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by him. He died in London in 1691.

GASSEL, LUCAS VAN, called also, from his
birthplace, LUCAS VAN HELMONT, was a landscape
painter, who was born about 1480. It is sup-
posed that he resided chiefly at Brussels, where
he died about 1555, but certainly not later than
1560. His landscapes are very rare : they are
painted sometimes in oil, and sometimes in water-
colours. There is a picture by him in the Vienna
Gallery bearing his monogram and the date 1548,
and there is another in the Lille Museum. His
portrait by Jacob Bink is in the collection of
" persons who died before 1572," engraved by
Jan Wierix.

GASSEN, FKANCISOO, a painter of Barcelona, was
born in 1598. He executed, in conjunction with
Pedro Cuquet, a series of pictures on the Life of
St. Francis of Paola, for the Minimite convent in
his native city. He died at Barcelona in 1658.

GASSIES, JEAN BRUNO, a French historical and
genre painter, was born at Bordeaux in 1786.
He studied under Vincent and Lacroix, and died
in Paris in 1832. He chiefly executed historical
subjects from the Old and New Testaments, or
from French history ; but the pictures exhibited
by him embrace a great variety of subjects his-
torical, poetical, and allegorical landscapes, marine
views, interiors of churches, and striking scenes
on the coasts of England and France. Amongst
his works are :

Hagar and Ishmael. 1811. (Brussels.)

Horace at the Tomb of Virgil. 1817.

Portrait of Louis XVIII. 1819. (Bordeaux.)

The Communion of St. Louis. 1819.

The Clemency of Louis XII. 1824. ( Versailles.)

View of the Church of Boulogne. 1826.

A Bivouac of the National Guard. 1831.

GASSNER, SIMON, a painter and engraver, was
born at Steinberg in the Tyrol, in 1755. He studied
in Munich under Gallrap and Demel, and excelled
in historical and landscape painting. He was
engaged by the Margrave of Baden to decorate a
room at Carlsruhe, but returned to Munich in 1790,
and was still living in 1825. He also engraved
with the needle and in the aquatint manner, and
produced an etching of the 'Temple in the
English Garden in Munich,' which bears his

GASTALDI, ANDREA, Italian historical painter,
born at Turin in 1810. He studied in Paris, where
he became deservedly popular, his wife being Mile.
Leonie Lescuyer, herself an artist of considerable
talent. One of his most dramatic pictures is
' Frederic Barbarossa,' who is depicted escaping
after his rout at Le^nano and stumbling over the
corpses of his followers. Gastaldi was created a
chevalier of the Legion of Honour, and received
other decorations of a like nature. He had made
a special study of the processes used by the ancients
in wax-painting, but his researches into this subject
were never destined to reach completion. In his
later years he filled the post of director of the
Turin School of Art, and it was here that he died
in January, 1889.

GASTINEAU, HENRY, a landscape painter in
water-colours, was born in 1797. After studying in
the schools of the Royal Academy, he commenced
work as an engraver. He then took to oil-painting,
but finally joined the Water-Colour Society as an

Associate in 1818, being elected a full member in
1824. He was intimately connected with Turner,
David Cox, Copley Fielding, and others of the
English water-colour school. He died at Camber-
well in 1876. Amongst his works are :

Penrhyn Castle. (South Kensington Museum.)

Netley Abbey. ( The same.)

The Pass of Klamme, Styria. (Paris Exhibition, 1855.)

Glenarm, Antrim. (London International Exhibition,

Hospice and Pass of St. Gothard. (The same.)

The Pass of Killiecrankie. (Paris Exhibition, 1867.)

