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a grand composition, correctly drawn, and finely
coloured. He died at Antwerp in 1560.

DE BACKER, NICOLAAS, who was born at
Antwerp in 1648, came to England, and was em-
ployed by Kneller as an assistant. He also painted
perspective views of English churches. He died
in London in 1689.

DEBACQ, CHARLES ALEXANDRE, a French his-
torical and portrait painter, was born in Paris in
1804. He became a pupil of Gros, and was greatly
appreciated in his own country. There are several
pictures by him at Versailles. He died in Paris in
1853.

DE BAEN, JACOBUS, the son and scholar of Jan
De Baen, was born at the Hague in 1673. When
he was twenty years of age he came to England,
amongst the attendants of King William. The
celebrity of his father, and the favour of the
court, procured him immediate employment, and
he painted the portraits of the Duke of Gloucester
and several of the nobility. Notwithstanding this
flattering encouragement, his desire of seeing Italy
induced him to leave England ; and on his way
to Rome he visited Florence, and was favoured
with the patronage of the grand-duke. On his
arrival at Rome he applied himself with much
diligence to the study of the works of the great
masters, and painted some portraits and conversa-
tion pieces, which were much esteemed. He gave
promise of surpassing his father in the art, but
died at Vienna at the early age of twenty-seven,
in 1700. From his gigantic build he was called
by his comrades ' Gladiator.'

DE BAEN, JAN, a Dutch portrait painter, was

18



born at Haarlem in 1633. After receiving some
instruction from an uncle named Piemans, he was
sent to Amsterdam, and placed under the care of
Jacob Backer, with whom he remained until he
was eighteen years of age. His success in por-
trait painting was so great that he paid but little
attention to the other branches of the art. King
Charles II., who had become acquainted with his
talents during his residence on the Continent, in-
vited him to England, where he had the honour of
painting that monarch, and several of the nobility.
He died at the Hague in 1702. Jan De Baen was
a great admirer of the works of Van Dyck, whose
style he imitated in his pictures. He painted
many portraits of distinguished persons of the
time, some of which are not inferior to those of
Van Dyck. One of his best is that of John Maurice,
Prince of Nassau, in the Gallery of the Hague.
Louis XIV., after conquering part of Holland, was
desirous of having his portrait painted by De
Baen, and sent for him to Utrecht for that purpose ;
but the painter excused himself by observing, that
while his country was in mourning, he could not
think it proper for him to trace the features of her
conqueror.

DE BAETS, ENGEL, a Belgian painter of por-
traits and architectural subjects, was born at
Everghem in 1794. He executed a great number
of pictures, most of them views in Ghent and its
environs, which are much esteemed. He died at
Ghent in 1855.

DE BAILLIU, BAREND, a Flemish engraver, was
born at Antwerp about the year 1625. He spent
some time in Rome, but returned to Flanders,
where he died, although the place and the date are
not recorded. His plates, which consist chiefly of
portraits, with some historical subjects, are entirely
executed with the graver. He engraved four of
the plates for the collection of portraits of Car-
dinals created by Innocent XI. (1676-1689), en-
titled ' Effigies Cardinalium nunc viventium,' pub-
lished at Rome ; as well as the following prints, on
which his name occurs spelled in various ways :

The Saviour between St. Peter of Alcantara and St.

Mary Magdalen of Pazzi ; after Lazzaro Saldi.
St. Peter of Alcantara visited in his cell by the Virgin

and Child ; after the same.
St. Mary Magdalen of Pazzi, with the Virgin raising

her Veil ; after the same.
St. Louis Bertrand; after O. B. Gaul/i.
Pope Clement X.
The Five Saints canonized by Clement X. in 1671 ; after

Giro Ferri.

