNELIS, the third, son of Cornelis
Galle, the younger, was born at Antwerp in 1642.
He learned his art at the atelier of the family. Not
much is known about him, and the accident of his
name makes identification of his work difficult.
There is, however, a class of engravings, mostly
humorous, bearing the signature C. Galle. This
may differentiate him from the other Cornelises,
who usually signed their first names in full. An
example exists at the British Museum, 'A Feathered
Parliament.' His work is marked by correctness
of composition, but there is an absence of that fine
finish which is such a convincing attribute of his
family. He married a wealthy wife, by whom he
had three .sons, but none of them followed the
family profession. He died at Antwerp in 1701.

GALLE, HIERONYMUS. In the Uffizi Gallery at
Florence is a picture of a ' Festoon of Flowers,'
signed Hieronymus Galle. f. A. 1655.

GALLE, JAN, a son and pupil of TheodoorGalle,
was born at Antwerp in 1600. Little is known of
his early training. He worked with his father and
his uncle, and also with the Wierixes. Many
plates have his name along with theirs. Some of
the most beautiful examples of his art are to be
found in a series called a ' Rosary,' and these bear
the following signature, Anton Wierix fecit Joan
Galle excudit. His work is marked by fine com-
position and freedom in execution. To him belongs
one of the most lovely volumes at the British
Museum, ' Vita St. Joseph B.V. Sponsi.' It bears
no date, but its miniature plates are perfect speci-
mens of what the graver can do. He engraved
many subjects after Goltzius. He was enrolled in


the Guild of St. Luke under the designation of
" Wynmeester," because, as was usual with the
sons of Masters of the Guild, he had to pay his
entrance fee with a present of wine 1 Ultimately
he became Master, and died, a wealthy man, in
1676. Among his plates are :

The Wise and Foolish Virgins ; after Marten de I'os.
Christ surrounded by the Instruments of His Passion.
The fat Cook and the thin Cook ; Lubricitas Vitaa
Humans, 1553 ; after P. Brueghel the elder.

GALLE, PHILIPP, a Dutch engraver, was born
at Haarlem in 1537. He studied at Amsterdam
under Dirk V. Cuerenherdt, the celebrated engraver
and controversialist. He travelled through Italy,
France and Germany, and settled at Antwerp in
1570, where he established a studio of engraving.
Among his better-known pupils, in addition to his
son, were his celebrated son-in-law Adrien Collaert,
and Jan B. Barbed He was a writer and historian,
as well as a skilful draughtsman. He became a
member of the Guild of St. Luke, under the title
of Free Master Engraver. He took as his model
the style of Lucas de Leyden. He drew very
correctly, and excelled in clair obscur ; but his
manner was somewhat dry and hard. His subjects
were chiefly scriptural. He engraved plates for
many books issued by Christopher Plantin, the
first being dated 1573. He worked with great
rapidity ; M. Mariette says, " II maniait le burin
avec facility." He did a lucrative business as a
printseller. He was the founder of the famous
Galle family of engravers. He died at Antwerp in
1612. The number of his prints is considerable,
and they are generally marked with one of the

annexed ciphers : T^Jr or (If. The following
are his principal plates :

Calvin. Luther. Zwingli. Pirkheimer. Sir Thomas
More. !Dante. Marten van Heemskerk. Willem
Philander ; Duke of Alva, 1571. The Seasons ; The
Three Young Men in the Furnace ; Memorabiliores
Judaicse Gentis Clades ; Acta Apostolorum ; His-
tories of St. John, the Prodigal Son, Samson, Esther,
and Ahasuerus ; after Marten van Heemskerk. The
Passion, Death, and Resurrection ; The Battles of the
Tuscans ; The Victories and Triumphs of the Medici
Family, 1583 ; after Stradanus. A set of thirty-four
plates of the Life and Miracles of St. Catharine of
Siena, 1603. Ten plates of the Sibyls ; after A. van
Elocklandt. The Trinity, 1584; after Marten de
T'os. The Seven Wonders of the World; The
Triumph of Death, Fame, and Honour; after Marten
van JleeTnskerk. Plates ; entitled ' Diviuarum Nup-
tiarum conventus et acta'; dated 1580. The Death of
St. Anne ; The Good Shepherd ; after Brueyhel. The
Trinity ; large plate ; after J/. de I'os ; his best print.
Solomon directing the building of the Temple ; Abra-
ham sacrificing Isaac ; Lot and his Daughters ;
Mutius Scsevola in the Tent of Porsena, 1563; Mas-
sacre of the Innocents ; large plate ; after F. Floris.
Funeral Ceremonies ; large plate, 1562. Frontispiece,
' Sapientia Hominum,' 1572. Les Niobides, 1557 ;
after Jules Ramain. Christ at Emmaus, 1574. The
Heavenly Choir, 1574. Sea Gods and Nymphs and
Naiads, 1587.