GASULL, AGUSTIN, an historical painter of
Valencia, studied at Rome under Carlo Maratti.
His 'St. Andrew,' 'St. Stephen,' 'La Vierge de
1'Espeiance,' and ' St. Joseph,' which he painted for
the church of San Juan del Mercado at Valencia, are
much admired; and there are many pictures by
him in other churches of the same city. He died
at Valencia at the commencement of the 18th


GLIARO, was born at Pavia in 1495. He was one
of the ablest disciples of Correggio, and approached
nearer to the style of hie instructor than any other
of his pupils. Parma, Piacenza, and Cremona are
rich in his works, among which are a ' Riposo,' in the
church of San Sigismondo, and a ' Nativity,' in San
Pietro, at Cremona ; and a ' Pieta,' in the church of
La Maddalena at Parma. He succeeded Pordenone
in the work left unfinished by that master in the
tribune of Santa Maria di Campagna at Piacenza ;
where, according to Vasari, the whole appears to
be by the same hand. One of his most considerable
works is the 'Assumption,' in the cupola of the
Madonna della Steccata, at Parma, painted in 1560,
in which the Madonna is of the most captivating
beauty. In the refectory of the church of San
Pietro at Cremona is his great work of the
'Miracle of the Multiplication of the Loaves,'
painted in 1552, a composition of many figures,
larger than life, admirably varied in the heads and
attitudes, and conducted with a beauty of colour,
and a harmony of effect, which atone for some
slight defects in the aerial perspective. An ' Ecce
Homo ' and a ' Crucifixion ' by him are in the
Museum at Naples. He died at Parma in 1575.

native of Cremona, who flourished from the year
1571 to 1631. He was the nephew of Bernardino
Gatti, under whom he studied, and from whom he
learned to copy Correggio, as his early works
testify, whilst his later ones are more in the man-
ner of the Carracci. In the church of San Pietro
at Cremona is a fine picture of the ' Death of St.
Cecilia,' with a glory of angels, truly Correggiesque.
He was also an excellent painter of portraits, upon
which he was much employed.

GATTI, GIROLAMO, was born at Bologna in 1662,
and was a scholar of Marc Antonio Franceschini,
whilst his colouring is after the style of Cignani.
Several of his works are in the churches and palaces
at Bologna. In Santa Maria Incoronata is a
picture of 'St. Augustine, St. Petronius, and St.
Gregory, interceding for the Souls in Purgatory ' ;
in the church of La Nativita, the ' Presentation in
the Temple ' ; and in the Palazzo Pubblico, ' Charles
V. crowned by Pope Clement VII.' He, however,
painted more works of a smaller class. He died
in 1726.


GATTI, OLIVIERO, an Italian painter and en-
graver, was a native of Parma. He was a scholar
of Giovanni Lodovico Valesio, and, from the re-
semblance of his style, although greatly inferior, to
that of Agostino Carracci, was probably instructed in
engraving by that master. His works as a painter
are little known ; but he engraved several plates,
some of which are after his own designs, which
possess considerable merit. He was received into
the Academy at Bologna in 1626, and was working
in that city up to 1648. The following prints are
by him :

St. Francis Xavier kneeling on the sea-shore, and taking
up a Crucifix, which is floating on the water; after
his own dtsiyn.

The Virgin caressing the Infant Christ ; after Lorenzo

St. Jerome ; after Agostino Carracci. 1602.

St. Eoch. 1605.

An emblematical subject, representing an Armorial
Bearing, supported by two Kiver Gods, with an armed
figure, standing alone, surrounded by Jupiter, Her-
cules, Neptune, Apollo, and Minerva ; after L.

A set of four small plates, representing the Deity
forming the 'World, the Creation of Adam, the Sacri-
fice of Abraham, and Judith with the Head of
Holoferaes ; after Pordenone.

A Drawing-book ; after the designs of Cruercino.

GATTI, TOMMASO, born at Pavia in 1642, was
a scholar of Carlo Sacchi. He afterwards went
to Venice, where he studied the works of the
great masters of that celebrated school ; and on
his return to Pavia he painted several pictures for
the churches.

GATTI, URIKLE, called IL SOJARO, flourished
about the year 1601, as appears from the date
inscribed on a picture by him of the ' Crucifixion,'
in the church of San Sepolcro at Piacenza. Lanzi
conjectures that this painter was a brother of
Gervasio Gatti.

GATTY, MARGARET, an amateur etcher, was born
at Burnham in Norfolk in 1809. She was the
daughter of Dr. Scott, Lord Nelson's chaplain, and
married the Rev. Alfred Gatty, D.D., vicar of
Ecclesfield, near Sheffield, in 1839. Between 1837
and 1843 she etched several landscapes, but she is
best known as an authoress of books for children.
She died at Ecclesfield in 1873.