DE BAILLIU, PIETER, a Flemish engraver, was
born at Antwerp in 1613. After having learned
the first principles of engraving in his own
country, he visited Italy for improvement, and
there engraved some plates. He returned to Ant-
werp after 1637, and from 1640 to 1660 engraved
several of the works of the most celebrated of
the Flemish masters, particularly Rubens and
Van Dyck. Although by no means equal to Vor-
sterman. Bolswert, or Pontius, his prints are held
in considerable estimation. Meyer's ' Kunstler-
Lexikon ' gives a list of 103 of his engravings, on
which his name is found spelled in a variety of
ways. The following are his principal works :

PORTRAITS.

Lodovico Pereira de Castro, Envoy at the Peace of

Minister.
Claude de Chabot, Envoy to Miineter.



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Johann Leuber, Envoy to Munster.

Pope Urban VIII.

Jacob Backer, Dutch painter ; after Backer.

Jan Bylert, painter, of Utrecht ; after Bylert.

AJbert, Prince of Arenberg ; after Van Dyck.

Lucy, Countess of Carlisle ; after the same.

Antoine de Bourbon, Comte de Morel, after the same.

Honore d'Urf, Comte de Chateauneuf ; after the same.

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS.

Heliodorus driven from the Temple ; from ft drawing
by P. van Lint, after Raphael.

A Pieta ; after Annibale Carracei.

St. Michael vanquishing the Devil ; after Guido.

The Reconciliation of Jacob and Esau ; after Rubens.

Christ praying in the Garden ; after the same.

The Dying Magdalen ; after the same.

The Combat of the Lapithas ; after the same.

The Holy Family; after Theodoor Rombouts.

The Crucifixion ; after Van Dyck.

The Virgin in the Clouds ; after the same.

Rinaldo and Armida ; after the same.

Susanna and the Elders ; after Marten Fepyn.

The Scourging of Christ ; after Diepenbeeck,

Christ crowned with Thorns ; after the same.

The Discovery of the true Cross by St. Helena; aftef
P. van Lint.

Theodosius carrying the true Cross before St. Ambrose ;
after the same.

Christ bound to the Pillar, with Angels holding the In-
struments of the Passion ; after J. Thomas.

St. Anastasius reading ; after Rembrandt.

DE BAST, DOMINICUS, a Belgian amateur marine
painter, was born at Ghent in 1781, and died there
in 184'2. Although not an artist by prof ession, his
works are highly appreciated by connoisseurs.

DEBAY, AUGUSTS HYACINTHE, a son of the
eminent sculptor Jean Baptiste Joseph Debay,
though really a sculptor, began life as an histori-
cal painter. He was born at Nantes in 1804, and
in 1817, when only thirteen years of age, sent his
first portraits to the Salon. After studying under
Gros, he obtained the ' Prix de Rome ' in 1823. Soon
after this he gave up painting for sculpture, which
he studied under his father, and in which he was
very successful. His death occurred in Paris in
1865. Some of his historical paintings are at
Versailles.

DE BEER, AART, a Flemish painter of his-
torical subjects and portraits, was a son of Jan
De Beer. He was born at Antwerp in 1490, and
admitted into the Guild of St. Luke in 1529. Re-
ligious subjects and designs for glass-painting
were his special pursuits. He died at Antwerp in
1542.

DE BEER, CORNELIS, was a Flemish painter,
who went to Spain about 1630, and who painted
easel pictures of considerable merit. In the Capu-
chin church at Murcia is preserved his ' Triumph
of the Holy Sacrament,' a composition of many
figures with a landscape background. His daugh-
ter, MARIA EUGENIA, practised the art of engraving
at Madrid, in the middle of the 17th century, with
considerable success. Besides an excellent frontis-
piece for Basilio Varen's ' Guerra de Flandes,' ehe
executed a good portrait of Prince Baltasar Carlos,
and the plates for the work of Don Gregorio de
Tapia y Salcedo on ' Horsemanship.'