GALLE, THEODOOE, the elder son of Philipp
Galle, was born at Antwerp in 1571, and was in-
structed in the use of the graver by his father. He
afterwards went to Rome to study the antique, and
whilst there he engraved several plates after the
great masters, more especially Raphael. His style
was less conventional than Ids father's. His touch

was remarkable for delicacy ; he was a patient
elaborator of detail. His work exhibits a distinct
breaking away from the bald fashion of the period.
He collaborated much with Jean Collaert, his
nephew. Their manner approached very nearly
that of the Wierixes a more polished style than
that of his father. He held a commanding position
in his city, and was Master of his Guild. He died
at Antwerp in 1633 or 1634. The following are
his principal works :

Justus Lipsius. St. Jerome. St. John. St. Hildrude
and St. Hildegoude. Emblematical subjects, entitled
'Litisabusus,&c.' The Life of St. Norbert. The Life
of the Virgin and St. Joseph (twenty-eight). Thirteen
figures, each with a title and explication ; entitled
* Typus occasiouis, &c.' ; 1600. The Infant Jesus re-
garding the Instruments of the Passiou. St. John. St.
Jerome. Count Ugoliuo and his Children ; Coriola-
nus entreated by the Roman Women ; Cornelia, the
Mother of Gracchi ; Phaethon guiding the Chariot of
the Sun ; Susannah; after Stradanus. A Frontispiece
to Mascard's ' Silvarum libri * ; a Frontispiece to
' Las Obras en Verso ' of Francisco de Boria, 1624 ;
Frontispiece to ' Opera Senecse,' 2nd edition, 1615;
Frontispiece to ' Opera Senecse,' 4th edition, 1652 ;
Frontispiece to ' Annales Sacri ' ; after Rulteiis.
Eleven plates for ' Studiosae Juventuti.' Suite : New
Discoveries; after J. Stradanus. Seven Deadly Sins.
Seven Conspicuous Virtues.

GALLEGOS, FERNANDO, a Spanish painter, was
born at Salamanca in 1475. It is said that he
studied under Albrecht Du'rer, but it is more likely
that Berruguete was his master ; and he only fol-
lowed the taste which then prevailed in Europe.
Some of his pictures bear so strong a resemblance
to those of Durer, that acknowledged connoisseurs
have mistaken them. His best work is an altar-
piece in the chapel of St. Clement at Salamanca.
Count Raczynski, in his work ' Les Arts en
Portugal,' says there are many of Gallegos's pic-
tures there, but neither Palomino nor Cean Ber-
mudez mentions the circumstance of his having
painted in Portugal. He died in 1550. There
are six scriptural subjects by him in the Madrid

painter, was born in 1664, and died in 1742. His
portrait is in the Uffizi.

BIBIENA, a painter and architect, was a son of
Ferdinando Galli. He was skilful in both oil and
fresco painting, and was employed at the court of
the Elector Palatine, in whose service he died
about the year 1760.

GALLI, ANTONIO, was a brother of Alessandro
Galli, and, like him, a painter and architect. He
was born at Bologna in 1700, and died at Milan in
1774. He painted theatrical decorations.

GALLI, CARLO, a son of Giuseppe Galli, was,
like his father, a painter and architect. He visited
the various courts of Germany, as well as those of
England, France, and Italy, and is known to have
been still living in 1769. ,

