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ing on the Cross,' ' Judith with the Head of Holo-
fernes,' and various other subjects. In the Bologna
Gallery is his portrait painted by himself. He died
in 1834.

GANDOLFI, UBALDO, the elder brother of
Gaetano Gandolfi, was born in 1728. He was
both a painter and sculptor, and studied under
Torelli and Graziani. His principal works are
'The Prophets' in San Giuliano at Bologna, his
anatomical preparations for pupils, and in the
Pinacoteca a ' Head of a Girl," the ' Resurrection of
Christ,' and a ' Holy Bishop.' He died at Bologna
in 1781.

GANDY, JAMES, a portrait painter, born at
Exeter in 1619, is said to have been instructed
by Van Dyck. He went to Ireland under the
protection of the Duke of Ormond, and painted
many portraits of the nobility and gentry. He
died in Ireland in 1689.

GANDY, WILLIAM, a portrait painter, was born
in the second half of the 17th century. He
was the son of James Gaudy, and is supposed to
have studied under Gaspar Smitz. He chiefly
lived at Exeter, and many of his works are to be
found in Devon and Cornwall. He died after
1715.

GANGLOFF, KARL WILHELM, a designer, born
at Leutkirch in 1790, was one of those artists by
nature who produce works of great promise in their
youth before they have received any instruction.
He was originally employed as a clerk, but on
his artistic productions becoming in some degree
known, he was induced in 1813 to go to Stuttgart
and study under De Necker. Unhappily he died
in 1814, at Merklingen in Wurtemberg, but he has
left several compositions from the Old and New
Testament and the ' Nibelungen Lied ' which show
much originality and depth of feeling. Dhland
has dedicated three sonnets to his memory.

GANIERES, JEAN, (or GAGNIERES,) a French
engraver, flourished in Paris about the year 1650.
He engraved a few plates after Blarichard, Valen-
tine, &c., but was more employed on portraits.
His plates are executed with the graver in a stiff
and tasteless style. Among others, the following
are by him :
214



The Penitent Magdalen ; after J. Blanchard.

A Boy sleeping, with a skull near him. 1640.

Louis XIII. of France ; an oval, with ornaments. 1640.

Cardinal Flavio Chigi.

M. de La MeUeraye. 1679.

GANSES, PAUL, was a Neapolitan painter of
sea pieces and moon-light effects, who lived in the
17th century.

GANTREL, ETIENNE, a French engraver, was
born in Paris about the year 1646, and died
there in 1706. There are by this artist several
plates of portraits and historical subjects, executed
in a neat style, of which the following are the
best:

PORTRAITS.

Louis XIV. of France ; life-size.

Sebastiano Pisani, Bishop of Verona.

Antoine Bruneau, President of La Tournelle ; after La
Dame.

J. L. de La Bourdonnaye, Bishop of Lyons ; after Fon-
taine.

M. Poncet de La Riviere. 1682.

Louis Berrier, Counsellor to the King. 1674.

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS.
The Kod of Moses, changed into a Serpent, devouring

the Rods of the Magicians of Pharaoh; after N.

Poussin.

The Israelites passing the Red Sea ; after the same.
The Israelites dancing round the Golden Calf; after

the same.

The Descent from the Cross ; after the same.
St. Francis Xavier restoring an Indian to life; after

the same.
St. Gervais and St. Protais before the Proconsul ; after

Le Sueur.

St. Benedict kneeling ; after Philippe fie Champagne.
St. Francis in ecstasy ; after Carracci.
The Head of Christ ; after Le run.

GANZ, JOHANN PHILIPP, a German engraver,
born at Eisenach in 1746, was appointed engraver
to the Court of Hanover.

GARAVAGLIA, GIOVITA, an Italian engraver,
was born at Pa via in 1790, and studied under
Anderloni. In 1803 he entered the Academy of
Milan, where in 1813 his ' Herodias,' after Luini,
gained a prize, and in 1817 another was adjudged
to him for his ' Holy Family in a Landscape,' after
Raphael. In 1833 he was elected Professor of
Engraving at Florence, where he died in 1835.
His principal works are :

The Madonna and Infant St. John ; after Gimignani.