DE BEER, JOOST, was a native of Utrecht, who
studied under Frans Floris. He painted historical
pictures with some success, and was patronized by
the Bishop of Tournai. He entered the Utrecht
Guild in 1550, and died in 1596.

DE BEIJER, JAN, who was born at Aarau in
Switzerland in 1705, went whilst young to Amster-
dam and studied under C. Pronk and J. M. Quink-
cz



hard. He painted many excellent pictures of Dutch
towns, some of which have been engraved by H.
Spilman, P. van Liender, and others. He was
still living in 1768.

DE BIE, ADRIAEN, a Flemish painter, was born
at Lierre, near Antwerp, in 1594. He received his
first instruction in art from an obscure artist named
Wouter Abts. At eighteen years of age he went
to Paris, where he studied for some time under
Rudolf Schoof, a Fleming, who was painter to
Louis XIII. He afterwards visited Rome, where
he remained eight years. In 1623, he returned
to Flanders, and was much employed for the
churches and in painting portraits. His most
esteemed work was a picture of St. Eloy, in the
collegiate church of St. Gomarus at Lierre. He
died after 1661. He was the father of Cornelia
De Bie, who has celebrated the works of the
painters of his country in Flemish verse, under
the title of ' Het Gulden Kabinet van de edele vrye
Schilderkonst.' His works are usually marked with
one or other of the accompanying 7f)v\ sfT\
monograms. Jft$) <,)$)

DE BIE, JACOB and MARCUS. See DE BYE.
DE BISSCHOP, JAN, a designer and engraver,
who was born at the Hague, in 1646, was brought
up to the law ; and, according to Houbraken,
practised in the courts in Holland. His favourite
amusement was drawing, and his performances
excited the admiration of the artists of his time.
He excelled in copying the pictures of the most
esteemed masters, in small coloured drawings, very
well drawn and highly finished. As an engraver,
he is more deserving of notice, and he has left a
great number of plates, principally etched, and har-
monized with the graver, in a free and pleasing
manner. There is great relief and richness of
effect in his prints. His most important work was
a series of 157 engravings from celebrated antique
statues and sketches by eminent painters, entitled,
' Paradigmata graphices variorum Artificum,' pub-
lished at the Hague in 1671. This engraver
Latinized his name into Episcopius, for which

reason he marked his plates with the cipher )ff

He died at Amsterdam, in 1686. Other good
prints by him are :

A Bacchanalian subject.

Christ and the Samaritan Woman; after Annibale

Carracei.
Joseph distributing Corn to the Egyptians ; after B.

Breenbergh.
The Martyrdom of St. Lawrence ; after the same.

DE BLOIS, ABRAHAM, a Dutch engraver, who
flourished from the year 1690 to 1720. He worked
chiefly for the booksellers, by whom he was much
employed. Among other portraits, he engraved
that of Anthony van Leeuwenhoek, the celebrated
physician, which was prefixed to his works pub-
lished in 1695, and which is executed in a neat but
formal style. He also executed part of the plates
for the ' Figures de la Bible,' from the designs of
Picart and others, published at Amsterdam in 1720.

DE BLOOT, PIETER. a native of Holland, flour-
ished about 1650. He painted droll scenes,
drunken frolics, and the quarrels of the peasantry,
with much truth to nature. His works, which are
somewhat rare, are much prized in Holland. De
Bloot died at Antwerp in 1667.

DEBON, FRANC.OIS HIPPOLYTE, a French histori-
cal painter, was the son of Madame Sophie Debon,



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



an artist upon porcelain, who was born in Paris in
1787, and died there in 1838. He was born in
Paris in 1807, and studied first under Gros and
afterwards under Abel de Pujol. One of his most
important works was 'The Entrance of William
the Conqueror into London,' which was exhibited
at the Salon of 1855, and afterwards placed in the
Luxembourg Gallery. His death occurred in Paris
in 1872.