BIBIENA, the son of Giovanni Maria Galli, was
born at Bologna in 1657. His father dying when
he was only eight years of age, he was placed
in the school of Carlo Cignani, who, finding the
genius of his pupil led him to architecture and
perspective, rather than the design of the figure,
recommended him to devote himself to that par-
ticular department, which he thereupon studied



under Aldrovandini, Trogli, and Manni, and with
such success that he became the most distinguished
master of his time in the ornamental and decorative
branches of the art. There was scarcely a sove-
reign in Europe who did not invite him to his
court. He was much engaged for the Dukes of
Parma and Milan, and was invited to Vienna by
the Emperor Charles VI. The public festivals on
all occasions of victories, the triumphal entries of
princes, &c., were celebrated under the direction
of Bibiena, and were more sumptuous and mag-
nificent than any before witnessed in Europe. He
became blind, and died at Bologna in 1743. A
painting by him is in the National Gallery. It is
entitled the 'Teatro Farnese, Parma,' and represents
the pit and stage of a theatre, in which ' Othello ' is
being played. To him the theatre is indebted for
very great improvements in its scenery, and the
illusive enchantment of its decorations. But his
talents were not confined to scene-painting ; he
painted also many admirable architectural and
perspective views, which are placed in the prin-
cipal galleries in Italy. In these, the figures
are usually painted by his brother Francesco.
He likewise published several works on civil

BIBIENA, the younger brother of Ferdinando Galli,
was born at Bologna in 1659. He first studied
under Lorenzo Pasinelli ; but he was afterwards
instructed in the school of Carlo Cignani. His
knowledge of architecture and perspective was
considerable ; but he excelled in figures. He
worked successively for the Emperors Leopold I.
and Joseph I., and was invited to Madrid by
Philip V., who appointed him his principal archi-
tect. He died in 1739.

MARIA DA BIBIENA, was born at Bibiena, in the
Bolognese state, in 1625. He studied under
Albani, and his productions have often been mis-
taken for those of his master. He died in 1665.
Of his larger works in the churches at Bologna the
following are the most esteemed: 'The Ascension,'
in the Certosa ; ' St. Anne,' in La Carita ; ' St.
Andrew,' in San Biagio ; and ' St. Francis of
Sales,' at the Padri Servi. This artist was the
founder of a family of whom no fewer than nine
are known to fame, all of whom bore the surname
of Bibiena.

GALLI, GIUSEPPE, a painter and architect, was
a son of Ferdinando Galli, and was born in 1696.
After studying under his father, he worked in
conjunction with him at Barcelona and Vienna,
and afterwards by himself at several German
courts. He died at Berlin in 1756.

GALLI, MARIA ORIANA, was a daughter of
Giovanni Maria Galli, who studied painting under
Carlo Cignani and Franceschini.

GALLIARI, BERNARDINO, an Italian painter, was
born at Andorno about 1707, and died about 1794.
There is an ' Adoration of the Shepherds ' by him
in the Brera at Milan.

GALLIARI, GASPARE, an Italian painter, was
born at Treviglio about 1760, and died at Milan in
1818. In the Brera at Milan ia a view of Venice
by him.

GALLIMARD, CLAUDE, a French engraver,
was born at Troyes, in Champagne, in 1720. He
passed some time at Rome, and on his return to
France became a member of the Academy at
Paris. We have by him several plates after De

Troy, Subleyras, and Sebastien Bourdon. He
also engraved a number of ornaments for books,
among which are fourteen frontispieces and vig-
nettes after Cochin the younger. The following
also are by this artist :

The Bust of Nicolas Vleughels ; after M. A. Slodtz.

The Queen of Sheba before Solomon; after J. F. de



GALLINARI, JACOPO, who was probably born
at Bologna, worked there in 1676, and at Padua
in 1685. He is known by two etchings, 'A Lady,'
and ' Venus and Cupid.'

GDIDO, was a native of Bologna, and a favourite
scholar of Guido Reni. He painted a few historical
pictures, which are said to have been retouched
by Guido. He died young in 1664.

GALLIS, PIETER, an amateur painter of flowers,
fruit, and objects of still-life, was born in 1633,
and lived at Enkhuysen, where he died in 1697.
GALLOCHE, Louis, a French painter, born in
Paris in 1670, was a scholar of Louis de Boul-
longne, but afterwards studied in Italy. Upon his
return to France he founded a school, and one of
his first pupils was Francois Le Moine. His picture
of 'Hercules restoring Alcestis to her Husband'
gained him his election to the Academy in 1711, of
which he became successively professor in 1720,
rector in 1746, and chancellor in 1754. He died in
Paris in 1761. The above painting is now in the
Louvre, while in the cathedral of Notre-Dame in
Paris is a picture by him of the ' Departure of St.
Paul for Jerusalem.' His chief work was the
' Removal of the Remains of St. Augustine to
Pavia,' a picture which has disappeared.