Hagar and Ishmael ; after Barocci.

Jacob and Rachel ; after Appiani.

The Magdalen ; after C. Dolci.

The Ascension ; after Guido Reni.

Charles V. ; after the same.

GARBIERI, CARLO, the son and scholar of
Lorenzo Garbieri, painted historical subjects in
the style of his father. In the church of San
Giovanni in Monte, at Bologna, is a picture by
him of the ' Death of St. Mary of Egypt ' ; and
in San Paolo is one of 'St. Paul taken up into
Heaven.'

GARBIERI, LORENZO, called IL NIPOTE, was
born at Bologna in 1580, and was brought up in
the school of Lodovico Carracci, of whose style he
was one of the most successful imitators. Natur-
ally of a dark and gloomy turn of mind, he selected
the most austere and melancholy subjects ; and
his pictures generally represent the most tragical
and terrible events, as massacres, martyrdoms,
and pestilence. To the style of the Carracci, he
added something of the vigorous light and shadow
of Caravaggio. Such are Ms pictures in the church



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



of Sant' Antonio at Milan, which Sant' Agostino,
in his ' Catalogo,' has attributed to the Carracci.
In San Paolo de' Barnabiti at Bologna he painted
the ' Plague of Milan,' with St. Charles Borromeo
communicating the diseased ; and a ' Penitential
Procession.' At the Filippini at Fano is an
admirable picture of ' St. Paul raising Eutychus,'
painted with such power and expression that it
excites both terror and devotion. In San Maiirizio
at Mantua is his celebrated ' Martyrdom of St.
Felieita and the seven Virgins.' At Bologna, in
the church of San Lodovico, is a fine picture of
the ' Death of St. Joseph ' ; at the Cappuccini, the
' Crucifixion ' ; in S. Michele in Bosco, scenes
from the life of St. Benedict and St. Cecilia ; and
at the Pinaooteca, ' The Magician Circe.' In con-
sequence of his marriage with a rich lady, he
abandoned his profession many years before his
death, which took place in 1654.

GARBO, RAFFAELLINO DEL. See CAPPONI.

GARCIA, BERNABE, a Spanish painter, was born
at Madrid in 1679, and died in the same city in
1731. He was a scholar of Juan Delgado, and
painted ' The Four Doctors of the Church ' for a
church at Alcala de Henarea.

GARCIA, FERRER, (' the Licentiate Don Pedro ',)
though an ecclesiastic, exercised the profession of
a painter at Valencia and Madrid, about the middle
of the 17th century, and obtained a great reputa-
tion, especially in perspective. He painted Cruci-
fixions, one of which bears date 1632, and the usual
religious subjects. His collection of pictures by
the great masters, as well as his own performances,
was sold at his death for a large sum.

GARCIA, FRANCISCO, was a Spanish painter at
Murcia, at the commencement of the 17th century,
as is shown by the inscription on an altar-piece in
the chapel of Los Velez, in the cathedral of that
city ; it represents ' St. Luke writing.' The artist
was in the employ of the Marquis de los Velez.

GARCIA, MIGUEL and GERONIMO, were twin
brothers, and canons of the Collegiate Church of
San Salvador at Granada, one being a painter and
the other a sculptor ; the first coloured the images
which the second carved. They followed the
style, and perhaps profited by the instruction, of
Alonso Cano.

GARCIA DE MIRANDA, JDAN, was born of
Asturian parents at Madrid in 1677, and studied
painting under Juan Delgado, producing chiefly
devotional pictures, particularly ' Immaculate Con-
ceptions,' for private patrons. Born without a
right hand, he made use of the stump of the arm
to hold pencils, maulstick, &c. He was appointed
to clean and restore the pictures injured in the fire
at the Alcazar, and acquitted himself so well as
to be appointed, in 1735, painter-in-ordinary to
Philip V. He also held, with Palomino, from
1724, the post of public valuer of pictures. He
died in 1749, leaving a son JUAN, of great promise
as a painter, who, however, died at the age of
twenty-one. His brother and disciple, NICOLAS
GARCIA DE MIRANDA, who was born in 1698, and
died in 1738, painted landscapes with religious
figures.

