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Iphigeneia,' and two sets of landscapes with ruins
and waterfalls.

GEDDES, ANDREW, a Scottish portrait painter,
was born at Edinburgh about the year 1789. He
was the son of David Geddes, an auditor of excise,
and was educated at the High School and University
of Edinburgh. He showed an early predilection for
the fine arts, but did not commence his career as
a professed artist until after the death of his father.
He entered the schools of the Royal Academy
in 1807, about the same time that Haydon, Jack-
son, and Wilkie were students there, and after
some years' study he settled down to practise in
Edinburgh. In 1814 he took a residence in London
for his artistic pursuits, and continued annually
to spend some months there. About this time he
pointed the portraits of Sir David Wilkie, Henry
Mackenzie (the author of ' The Man of Feeling '),
Dr, Chalmers, and other persons of note. The



approbation which these portraits elicited induced
him to put down his name as a candidate for the
honours of the Royal Academy ; but he was un-
successful, and the Associateship was not awarded
him till 1832. In 1818 he painted a picture of
'The Discovery of the Regalia in Scotland,' in
which he introduced the portraits of several of
the most distinguished men of his native city,
among them Sir Walter Scott. In 1828 he visited
the continent, and passed some time in Italy,
Germany, and France. On his return in 1831 he
painted an altar-piece for the church of St. James,
Garlick Hill, and a picture of 'Christ and the
Woman of Samaria.' He visited Holland in 1839,
and he was skilful as an etcher in the manner of
Rembrandt. He died in London in 1844. His
principal works are :
Edinburgh. Nat. Gallery. Summer.

His own Portrait.


,, ,, Portrait of the Artist's Mother.

Portrait of George Sanders.

London. Nat. Gallery. Dull Beading (Portraits of
Terry and his Wife).

A Study from Giorgione.


GEEDTS, PIERRE JOSEPH, a Belgian historical
painter, born at Louvain in 1770, studied at the
Antwerp Academy under Herreyns. In 1800 he
was appointed one of the professors of the new
Academy of Louvain, which post he held till 1833,
when he was, as he always considered, unjustly
dismissed. He died at Louvain in 1834. His
best works are a ' Calvary,' and ' The Archbishop
of Cologne delivering a miraculous host to an
Augustine Monk ; ' the latter is in the church of
St. Jacques at Louvain.

GEEDTS, PIERRE PAUL, the son of Pierre Joseph
Geedts, was born at Louvain in 1793, and studied
under his father and at the Louvain Academy,
where he carried off the principal prizes. He was
appointed professor of modelling, but resigned on
his father being dismissed. He was a good por-
trait painter, but there is only known by him one
historical picture, painted in 1824 for the church
of St. Jacques. He died at Louvain in 1856.

GEEFS, ALOYS, a Belgian historical painter and
sculptor, was born at Antwerp in 1817, and died
at Auteuil near Paris in 1841. 'The Scourging of
Christ ' was one of his best paintings.

GEEL, JOOST VAN, a Dutch painter, was born at
Rotterdam in 1631, where he died in 1698. He
was a scholar of Gabriel Metsu, whose polished
style he imitated so exactly, that it is not always
easy to distinguish their works. He also painted
marines and sea-ports, which are highly finished,
and very agreeably coloured. In the Amsterdam
Museum is a portrait of Van Geel, by himself,
and in the Hermitage, St. Petersburg, ' A Concert.'

GEELEN, CHRISTIAAN VAN, a painter born at
Utrecht in 1755, was a pupil of Jakob Maurer. He
painted portraits, family pieces, and landscapes,
and died in 1826. His son, also named Christiaan,
born in 1794, showed great talent, but died in
1825 at the early age of thirty-one years.

was a native of Holland, who flourished at Ley-
den from about 1624 to 1654. He was chiefly
employed in engraving maps, but executed also
some portraits, among which is that of Maurice,
Prince of Nassau.


torical painter, born at Antwerp in 1707, was in-
tended for the law, and studied in the Jesuits'
College. Preferring art, however, he became a
pupil of Abraham Godyn, and was made free of
the Guild of St. Luke in 1731. In 1741 he became
one of the six directors of the Academy of Antwerp,
who filled that office gratuitously. He died at
Antwerp in 1791. He excelled in grisaille painting
in imitation of bas-reliefs, of which there are the
following examples :

Antwerp. Gallery. The Fine Arts. 1760.