GALOFRE, BALDOMERO, a distinguished Cata-
lonian painter, was born in 1848. After years of
academical traininghe visited Italy,where his strong
individuality soon asserted itself. On his return to
Spain, Galofre^ travelled through the country, ever
in search of the picturesque and the characteristic.
In his feeling for colour and light and joyous
movement, Galofre^ greatly resembled Fortuny,
and he delighted todepict country fairs, processions,
and popular assemblies, scenes to which he could
give infinite colour and life. As a master of tech-
nique and a brilliant colourist the latter-day art of
Spain can produce no rival to him, as his famous
canvases 'Feria Andaluza' and 'Lechera Asturiana'
will show us. He also produced numerous water-
colours and gouaches having great breadth and free-
dom of style. He was an indefatigable worker, and
he had long planned a monumental work to be
entitled ' Espafia,' and to this end had made an
infinite variety of studies and sketches whilst
travelling through his native country. His death
occurred at Barcelona on July 26, 1902.

GALOFRE y COMA, Jos, a Spanish histori-
cal painter, was born at Barcelona, and died in the
same city in 1877. He studied in Rome, where
he became an associate of Overbeck. In 1854 he
painted for the Queen of Spain ' An Episode from


the Conquest of Granada in 1494.' He also pub-
lished a book on ' Art in Italy and other Countries
of Europe."

GALVAN, JUAN, a Spanish painter, was born
at Lucena, in the kingdom of Aragon, in 1598.
According to Palomino, he went to Rome for im-
provement, where he remained some time, and on
his return to Spain in 1624 resided chiefly at
Zaragoza, where he was named painter by the
Corporation, and executed various pictures for the
cathedral and Carmelite convent. For the cathedral
of Zaragoza he executed pictures of the ' Nativity,'
' Santa Justa,' and ' Santa Rufina,' as well as other
large works, which Cean Bermudez praises for
their colouring. He painted the cupola of Santa
Justa y Rufiua, and a picture of the ' Trinity ' for
the Barefooted Carmelites ; but his principal work
was the ' Birth of the Virgin.' He died at Zaragoza
in 1658.


GAMBARA, LATTANZIO, born at Brescia in
1541 or 1542, was the son of a tailor, who, driven
by necessity from his native city, took refuge
at Cremona, and supported himself and his son
by the exercise of his trade, which he destined
the latter to follow. The disposition of the boy
inclined to a different pursuit, and he employed
all his leisure moments in sketching, for which he
was often severely chastised by his father. These
quarrels, and their cause, came to the knowledge
of Antonio Campi, a painter of Cremona, who in-
terested himself in favour of the youth ; and, on
examining his drawings, found in them evidence
of genius, and prevailed on his father to entrust
him to his care. He studied in the school of the
Campi for six years ; and when he was eighteen
years of age, he was placed under the tuition of
Girolamo Romanino, who entertained a high
opinion of his talents, and ultimately gave him
his daughter in marriage. He surpassed his
father-in-law both in the correctness of his design,
and in the grandeur of his compositions. To the
principles he had acquired under the Campi, he
added the charm of Venetian colouring, in which
he approached the rich tones of Pordenone. In
the Strada del Gambaro at Brescia are several fine
fresco paintings by him of mythological and clas-
sical subjects ; but these are less surprising than
his admirable works in the cloisters of the Bene-
dictine Fathers of Sant' Eufemia at Brescia. They
represent ' Moses and the Brazen Serpent,' ' Cain
slaying Abel,' ' Samson and Delilah,' ' Judith
with the Head of Holofernes,' ' Jael and Sisera,'
and a 'Deposition from the Cross.' In the Castello
at Brescia are frescoes of the ' Triumphs of Bacchus.'
The most studied of his works are his twelve frescoes
in the cathedral at Parma, representing subjects
from the Life of our Saviour, which captivate
even in their close proximity to Correggio's master-
pieces. Of his oil pictures, the most admired are
the ' Birth of the Virgin,' in the church of San
Faustino Maggiore at Brescia ; and a ' Pieta,' in
San Pietro at Cremona. In the Glasgow Gallery
is the Head of a Female. He died in 1574, in
consequence of a fall from a ladder.