GAUBERT, PIERRE, a French portrait painter
who was working in 1701, was a member of the
Academy. There is a portrait of a lady by him in
the Dresden Gallery.

graver, born in Paris in 1740, was first a pupil of
Basan, and afterwards of J. P. Le Bas. He died
in Paris in 1804. He engraved several portraits
and other subjects, of which the following are the
principal :


Maria Cecilia, Ottoman Princess, daughter of Achmet

III. ; after his own desian.
M. du Paty , celebrated Advocate ; after Notte.
Louis Gillet.

Louis Augustus, Dauphin of France ; after Gautier.
J. P.TimoleondeCoss, Dukeof Brissac; after St. Aubin.
Louis de Grimaldi, Bishop of Le Mans. 1767-


An allegorical subject, to the memory of J. P. Le Bas ;

after Cochin.

The Crowning of Voltaire ; after Moreau.
The Card-players ; after Tiluorch.
Eepose ; after Caspar JVetscher.

GAUCHEREL, LEON, engraver, etcher, and
painter in water-colours, was born in Paris in
1816. He was a pupil of Viollet le Due, with
whom he travelled in Italy and Sicily. He was a
constant exhibitor at the Salon, where he gained
numerous official honours from 1853 onwards. He
etched many plates for the 'Gazette des Beaux
Arts,' for 'L'Art,'the 'Portfolio,' and other pub-
lications. He died in Paris in 1885.


GAUDIN, Luis PASCUAL, a Spanish painter, was
born at Villafranca in Catalonia in 1556. He en-
tered in 1595 the Carthusian monastery of Scala
Dei, where he painted the ' Saviour washing the
Disciples' Feet,' the 'Prayer in the Garden,' and
two series of Evangelists and Apostles. For the
Carthusian monastery at Seville he executed a
series of pictures from the life of the Virgin, and
a ' Last Supper ' for Portacoali, near Valencia. He
died in the monastery of Scala Dei in 1621.

GAUERMANN, FRIEDRICH, a landscape and
animal painter, was born at Miesenbach on the
Schneeberg in 1807. He was the son of Jakob
Gauermann, and, in spite of his weak state of
health, he showed talent very early, delighting
in the study of animals. From 1825 to 1846 he
made numerous excursions in various parts of
Germany, and in 1836 became a member of the
Academy at Munich. He died at Vienna in 1862.
Amongst his works are :

A Peasant digging. The End of the Chase. Halt on
the Mountain. A Bear Hunt. Wolves and Deer.
Wild Boar and Wolf. The Harvest Waggon. The
Approach of a Storm. Styrian Charcoal Burners.
Watering-Place in Tyrol ; Tyrolese Village Smithy.
(Berlin.} The Labourer ; Peasants reposing.
(Vienna.) Wolves and a Dead Horse. (Stadel
Institute, Frankfort.)

GAUERMANN, JAKOB, a German landscape and
genre painter and engraver, was born at Oeffingen,
near Canstatr, in 1773. He at first worked as a
stone-mason atHohenheim, but his strong inclina-
tion for drawing brought him to the knowledge of
Duke Charles of Wurtemberg, who enabled him to
receive an education in art. He travelled for six
years in Switzerland, went to Vienna, and visited
in succession the Tyrol and Styria, making
sketches, which he worked up into water-colour
drawings and oil pictures. He died at Vienna in
1843. He also executed several etchings of

GAUFFIER, Louis, was born at La Rochelle in
1761. He was a pupil of Hugues Taraval, and he
won the first prize for painting in 1784. He ex-
hibited as an Associate of the Academy in 1789,
but his health necessitated a residence at Florence,
where he died in 1801. 'The Three Angels with
Abraham at Mainre,' and ' Cornelia, the mother of
the Gracchi,' represent Gauffier in^the Louvre.
Among other works are ' Cleopatra,' ' Jacob and
Laban's Daughter.' His wife, PAULINE CHATILLON,
to whom he was married at Rome, was a painter of
genre subjects, and a pupil of Drouais. Many of
her works were engraved by Bartolozzi, and she
was herself an exhibitor at the Salon of 1798.