Brussels. Gallery. Christ and the Disciples at

The Saviour at the House of

Simon the Pharisee.
The Sons of Aaron punished

by Fire from Heaven.

The Woman taken in Adul-


,, Abraham and Melchisedeck.

The Sacrifice of Abraham.

The Sacrifice of Eli.

Hague. Museum. Autumn.

Lille. Museum. Children with Goat.

Vienna. Gallery. Cupid and Psyche.

GEERARTS, MARC, (whose name is found vari-
GUERARDS, &c.,) the elder, a Flemish painter and
engraver, born at Bruges in the 16th century, was
a pupil of Marten De Vos. During the religious
wars he came to England, and became painter to
Queen Elizabeth. He died in this country before
1604, as Van Mander, in his book published in
that year, complains of not being able to gain any
authentic date about his death from his son. He
was the author of a remarkable plan of Bruges
made before 1566, of which the original is in the
possession of the Corporation of that city. In the
Vienna Gallery are two portraits, and in the church
of Notre-Dame in Bruges is a ' Descent from the
Cross,' by some assigned to Frans Pourbus.
Geerarts painted the procession of Queen Elizabeth
to a marriage that took place at Blackfriars about
1600, which he himself engraved, and which was
reproduced by Vertue, who, in defiance of an earlier
and well-grounded tradition, conjectured that it
represented a royal visit to Hunsdon House, Hert-
fordshire, in 1571. He also engraved some plates
for an edition of .ffisop's ' Fables ' published at
Bruges in 1567. In the Burghley House collec-
tion are portraits by him of Queen Elizabeth, Lord
Burghley, and the Earl of Essex. There are in
the National Portrait Gallery portraits by him of
Mary, Countess of Pembroke, Lord Burghley, and
William Camden.

GEERARTS, MARC, the younger, a son of Marc
Geerarts the elder, was born at Bruges, and was
a pupil of Lucas De Heere. The dates of his birth
and death are alike unknown. He is supposed to
have come to England, but some confusion exists
between the works of the father and son. The
most important of all the works attributed to this
artist is the 'Assembly of English, Spanish, and
Austrian Plenipotentiaries held at Somerset House
in 1604,' recently acquired for the National Portrait
Gallery at the Hamilton sale, which formerly bore
the forged signature of Pantoja de La Cruz. There
is a picture of Elizabeth, signed M. (?., belonging
to the Duke of Portland, a head of Camden in the
Bodleian, a full-length portrait of Thomas Cecil,
first Earl of Exeter, painted in 1612, at Woburn
Abbey, and other signed specimens at Barrow
Green and Penshurst.



GEEST, CORNELIS VAN, was a Dutch engraver,
by whom there is a half-sheet print of Gilbert
Burnet, Bishop of Salisbury.


GEFFELS, FRANZ, was a painter, etcher, and
builder from the Netherlands, who was workingat
Mantua from about 1651 to 1671. He has left
seven plates of buildings and ruins.

historical painter, was born in 1800 at Wangen
in Wurtemberg. He studied under Langer at
Munich, and during his stay there from 1815
to 1823 produced a ' St. Sebastian,' an altar-piece
for his native town, and two idyllic pieces which
attracted great notice. In 1823 he went to Rome.
Here he produced 'Adam and Eve after their
Expulsion from Eden,' and ' Moses striking the
Rock,' now in the palace at Stuttgart. Upon his
return home in 1826 he was employed to decorate
the palace of Rosenstein. He went again to Rome
in 1829, and was employed in fresco painting, and
afterwards up to the end of his life was occupied
in the same way in Stuttgart. He died at Rome
in 1876. In addition to the pictures mentioned
above, the following are among his works in oil:

A sleeping Venus and two Satyrs. Leda and the
Swan. Madonna and Child (an altar-piece at
Wangen). Several portraits. While in fresco are :

Scene from the Story of Cupid and Psyche. The four
Seasons and Aurora. Hercules and Omphale. As-
cension of the Virgin. The Crucifixion. Scenes
from the Life of Count Eberhard II. of Wiirtemberg.

GEHRTS, KARL, German historical and genre
painter ; born 1853 at Hamburg. Studied at the
Art School of Weimar ; Professor at the Diisseldorf
Academy of Fine Arts. His most important work
is the series of frescoes that decorate the staircase
of the Diisseldorf Museum, in which the artist
makes a resumtf of the history of art. He also
achieved considerable notoriety by his book illus-
trations and drawings for ' Fliegende Blatter.' His
quaint, weird figures of gnomes (Kobold and
Heinzelmiinnchen) have made his name familiar
throughout Germany. He died at Endenich, near
Bonn, in July 1898.

GEIGER, ANDREAS, a mezzotint engraver, was
bom at Vienna in 1773, and died there in 1856.
Among his best plates are ' Antiochus and his
Physician Erasistratus,' after Fuger, 'The Death
of Cato,' after Caravaggio, ' Helen and Paris,' after
David, and ' The Burial of Christ,' after Van der

GEIKIE, WALTER, a Scottish subject painter,
was born at Edinburgh in 1795. He became deaf
and dumb, and studied in the Trustees' Academy.
His works first appeared in 1815, and he was
elected an Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy
in 1831, and an Academician in 1834. He died in
1837. He published a volume of etchings: and
there is in the National Gallery of Scotland a
'Cottage Scene ' by him.


GEIHNAERT, JOSEPH, a Flemish genre painter,
born at Eecloo in Flanders, in 1791, was a pupil
of Herreyns and of Paelinck. From 1830 to 1836
he practised at the Hague, but died at Ghent in
1859. Amongst his works are :

The Schoolmaster. (Mechlin Museum.)

A Consultation at the Doctor's. (Brussels Gallery.)

Leonardo da Viuci paintiug the Giocouda.

Moses saved from the 'Waters.

Joseph and Potiphar.

Asking in Marriage.

The Card Players.

The Little Marauders.

The Return of the Fishermen.

An Election.

Albrecht Diirer at the tomb of Van Eyck.

The Arrest of Count Egmont. 1823.

The Lesson on the Harp. (Ghent Museum.)

Giving a Pledge. (Ghent Museum.)

The Visit of the Doctor. (Haarlem Museum.)

graver, born at Nuremberg in 1778, was first in-
structed by Heinrich Guttenberg, but spent from
1803 to 1814 in further study in Paris, devoting
himself especially to architecture and landscapes.
He died at Nuremberg in 1853. The best of his
plates are from his own designs, but he also executed
views of churches, &c., after Ainmiller and others,
and ' The Return of the Herd,' after Berchem, ' The
Road through the Beech-wood,' after Ruisdael, and
' A Landscape with an Oak and a fallen Beech-
tree,' after Wynants.

GEIST, AUGUST CHRISTIAN, a landscape painter,
born at Wiirzburg in 1835, was at first a pupil of
his father, Andreas Geist (who died in I860),
under whom he executed many landscapes, archi-
tectural and marine views, and heads, both in oil
and water-colours. In 1853 he proceeded to
Munich, and improved himself in landscape work
by study under Fried rich Bamberger. In 1854 he
travelled in the Rhone mountains, and produced
therefrom twenty-four Indian ink drawings. He
then established a studio of his own ; but in 1859
he made a tour around Carlsruhe with Schirmer ;
in 1860 visited the Rhine and Antwerp ; in 1862
the Highlands of Bavaria; in 1863 Franconian
Switzerland ; and in 1864 the Allgau. The years
1865 to 1867 he spent in Rome on account of his
health ; and he died at Munich in 1868. The
following are some of his best works :

Achach Castle. 1853.