GAMBARINI, GIUSEPPE, born at Bologna in
1680, was a scholar of Lorenzo Pasinelli, until
the death of that master, when he entered the
school of Cesare Gennari, whose style he fol-
lowed in his colouring, and some of whose
works he copied. Finding himself unequal to

the dignity of historical painting, he abandoned
it, and applied himself to subjects taken from
ordinary life, in which he was more successful.
He died in 1725. There are some of his works in
the churches at Bologna: in Santa Maria Egiziaca,
is a picture of that Saint ; and at the Osservanti,
St. Catharine Vigri's Entrance into Bologna.'

GAMBERUCCI, COSIMO, a Florentine painter,
flourished about the year 1610, and was a scholar of
Battista Naldini. He did not attain to great cele-
brity in the art, although some of his works in the
churches at Florence, particularly his picture of
'St. Peter curing the lame Man,' in San Pietro
Maggiore, just amount to respectability. He also
painted easel pictures, which are found in the
collections at Florence.

GAMELIN, JACQUES, a French painter, was
born at Carcassone in 1739, and died at Narbonne
in 1803. There are by him in the Bordeaux
Museum, ' Socrates drinking Hemlock,' ' The Depar-
ture of Abradates for the Fight,' and ' The Death
of Abradates.'

GAMMON, JAMES, was an English engraver of
no great reputation, by whom there are a few
portraits, executed in a stiff, formal style. He
was working in London about 1660. Among
others, the following are by him :

Queen Catharine of Braganza.
Henry. Duke of Gloucester.
George, Duke of Albemarle.
Richard Cromwell.
Sir Toby Matthews.
Edward Mascall, the painter.


GANDIA, JUAN DB, was a Spanish painter,
celebrated for his pictures of architecture and
perspective views. He lived about 1720.

GANDINI, ANTONIO, was a native of Brescia,
who had the advantage of being educated under
Paolo Veronese, whose style he followed, together
with something of that of Palma. He possessed
a fertile invention, and was a correct designer, as
is apparent in his principal work, the 'Crucifixion,'
in the old cathedral at Brescia He died in 1630.
He left a son, BERNARDINO GANDINI, who was also
a painter, and who died in 1651.

GANDINI, GIORGIO, sometimes called GIORGIO
DEL GRAND, from the family name of his mother,
was a native of Parma, who died in 1538. Orlandi
not only states that he was a disciple of Cor-
reggio, but also asserts that his pictures were occa-
sionally retouched by that master. The Padre
Zapata, in his description of the churches of
Parma, ascribes to this painter the great altar-
piece of San Michele, which had erroneously been
attributed by Ruta, in his 'Guida di Parma,' to
Lelio Orsi. Correggio had been engaged to paint
the tribune of the dome of that church, but died
before it was commenced ; and the commission
was offered to Gandini, who also was prevented by
death from executing it. In the Oldenburg Gallery
are pictures of a ' Penitent Magdalen ' and a ' Holy

GANDOLFI, GAETANO, an Italian painter and
etcher, was born at San Matteo della Decima, in
the Bolognese, in 1734. He first studied under his
elder brother, Ubaldo, then he went to Venice, and
from thence to Bologna. He painted several pic-
tures for the churches at Bologna, and other cities
in Italy, of which the most esteemed are, 'The
Assumption,' in the ceiling of Santa Maria della
Vita, and 'The Marriage at Cana,' in the church



of the Santissimo Salvatore, at Bologna ; ' The Mar-
tyrdom of St. Pantaleone,' in the church of the
Girolimini at Naples, and his own portrait, in the
Pinacoteca. There are likewise by this artist an
etching of the ' Adoration of the Shepherds,' after
the picture by Niccold dell' Abbate, in the Palazzo
Leoni at Bologna; also 'St. Peter and St. Paul'
after Guido Reni. He died at Bologna in

GANDOLFI, MAURO, an engraver, was born at
Bologna in 1764, and studied under his father,
Gaetano Gandolfi. Early in life he entered the
army, and came with his regiment to Paris, where
he devoted himself to engraving. He afterwards
visited England, and there studied under Sharp
and Bartolozzi, returning by way of Rome to
Bologna, where he for a while pursued oil paint-
ing. His first large engraving was ' Diogenes
before Alexander' (1802), after his father. An
unpleasant critique of one of his productions
affected him so much that he left Europe, and
travelled in America, and afterwards in Africa.
In 1821 he returned to Bologna, engraved several
plates after Correggio, and Raphael's ' St. Cecilia,'
of which he also made a beautiful copy in water-
colours. He also engraved ' The Child Jesus sleep-

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