GARCIA HIDALGO, JOSEF, was a Spanish
painter, who wrote notes of his life, but omitted to
state where and when he was born. From circum-
stances narrated by him it is conjectured that he
was a native of Murviedro, in Murcia, and born
about 1656. He was named by the artists of the day
' El Castellano.' He studied in the city of Murcia



under Mateo Gilarte and Nicolas de Villacis. After
passing some years under those masters he went
to Italy, and at Rome became a scholar of Giacinto
Brandi, under whose tuition he made considerable
progress. Pietro da Cortona, Salvator Rosa, and
Carlo Maratti assisted him with their counsels ;
but the climate of Italy proving detrimental to his
health, he returned to Spain, where he attached
himself to Carreno, and, though far advanced in
the art, worked as a young pupil. In 1674 he
went to Madrid, and was employed by Charles II.
in a series of twenty-four pictures on the life of
St. Augustine, for the cloisters of San Felipe el
Real, which occupied him, with other commissions
from the king, till 1711. He was also much
employed by Philip V., who made him his prin-
cipal painter in 1703, and shortly after a cheva-
lier of the order of St. Michael. In the latter
part of his life he retired to the convent of San
Felipe, and died there probably soon after 1711,
but in what year is not known. He published
' Principles para estudiar la nobilissima arte de la
Pintura,' 1691, and several other works on anatomy
and painting for the benefit of students. His
productions are at Madrid, Valencia, Siguenza, San
Jago, and Guadalaxara.

GARCIA REYNOSO, ANTONIO, a Spanish painter,
was born at Cabra, in Andalucia, in 1623, and
studied under Sebastian Martinez, an artist of some
eminence, at Jaen. He painted landscapes and
historical subjects ; and there are several of his
works noticed by Palomino, particularly an altar-
piece in the church of the Capuchins at Andujar,
representing the 'Trinity,' with several Saints.
There are also some of his pictures in the churches
and private collections at Cordova, in which city
he died in 1677.

GARCIA SALMERON, CRISTOBAL, a Spanish
painter, born at Cuenca in 1603, was a disciple of
Pedro Orrente. He was a good painter of his-
torical subjects and of animals, one of his most
esteemed works being a picture of the 'Nativity,'
in the church of San Francisco at Cuenca. He
was employed by Philip IV. to paint a bull-tight
in honour of the birthday of Charles II. of Spain,
and he executed several works for the cathedral
at Cuenca and for the convent of Barefooted
Carmelites. He died at Madrid in 1666.

GARDELLE, ROBERT, born at Geneva in 1682,
studied under Largilliere in Paris, where he dis-
tinguished himself as a portrait painter, producing
also etchings of portraits and of views of Geneva.
He died in 1766.

GARDELLE, THEODORE, a Swiss miniature
painter, was born in 1722 at Geneva, where he
was apprenticed to an engraver. He was of dis-
sipated habits, and wandered about from Geneva
to Paris, Brussels, and finally to London, where he
was executed for murder in 1761.

GARDINER, WILLIAM NELSON, an Irish en-
graver, was born at Dublin in 1766. He studied
at the Dublin Academy, and then came to London,
where, after various vicissitudes, he became an
assistant to Bartolozzi, with whom he prepared
plates for Harding's Shakespeare, De Grammont's
' Memoirs,' and Lady Diana Beauclerk's illustrations
to Drydeu's ' Fables.' He subsequently studied at
Cambridge, with a view of taking orders, but after-
wards took to copying portraits, and finally became
a bookseller. He died by suicide in London in
1814.

GARDNER, DANIEL, an English portrait painter,

215



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



born at Kendal in 1750, studied at the Royal
Academy, and was patronized by Reynolds. His
portraits, which were in oil and crayons, were suc-
cessful, and he was enabled to retire early from
practice. He died in London in 1805.

GARDNER, THOMAS, was an English engraver,
who lived in the first half of the 18th century.
He chiefly worked for the booksellers, and en-
graved a set of plates for the ' Book of Common
Prayer,' paraphrased by James Harris in 1735.