DE BRAEKELEER, FERDINANDUS, historical
painter, was born at Antwerp in 1792. He was the
son of Jean Ferdinand Joseph de Braekeleer and
of Jeanne Bernardine Antoinette Seghers. He
studied at the Antwerp Academy, and under M.
J. van Bree. In 1819 he won the grand prize of
the Academy, with the pension for Rome. He
spent three years in Italy, painting historicul
pictures ('Healing of Tobias,' ' Esau and Isaac')
in the manner of David. After his return to
Antwerp he perfected a manner of his own, in
which he painted genre subjects, scenes from
Belgian history, &c. He died in 1883, at Antwerp.
Among his pupils were Leys, Jacobs, De Block,
and others. Pictures by him are in the Galleries
of Antwerp, Berlin, and Munich.

DE BRAEKELEER, FERBINANDDS, son of the
last named, was born at Antwerp in 1829, and had
shown some promise as a genre painter when he
died at the age of twenty-eight in 1857. Another
brother, HENRI, born in 1840 at Antwerp, was a
painter of genre, and died in 1888.

DE BRAUWERE, PASCHATIUS, was an engraver
of whom little is known. Brulliot describes the
only etching by him known ; it is, he says, in the
manner of Guido, and represents the executioner
placing the head of John the Baptist in a dish
held by the servant of Herodias ; these two figures
occupy the foreground, and Herodias is behind
them. It bears the date 1631.

DE BRAY, DIRK, a painter and wood-engraver,
was born at Haarlem in 1640, and specially depicted,
flowers, birds, and portraits. There is a small
woodcut of the portrait of his father, Salomon De
Bray, by this artist, dated 1664, which is very
spiritedly executed. He also engraved 12 prints
of fishes, poultry, hogs, &c., dated 1672, and 16 of
birds, flowers, and figures, dated 1660. He was
still living in 1675.

DE BRAY, JACOB, a Dutch painter, was born at
Haarlem about the year 1625. He was the son of
Salomon De Bray, an obscure portrait painter, by
whom he was instructed. Van Mander mentions
him as a reputable historical painter, and extols a
picture by him at Amsterdam, representing ' David
playing on the Harp, with a number of Priests and
Levites.' He excelled in drawing on paper with
black and red chalk, and his works of that descrip-
tion were much esteemed by collectors.
They are often signed with this monogram,
Jacob De Bray died in 1680. Writers,
however, differ very much respecting the dates in
the lives of this artist and of his son of the same
names.

DE BRAY, JAN, an historical painter and etcher,
was a brother of Dirk De Bray, and, like him, born
at Haarlem. Two pictures by him, the ' Reception
of the Orphans ' and ' Prince Frederick Henry in
the Town Hall,' are preserved at the Haarlem
Orphanage, and others are in the Museums of that
city and of Amsterdam. Of his etchings, mention
is made of 'John the Baptist in the Wilderness.'
He died in 1697.
20



DE BRAY, SALOMON, a poet and architect as
well as a painter, was born at Haarlem in 1597, and
died at the same place in 1664. He has left some
paintings in the Orange Hall of the palace called
the ' House in the Wood,' at the Hague.

DEBRET, JEAN BAPTISTE, was born in Paris in
1768, and was instructed by David. He painted
historical subjects, and completed his studies at
Rome. He then returned to France, where he lived
some years, and afterwards went to Brazil and
became professor at the Academy at Rio de Janeiro.
His works chiefly represent scenes in the life of
Napoleon. In 1836 he published a ' Voyage pitto-
resque et historique du Bresil.' He died in Paris
in 1848.

DE BRIE. See DE BRY.

DE BROEN, GERRIT, a Dutch engraver, flour-
ished about the year 1720. He was principally
employed in engraving portraits for the booksellers.
Among others, we have the portrait of Pieter Poicet,
after Nicolaas Verkolje.