GAUGAIN, THOMAS, an engraver, born at Abbe-
ville in 1748, came to England whilst young, and
studied under Houston. He engraved many plates
after Reynolds, Morland, Cosway, Northcote, and
others, and died in London about 1805. The
following are his principal works:


The Snow Man ; after J. Barney.

The Young Pedlar ; after the same.

Maria; after Midler.

The Death of Prince Leopold of Brunswick after

Mary Stuart hearing her death-warrant ; after the same.

GAUJEAN, EUGENE, an eminent etcher, bom
at Pau in 1850. He was a pupil of Pilo, Vernet-
Lecornte, Martinet and Waltner. He made his
dttbut at the Salon in 1877 with an engraving of
Henner's'La Chaste Suzanne.' At the Salon of
1880 he was awarded a third-class medal, seven
years _later a second-class, and at the Universal
Exhibition of 1889 a gold medal. Amongst his
most important etchings are 'The Blessed Bread '
by Dagnan-Bouveret ; ' The Virgin ' by Memling ;
Gustave Moreau's 'Apparition'; 'St. Cecilia' by
Van Dyck; Botticelli's 'Spring 1 ; and 'The
Virgin of the Rocks ' by Leonardo da Vinci. Per-
haps his masterpiece was ' Flamma Vestalis ' by
Sir E. Burne- Jones. He died at the age of fifty.


was born at Genoa in 1639. After acquiring the
first principles of art in his native city under Bor-
zone, he went to Rome, where, by studying the
works of the best masters, aided by the counsel of
Bernini, he soon rose into repute, and established a
style of his own. The great vault of the church of
the Gesu, at Rome, representing ' St. Francis Xavier
taken up into Heaven,' is one of his most consider-
able works. In his picture of 'St. Anne kneeling
before the Virgin and Infant,' with a beautiful
group of angels, in the church of San Francesco a
Ripa, he exhibits everything that is cheerful,
pleasing and graceful. Contrasted with this is his
4 Death of St. Francis Xavier,' in Sant' Andrea al
Quirinale, which he has treated in an austere style,
with all the solemnity and pathos which the sub-
ject requires. In the church of Sant' Agnese he
painted the ' Four Cardinal Virtues,' and such is
their force and brilliancy, that the neighbouring
works of Giro Ferri are nearly eclipsed by them.
His best efforts were intended for fresco designs,
and he excelled more particularly in his figures of
children. He is stated by Pascoli to have painted
seven different pontiffs. His own portrait is in the
Uffizi at Florence, and ' St. John the Baptist preach-
ing' is in the Dijon Museum. He died in 1709.

was born in Paris in 1754. He studied under
Dumoreau, and died in 1822, leaving a very large
number of historical, landscape, and fancy pictures,
besides portraits. Among his portraits are those
of Voltaire, Mademoiselle Clairon, Crebillon, and
Stanislaus, King of Poland. He wrote accounts of
the lives and works of Leonardo da Vinci and Nicolas
Poussin ; a ' Guide des Amateurs de Tableaux pour
les Ecoles allemande, flamande et hollandaise,'
1818 ; and other works relative to painting, in
which he displayed much knowledge and judgment.
GAULTIER, J., a French engraver little known,
was probably from his style a relation of Leonard
Gaultier. Among others, he engraved some small
plates of emblematical subjects.

GAULTIER, LEONARD, (or, as he sometimes signs
himself, GALTER,) a French engraver, was born
at Mayence about 1561, and died in Paris in 1641.
His style of work resembles that of Wierix and
Crispyn van de Passe. His prints are executed en-
tirely with the graver, with great precision, but in
a stiff, formal manner. He must have been very

laborious, as the Abbs' de Marolles possessed up-
wards of eight hundred prints by him, many of
which were after his own designs. They consist
of portraits, and various subjects, of which the
following are the most worthy of notice. They
are sometimes signed with his name, and sometimes

with the cipher (p^.