GARDNOR, Rev. JOHN, an English landscape
painter, was born in 1729. In 1767 he received
a premium at the Society of Arts, and his works,
both in oil and water-colours, appeared at the
Royal Academy from 1782 to 1796. He furnished
illustrations for Williams's ' History of Monmouth-
shire,' and published 'Views on the Rhine' in 1788.
He was Vicar of Battersea, where he died in 1808.

GARDNOR, RICHARD, nephew of above, ex-
hibited with the Free Society and at the Academy,
1780-93.

GAREIS, FRANZ, a painter, born at Marienthal in
1776, studied at Dresden under Casanova. He
afterwards went to Rome, where by his picture of
' Orpheus in the Lower World,' he gained a con-
siderable reputation, but unfortunately he died at
Rome in 1803, at the early age of twenty-seven.

GAREMYN, JAN, a Flemish painter and engraver,
was born at Bruges in 1712, and studied under
Louis Boons and Matthias De Visch. He painted
numerous altar-pieces for the churches at Bruges
and Courtrai ; and others for private persons at
Brussels and Ghent. His pictures are highly es-
teemed by his countrymen for their warmth of
colouring. He painted several pictures in imita-
tion of Rembrandt and Teniers, and designed and
executed several of the plates for the ' Chronicles
of Flanders,' published in 1736. He became pro-
fessor in the Academy of Bruges, and died in that
city in 1799.

GARGIUOLI, DOMENICO, called Micco SPADARO,
an historical and landscape painter, born at Naples
in 1612, was a fellow-student with Salvator Rosa,
in the school of Aniello Falcone. He was em-
ployed in decorating the architectural views of his
friend Viviani Codagora with a number of small
figures in the style of Callot and Delia Bella. He
died in 1679. The following paintings by him are
known :

Gotha. Gallery. Two Men playing at Cards.

Two Ship Boys.

Naples. Museum. Revolution of 1647.

Paris. Louvre. A Combat in the Crusades.

GARIBALDO, MARC ANTONIO, a Flemish painter,
was born at Antwerp in 1620, and in 1651-2
became a member of the Guild of St. Luke. He
painted for the Jesuits' College at Antwerp a
picture of 'The Virgin, as the Queen of Martyrs.'
The date of his death is unknown, but he was
living in 1690. There are by him :

Flight into Egypt. (Antwerp Gallery.)
St. Bernard reproving William of Aquitaine. (St. Gilles,
Bruges.)

GARIGUE, . was a French painter of the 18th
century, by whom there is a portrait of Charles de
Siffredy de Mornas in the Avignon Museum.

GARNER, THOMAS, a line-engraver, was born
at Birmingham in 1789, where he was apprenticed
to a Mr. Lines. In the early part of this century
he contributed many engravings to the various
Annuals that flourished at that period ; he also

216



executed several plates for the 'Art Journal,'
of which that of ' L' Allegro,' after W. E. Frost,
R.A., is considered one of his best works. He
passed nearly all his life in Birmingham, where he
executed many portraits of local celebrities, and
died in 1868.

GARNERAY, AMBROISE Louis, a French marine
painter, born in Paris in 1783, received his first
instruction from his father, Jean Franqois Garne-
ray. At the age of thirteen he went to sea, and
after various adventures (of which he subsequently
published an illustrated history) was taken prisoner
by the English in 1806. He remained in England
till 1814, and on his return to France was patronized
by Louis XVIII. A ' View of the Port of London'
was his first exhibited work in 1816, and he
received a gold medal in 1819. In 1833 he was
appointed director of the Rouen Museum, and he
subsequently designed for the Sevres manufactory
for six years. He studied aquatint, and designed
and engraved sixty-four views of the principal
ports of France, and forty views of foreign ports,
which were published with text by Jouy in 1821-
32. At the Paris Exhibition of 1855 he received
a medal for his invention of a new kind of artists'
canvas. He died in Paris in 1857. Amongst his
works are :

Boulogne. Museum. View of Sidon : sun setting.
Marseilles. Museum. The Canal at Furnes.
Nantes. Museum. An Incident of the Battle of

Navarino. 1853.
Rochefort. Museum. The Frigate 'Virginie' attacking

an English Squadron.