Pleasure Party at Carlstadt. 1853.

Winter Landscape at Schaftlarn. 1853.

Landscape near Polling. 1856.

Festal Morning on a Mountain Lake. 1863.

The Idyll. 1864.

Thunderstorm in the Campagna.

Fountain near Ariccia.

Theatre of Tusculum.
He also etched thirteen ' Ruins of Franconian For-
tresses 'for the Polytechnic Association at Wiirz-
burg, for which also the above Indian ink drawings
were executed.

GELASIO DI NICCOLO, a Ferrarese parater_of
the 13th century, is said to have studied in Venice
under the Greek Theophanes, and on his return to
Ferrara, in 1240, to have executed various works
there for the bishop, Filippo Fontana. The paint-
ings usually ascribed to him belong to a later

GELDER, N. VAN, was an animal painter of
the Netherlands, who flourished about 1660. The
Vienna Gallery contains one or two pictures of
game by him, and in the Fitzwilliam Museum at
Cambridge is a picture of 'Boors playing at

GELDER, PIETER, was a Dutch painter, sup-
posed to have been a scholar of Rembrandt, whose
manner he imitated. He was living in 1655.

GELDERBLOEM, LAURENT, born at Dordrecht
about 1748, was a pupil of Joris Ponsen. This


artist gave promise of considerable talent, but
died before reaching the age of thirty.

GELDERSMAN, VINCENTIUS, a Flemish painter,
was born at Mechlin about 1539. It is not known
under whom he studied, but he painted historical
subjects with some success. Among his most
esteemed works may be noticed a picture of
'Susannah and the Elders,' and a 'Descent from
the Cross,' in the cathedral at Mechlin ; also a
' Leda ' and ' Cleopatra with the Asp.'

GELDORP, GEORG, a portrait painter, was born at
the end of the 16th century, probably at Cologne,
though Walpole calls him a native of Antwerp.
He certainly studied at Antwerp, and then went to
London, where he was appointed keeper of the
pictures to Charles I. Rubens and Van Dyck were
successively his guests on their arrival in England.
He died in London about 1658. Among his por-
traits may be named those of the Duke of Lennox
and the Earl of Lindsay, both of which have been
engraved, and one of George Carew,Earl of Totness,
in the National Portrait Gallery.

times known by his Christian name alone was a
Flemish painter, born at Louvain in 1553. After
learning the rudiments of art in his native city, he
went, at seventeen years of age, to Antwerp, where
he became a disciple of Frans Francken the elder.
On the death of that master he passed into the
school of Frans Pourbus, under whom he be-
came one of the best artists of his time, particu-
larly in portraits, in which he was greatly
employed. His talents were not, however, confined
to portraits : he painted likewise several historical
subjects for the Duke of Terra Nova at Cologne.
Among his best pictures are :

Cologne. Wallraf -Hi chart z )_....-, __

Mweum. j The Four Evangelists.

Darmstadt. Gallery. Two portraits.

Gotha. Gallery. Four portraits.

Milan. Brera. Portrait of a Lady.

Munich. Gallery. Portrait of a Man.

Petersburg. Hermitage. Lucretia.

Portrait of a Man.

He died at Cologne in 1616 or 1618.

GELDORP, MELCHIOR, a portrait and historical
painter, was a son and scholar of Gortzius Geldorp.
He was working at Cologne from 1620 to 1640,
and some works of his are there preserved, among
which may be named :

Portrait of an Ecclesiastic. 1615.
Portrait of a Lady. 1618.
Portrait of a Child. 1624.