Henry IV. of France.
Henry, Duke of Montpensier.
J. Amyot, Bishop of Auxerre.
Alexandra Bouchart, Viscount de Blosseville.
Philip de Mornay, Seigneur du Plessis. 1611.
Charles de Gontaut de Biron, Marshal of France.
Etienne Pasquier.
Jean Caron.

A set. of small plates of subjects from the Old and New


A set of the Prophets, Apostles, and Evangelists.
Thirty-two plates of the History of Cupid and Psyche

after Raphael.

The Procession of the League ; a satirical print.
The Family of Henry IV. ; nine figures.
The Assassination of Henry IV.
The Coronation of Mary de' Medici. 1610.
The Cyclops forging the Thunderbolts; after J.

Cousin. 1581.

A Sacrifice ; after Jlf. Freminet.
The Last Judgment ; copied from Martin Eota's

engraving after Michelangelo.

GAULTIER, PIERRE, a French painter and
sngraver, flourished from about 1730 to 1762, or
later, and resided chiefly at Naples. He etched
the following plates, after Francesco Solimena :

David and Bathsheba.

Ecce Homo !

The Visitation of the Virgin to St. Elizabeth.

St. Michael discomfiting the Evil Spirit.

The Defeat of Darius.

The Battle of the Centaurs.

The Four Quarters of the World ; small ovals.

GAUTHEROT, CLAUDE, who was born in Paris in
.769, and died there in 1825, was a pupil of David,
vhose friendship involved him in the troubles of
he Revolution. He opened a school of design
where the most noted artists studied under his
lirection. His principal work, ' Napoleon har-
anguing his troops on the Bridge of the Lech at
Augsburg,' is at Versailles.

the son and pupil of Jacques Fabien Gauthier
Dagoty, was born in Paris in 1745, and died at
Florence in 1785. In 1780 he issued a series of
twelve plates, printed in colours, chiefly from the
pictures in the gallery of the Duke of Orleans.
He has also left plates after Correggio, Raphael,
Titian, Van Dyck, and others.

was at the same time a painter, engraver, author,
anatomist, and physical scientist, was born at Mar-
seilles in 1717, but came to Paris in 1737, and there
engaged in the business of printing in colours from
several mezzotint plates. He was for a time an
assistant to J. C. Le Blond, the inventor of this art,
and after his death, in 1741, succeeded to the
privilege of his patent. He died in Paris in 1786.
He published a number of coloured illustrations of
anatomy and natural history, as also some portraits,
including those of Louis XV. and Cardinal Fleury.
GAUW, G., is mentioned by Strutt as the
engraver of a singular plate of the ' Head of Mer-
cury,' after J. Mathan, engraved in imitation of a



GAVASETTI, CAMILLO, was a native of Modena,
who flourished about the year 1625. He studied
under his father, Stefano Gavasetti, a miniature
painter and gilder, but he rather followed the
Carracci. His principal works are at Piacenza,
where he is better known than at Parma or Modena.
He was engaged with Piarini in painting Scriptural
subjects, and at the Presbiterio, or parsonage of
Sant' Antonio at Piacenza, is a fresco representing
a subject from the Apocalypse, which was esteemed
by Guercino tlie finest work of art in that city.
He died young in 1628.

GAVAS10, AGOSTINO, was probably the son of
Giovanni Giacomo Gavasio. There is by him in
the parish church of Nembro, near Bergamo, an
altar-piece of wood called ''di Tutti Santi " ; in San
Niccoli, a repainted altar-piece with ' St. Augustine
enthroned between St. Stephen and St. Lawrence ' ;
in San Sebastiano, an altar-piece with the ' Virgin
and Child ; ' and in the court of the Casa Longhi,
a fresco of the 'Virgin and Child, with Saints.'
Tassi notices a picture by this master in the
parochial church of San Giacomo at Piazzatore, in
the valley of Brembana, of the ' Virgin and Infant,'
dated 1527.

cante, in the valley of Brembana, was a Bergamese
artist who flourished early in the 16th century, but
of whom no records exist. He is the author of
five arched panels with figures of the Apostles,
and of three paintings in tempera of half-length
figures of Saints and Bishops in couples, on a gold
ground, in the Lochis-Carrara Gallery in Bergamo.
There is also a painting by him of ' The Virgin
crowned by Angels,' dated 1512, in Sant' Alessandro
at Colonna.