Eochelle. Museum. The Capture of the ' Kent.'
Kouen Museum. Cod Fishing off Newfoundland.

1839.

Versailles. Gallery. Battle of Augusta. 1836.
Battle of Navarino.

The Return from Elba.

GARNERAY, ADGUSTE, the second son of Jean
Francois Garneray, was born in Paris in 1785, and
died there in 1824. He studied under Isabey, and
painted chiefly in water-colours. Besides numerous
portraits, he has produced several pictures from
tales of interest, as also designs for vignettes, and
for a work on Egypt.

GARNERAY, JEAN FRANC.OIS, a French painter
of portraits, architectural views, and fanciful sub-
jects, was born in Paris in 1755, and died at Auteuil
in 1837. He was a pupil of David, and his earlier
portraits are said to be in the Flemish style.

GARNIER, ANTUINE, was a French engraver,
who flourished in Paris from about 1625 to 1646.
He etched his plates in a bold style, and finished
them with the graver. He engraved some of the
paintings by Primaticcio at Fontainebleau, and
a set of twelve plates after the pictures by the
same painter in the chapel of Fleury. He also
engraved some plates after Nicolas Poussin and
Michelangelo da Caravaggio, and the following
after J. Blanchard :

The Holy Family.

Charity.

St. John the Baptist.

St. Sebastian. An

He usually marked his plates with the cipher/**-

GARNIER, ETIENNE BARTHELEMY, a French
portrait and historical painter, was born in Paris
in 1759. He was a pupil successively of Durameau,
Doyen, and Vien, and obtained the " grand prix " in
1788. His subjects are chiefly from the ancient
poets, or relating to the popular monarchs of
France, such as Dagobert, Henry IV., and Napoleon.



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



In 1828 he was an unsuccessful competitor with
Horace Vernet for the directorship of the School
of Rome. At Avignon is a portrait of Cardinal
Maury. He died in Paris in 1849.

GARNIER, Louis HIPPOLTTE, a painter and
lithographer, excelled in miniature portrait paint-
ing. He was born in Paris in 1802, and died there
in 1855. Among his lithographs are ' Rebekah,'
and ' Ruth and Boaz,' after Chopin ; ' On the
road to Market,' after Eugene Deveria ; and others
after Ary Scheffer, Schlesinger, &c.

GARNIER, NOEL (Master of the Knot), a French
engraver, flourished 1520-1540. He engraved two
Gothic alphabets and other pieces, mostly copies
after German engravings.

GAROFALO, BENVENUTO DA. See TISI.

GARRARD, GEORGE, an animal painter, was
born in 1760. He studied under Sawrey Gilpin,
and in 1778 entered the schools of the Royal
Academy, at which he first exhibited in 1781. He
practised largely in modelling, and in 1800 was
elected an Associate of the Academy. He died at
Brompton in 1826. Amongst his works are :

View of a Brewhouse Yard. 1784.

Sheep Shearing. 1793.

A Peasant attacked by "Wolves in the Snow. 1802.

An Agricultural Show. ( Woliurn Abbey.)

GARRARD, MARC. See GEERARTS.

GARRET, WILLIAM, a wood-engraver, prac-
tised at Newcastle in the 18th century. He pub-
lished a series of thirteen small designs, the last
of which is ' Death leading a Female to the
Grave.'

GARTNER, GEORG, the elder and the younger,
were painters who lived at Nuremberg in the 17th
century, the former dying in 1640, and the latter
in 1654. The elder painter executed portraits in
water-colours, whilst the younger was an imitator
and copyist of Durer.

GARTNER, JOHANN PHILIPP EDDARD, an archi-
tectural painter, was born at Berlin in 1801. He
was taught painting when a child by Miiller at
Cassel, and returned to Berlin when but twelve
years of age to paint in a porcelain factory. In
1821 he made a student's tour to the North Sea,
and then engaged himself to Gropius. Three
years' study in Paris followed, and he then devoted
himself to architectural painting. In 1837-39 he
worked in Russia for the Emperor Nicholas. He
died at Berlin in 1877. Many of his architectural
pictures are in the royal palaces, and one is in the
National Gallery of that city. In the Leipsic
Gallery is an Italian landscape.