Portrait of Wolfgang William. Count Palatine of the
Rhine and Duke of Bavaria.

GELEE, FRANCOIS ANTOINE, a French engraver
and lithographer, was born in Paris in 1796, and
studied under Girodet and Pauquet. He died in
Paris in 1860. Amongst his plates are :

Daphnis and Chloe ; after Hersent.

Justice and Divine Vengeance pursuing Crime ; after


Venus and her Doves ; after Lamtert.
The Shepherd of Virgil ; after Baisselier.

GELENIUS, SIGISMUND, was a German engraver,
who flourished about the year 1576. Professor
Christ attributes to him a set of twelve small
woodcuts of the ' Labours of Hercules, 1 which are
executed with considerable spirit.

animal painter, was born in 1802, and died at Barthe-
le-Neste, Hautes Pyrenees, in 1883.


painter, was born at Brussels in 1786. In 1820
he won the first prize medal for a ' View of Ruys-
broeck,' now in the Ghent Museum, and later in
life he travelled in England and Scotland. He
died at Brussels in 1867.

GELL, Sir WILLIAM, an English topographical
draughtsman, was born in 1774. He studied in
the schools of the Academy, and practised as an
architect, but is best known by the illustrated books
he published on the topography and antiquities
of Greece and Italy. In 1820 he settled in Italy,
where he acted as Chamberlain to Caroline, Princess
of Wales. He died at Naples in 1836. Amongst
the works he published are :

Topography of Troy. 1804.

Geography and Antiquities of Ithaca. 1807.

Itinerary of Greece. 1810.

Attica. 1817.

Itinerary of the Morea. 1818.

Pompeiana. 1817-19.

The Walls of Rome. 1820.

Narrative of a Journey to the Morea. 1823.

Topography of Rome and its Vicinity. 1834.

GELLE, JOHANN, a German engraver, flourished
about the year 1628, and resided chiefly at Cologne.
He engraved some of the plates for the ' Academic de
1'Espee,' published at Antwerp, by Gerard Thibault,
in 1628, as well as a portrait of the Emperor
Ferdinand II. in a border of medals, dated 1619.
They are worked entirely with the graver, in a
stiff, formal style.

GELLEE, CLADDE, commonly called CLAUDE DB
LORRAIN, a French landscape painter and etcher,
was born in 1600 at Chamagne, a village on
the Moselle in the Vosges country, then in the
ancient province of Lorraine. His parents, Jean
Gell6e and Anne Pedose, were in humble cir-
cumstances, and had five sons, of whom Claude
was the third. Concerning his early life, his
biographers differ considerably ; their information
coming from two sources. The first is Joachim
von Sandrart, a German painter, who resided for
some years at Rome, where he became intimate
with Claude, and whose reminiscences are included
in his ' Academia Artis Pictorias.' The other au-
thority is Filippo Baldinucci, a Florentine artist,
whose account was derived from the two grand-
nephews of the painter.

According to Sandrart, Claude showed so little
aptitude for study when at school that his parents
apprenticed him to a pastry-cook. He afterwards
found his way to Rome, in company with some
other young Lorrainers practising the same voca-
tion. Here he lived for some time in the house of
Agostino Tassi, a Perugian landscape and marine
painter, who had studied under Paulus Bril. He
acted as the painter's factotum : looked after the
kitchen and household affairs, groomed the horse,
ground the colours, and cleaned the palettes and
brushes. While engaged on these duties he applied
himself, with the help of his master, to a diligent
study of perspective and the ground-work of art.