GAVIN, ROBERT, a Scottish landscape and genre
painter, was born at Leith in 1827. He early
manifested a taste for art, and when about twenty-
one years of age he entered the Edinburgh School
of Design. His earlier works partook much of
the style of Sir George Harvey, and a few of them,
as, for instance, his ' Reaping Girl ' and ' Phoabe
Mayflower,' were reproduced in chromo-litho-
graphy, and became very popular. Soon after
1870 he made a tour in America, and afterwards
went to the continent ; he then settled for a time
at Tangier, where he painted numerous Moorish
subjects. He was elected an Associate of the
Royal Scottish Academy in 1855, and an Aca-
demician in 1879, when he painted as his diploma
picture ' A Moorish Maiden's First Love.' He died
at Newhaven, near Edinburgh, in 1883.

GAWDIE, Sir JOHN, Bart., a portrait painter,
was born at West Harling in Norfolk in 1639.
He was deaf and dumb, and studied under Lely.
Succeeding to the baronetcy on the death of his
father in 1666, he pursued art only as an amuse-
ment, but Evelyn speaks of him in commendatory
terms. He died in 1699.

GAYWOOD, RICHARD, an engraver, was born
about 1630, and died about 1711. He was a pupil
of Hollar, whose style he imitated. The most in-
teresting of his works are his portraits, among
which are the following :

Mary, Queen of Scots, with a Crucifix in her hand.
Charles I. ; oval, with a hat and cloak.
Henrietta Maria, his Queen, in mourning.
Elizabeth, daughter of Charles I., with an Angel draw-
ing a veil from her face.

Charles II. ; after Hanneman.

Charles II., on horseback. 1661.

The same, with a hat and feather.

Catharine, Queen of Charles II.

Oliver Cromwell.

Richard Cromwell.

George Monck, Duke of Albemarle.

Jerome Weston, Earl of Portland.

The Countess of Portland.

Sir Bulstrode Whitelocke.

Sir Peter Temple, Bart.

Sir George Croke, Chief Justice of the King's Bench.

Sir Keuelm Digby.

Sir Peter Paul Kubens.

Hans Holbein.

William Camden, historian and antiquary.

William Fairfax, General in the Palatinate. 1656.

Inigo Jones, architect.

Margaret Lemon ; after Van Dyck.

James Shirley, poet.

William Drummond, the Scottish historian.

John Playford, musician.

Matthew Stevenson, poet.

John Evelyn, antiquary.

Sir Anthony Van Dyck.

Lady Van Dyck.

Countess of Arundel.

Countess of Carlisle.

Dr. Sibbes.

Archy, the King's Jester.

He also engraved the picture of ' Venus reclining,
with a Man playing on the Organ,' after Titian, as
well as :

A set of eight plates of Birds ; after F. Barlow.
A set of Animals ; after the same.
A set of Lions and Leopards ; after Rubens.
A Hare ; after B. Poel.

GAZAN, FRANCISCO, was a Spanish engraver of
the 18th century, who engraved, about 1713, a
portrait of Quevedo, after a drawing of Salva

GEBAUER, CHRISTIAN DAVID, an animal painter
and an etcher, was born in 1777 at Neusalz in
Silesia, and educated at the Copenhagen Academy
from 1800 under Lorentzen. He devoted himself
to landscapes as well as animals, executing the
latter at first in Indian ink, but afterwards in oil.
In 1813 he proceeded to Dresden, where he took
to drawing, painting, and etching military scenes,
and in 1815 was received into the Academy there.
Later in his life he established a school of design
at Aarhus, where he died in 1831. His pictures
of horses and dogs, several of which are in the
Copenhagen Gallery, are among his best works.

GEBHARD, \V. M., a German landscape painter
and engraver, flourished at Nuremberg from 1730
to 1750. There are by him 'The Sacrifice of

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