GARVEY, EDMUND, a landscape painter in both
oil and water-colours, is supposed, from his con-
nection, to have been of an Irish family. In 1770
he was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy,
and an Academician in 1783. He lived at Bath
from 1769 to 1777, and died in 1813. He imitated
Richard Wilson, to a certain extent, in his manner
of painting.

GARZI, LUIGI, was born at Pistoja in 1638, and
studied under S. Boccali, in his native city, until
he was fifteen years of age. In 1653 he went
to Rome, to Andrea Sacchi, and was the con-
temporary and rival of Carlo Maratta. After
having painted several pictures for the public
edifices at Rome, he was invited to Naples to
paint in the church of Santa Caterina a Formello,
and in the royal palace. In the cathedral at
Pescia he painted an immense picture of the



'Assumption,' which is considered his best per-
formance. Of his works at Rome, the principal
are the cupola of the Cibo chapel, in Santa Maria
del Popolo ; ' The Maries at the Tomb of our
Saviour,' in Santa Marta ; and 'The Prophet Joel,'
in San Giovanni in Laterano. In the Liverpool
Institution is a landscape by Salvator Rosa, with
the figures by Luigi Garzi, and in the Munich
Gallery is a ' Flight into Egypt.' He died in
1721.

GARZI, MARIO, was the son of Luigi Garzi, by
whom he was instructed in art. He was an artist
of very promising talent, but died quite young.
Two of his pictures are noticed in Pascoli's
' Guida di Roma.'

GAHZON, JUAN, a Spanish painter, for a short
time the pupil of Murillo, was associated with
Meneses Osorio in many of his works, but none of
his own are known to survive. He died at Madrid
in 1729.

GARZONI, GIOVANNA, was a native of Ascoli,
who flourished about the year 1630, and resided
chiefly at Rome, where she distinguished her-
self as a painter of flowers, and of portraits in
miniature. At Florence she painted the portraits
of some of the Medici and other nobility. She
died at Rome in 1673, and bequeathed all her
property, which was considerable, to the Academy
of St. Luke, where a marble monument is erected
to her memory.

GASCAR, HENRI, a French portrait painter, was
born in Paris in 1635, and visited England in the
reign of Charles II. He was greatly patronized
by the Duchess of Portsmouth, and met with so
much encouragement, that he is said to have
realized above ten thousand pounds during a resi-
dence of a few years. He left England about
1680, and died at Rome in 1701. His best portrait
was that of Philip, Earl of Pembroke. He scraped
a few miserable mezzotints, after his own pictures.

GASPARI, GIOVANNI PIETHO, born at Venice
in 1735, painted the decorations for the Court
Theatre at Munich, and etched fourteen archi-
tectural plates.

GASPARINI, GASPARE, was a native of Mace-
rata, who flourished about the year 1585. He was
a disciple of Girolamo da Sermoneta, whose style
he followed, though in a less finished manner ; as
appears in his two pictures in the church of San
Venanzio at Fabriano, representing 'The Baptism
of Christ' and 'The Last Supper.' He is seen to
more advantage in his picture of ' St. Peter and
St. John curing the Lame Man,' in the same
church, a grand composition, in which he seems
to have imitated the style of Raphael. In the
church of the Conventual!, in his native place,
there is a fine picture of ' St. Francis receiving the
Stigmata.'

GASPARINI, SEBASTIANO. In the ' Descrizione
delle Pitture d'Ascoli," by Orsini, a painter of this
name is noticed, who painted several pictures in
fresco, in a chapel in the church of San Biagio, in
that citv.

GASPARRI DI SPINELLO. See SPINELLI.

GASPERS, JAN BAPTIST (or JASPERS), a native
of Antwerp, was a scholar of Thomas Willeborts.
He visited England during the civil war, and was
much employed by General Lambert. After the
Restoration he became an assistant to Sir Peter
Lely, and afterwards to Sir Godfrey Kneller. He
drew well, and excelled in making designs for
tapestry. The portrait of Charles II. in Painter-

217



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Stainers' Hall, and another of the same king, in
the hall of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, were painted



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