According to Baldinucci, when Claude was
twelve years old he became an orphan, and had
to seek the shelter of his eldest brother's home.
Jean had settled at Freiburg, on the opposite bank
of the Rhine, where he pursued the arts of wood
engraving and carving. From him Claude, who
had already shown a taste for art, received his first
instruction in drawing. His stay in the Swabian
country was not long, for about a year after, a




Hanfsttingl fhoto]


{National (/<///</ \


kinsman, passing through Freiburg on his way to
Rome in pursuit of trade as a lace merchant, took
him with him to the Eternal Citj'. His relative
was soon compelled to leave him, and Claude, a
boy of fourteen years, was left alone in a foreign
land. For some time he remained at Rome in
lodgings near the Pantheon, eking out a scanty
subsistence, and endeavouring to improve his
knowledge of art by such humble means as lay
within his reach. Owing to the wars which then
ravaged Europe, the slender remittances he re-
ceived from his friends at length entirely ceased,
and he had to trust to his own unaided efforts to
maintain himself. Nothing daunted, he set out for
Naples to obtain some instruction from Gottfried
Wals, a painter of Cologne. With this master he
remained about two years, devoting his attention
to perspective and architecture. He then returned
to Rome, and gained admission to the studio of
Tassi. Baldinucci states that he lived in the
painter's house, and significantly admits that he
looked after the household accounts.

Comparing these two accounts, it will be seen
that they are in entire agreement on one point
only : the fact of Claude having passed some time
with Tassi, from whom he received instruction.
As to the precise character of the relationship in
which they stood to each other, it is evident from
the admission of Baldinucci that Claude did not
enter Tassi's house simply as a pupil, but as some
sort of a dependent. As to the time of this
sojourn, it appears that it must have commenced
before 1619. A deposition by Tassi has lately
been discovered, in which he speaks of Claude as
one of his assistants in some decorations which he
was executing for Cardinal Montalto in that year.
Thus far there is certainty. Less certain is the
account of the pupilage at Naples under Wals.
Still it does not absolutely conflict with Sandrart,
and may be accepted as supplying a link in the
history. As regards the pastry-cook incident, and
the manner in which Claude originally reached
Rome, the two accounts are entirely at variance,
and they must be left thus, until, perchance, further
research shall have thrown more light on the subject.

In the spring of 1625 Claude left Rome, and set
out on a series of wanderings. The first point
aimed at was Venice. On his way thither, he
spent a few days in devotion at the well-known
shrine of the Virgin at Loretto. At Venice he
stayed some time and executed several works.
He had then intended to return to Rome, but, alter-
ing his plans, he determined to visit his native
country. Passing through Trent and Innsbruck,
he made a short sojourn in Bavaria at the village
of Harlaching. During the journey he was laid
low by sickness, when he had the misfortune to be
robbed of all his worldly possessions. In this for-
lorn condition he returned to his native place, and
after a short stay there proceeded to Nancy. Here
he again took up the brush as assistant to De Ruet,
the court-painter to the Duke of Lorraine. With
him he continued till the summer of 1627, employed
on various works, and more especially on the de-
coration of the Carmelite church at Nancy. His
desire to return to Italy was quickened by an
accident to the scaffolding used in the latter work,
in which he had a narrow escape, and he set out
on his return journey, making a halt of a few days
at Lyons. On his arrival at Marseilles he was
seized by illness, and again had the misfortune to
be robbed of his little store of money. Before he


could proceed further he was obliged to raise the
means to continue his journey by painting some
pictures for a local patron of the arts. His troubles
were not even yet ended, for the voyage to Civita-
Vecchia was so stormy that there were grave doubts
whether the vessel would reach land.

Claude arrived at Rome on the 18th October,
1627. The years which immediately succeeded his
settlement there appear to have been devoted to a
close and direct study of nature. During this
period he became acquainted with Sandrart, his
future biographer, to whose account we are chiefly
indebted for what is known of his mode of work-
ing. He sketched indefatigably in the open air,
from the earliest dawn to nightfall, so that he
might be thoroughly imbued with the ever-chang-
ing aspects of nature under the varying conditions
of light. He mixed his colours while the effects
were still before him, and then, returning home,
applied them to the work which he had in hand.
The German mentions Claude's weakness in draw-

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