DE BRUIN, CORNELIS, called at Rome ADONIS, a
Dutch portrait painter, was born at the Hague in
1652, and was instructed by Theodoor van der
Schuur. His passion for travelling led him when
he was young to Italy, where he passed some
time at Rome with Robert Duval ; he afterwards
went to Venice, where he studied for some years
under Johann Karl Loth. He painted portraits
with success ; but is more distinguished by the
publication of his travels through Persia, India,
and other countries, with plates from his own
designs. He died at Zijde-Balen, near Utrecht, in
1726 or 1727.

DE BRUYN, ABRAHAM, a Flemish engraver, was
born at Antwerp in 1538. He established himself
at Cologne about the year 1577, and died there very
old. He is ranked among the Little Masters, on
account of his plates being usually very small. He
engraved in the manner of Wierix, and worked
entirely with the graver, in a neat and formal
style, but his drawing is far from correct. It
is believed that he worked also as a goldsmith.
He usually marked his plates with one of these



ciphers,



Amon S



his portraits, and prints of small friezes of hunting,
hawking, &c., which are esteemed for their neatness,
may be mentioned :

Philip Louis, Elector Palatine. Anne, his consort.
Albert Frederick, Duke of Prussia. Eleonora, his
Duchess. William, Duke of Juliers. Mary, his
Duchess. John Sambucus, physician; a woodcut.
Charles IX., King of France. Anna, daughter of the
Emperor Charles V. Moses and the Burning Bush.
Four plates of the Evangelists, 1578. Christ and
the Samaritan Woman. A Philosopher. The Seven
Planets, 1569. The Five Senses. A set of one hun-
dred plates, entitled ' Imperil ac Sacerdotii Ornatus.
Diversarum item Gentium peculiaris Vestitus.' 1577-
78. (His />ts* u-ork.) Reissued, with some addi-
tional plates, ami entitled ' Omnium pene Europre,
Asia?, Aphricje atque America? Gentium Habitus,'
1581. Seventy-six plates of Horsemen, 1575. A set
of small friezes of Hunting aud Hawking, 1565. A
set of twelve plates of Animals, 1583. A set of
Arabesque Patterns. Pyramus and Thisbe; after
Frans Floris. The Eesurection of Lazarus ; after
Crispen van den Uroeclc.

DE BRUYN, NICOLAES, was the son, of Abra-
ham De Bruyn, and was born at Antwerp about
1570. Although he was instructed by his father
in engraving, he did not follow his example,
either in the style of his execution, or in the size



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



of his plates. He appears to have studied and to
have formed his manner from the works of Lucas
van Leyden. His compositions are abundant, but
he wanted taste in the selection of his forms.
He finished his plates very neatly with the graver
but there is not much effect in his prints, from his
ignorance of the management of the chiaroscuro
Notwithstanding this defect, which was very gen-
eral at the time in which he lived, his works possess
considerable merit. He died at Amsterdam in 1656
Be signed his plates sometimes with his initials
TV 7 , de ., and sometimes with one of the following



monograms,



The following are his principal works :

SUBJECTS FKOM HIS OWN DESIGNS.

Adam and Eve in Paradise. 1600.

Adam aud Eve standing under the Tree of the Forbidden

Fruit. 1631.

The Israelites with the Daughters of Madian.
The great Festival of the Jews after six years' bondage.

1617.

King Balak speaking to the Prophet Balaam.
The Prophet Jeremiah, with a Lion. 1608.
The Vision of Ezekiel. 1600.
David and Goliath. 1609.
David meeting Abigail. 1608.
The Queen of Sheba before Solomon. 1621.
The Idolatry of Solomon. 1606.
Nebuchadnezzar's Dream.
Daniel in the Lions' Den.
Susannah accused by the Elders.
Susannah's Acquittal.
The Stoning of the Two Elders.
The Nativity of Christ. 1621.
The Adoration of the Magi. 1603.
The Repose in Egypt. 1621.
The Murder of the Innocents. 1644.
St. John preaching in the Wilderness.
Christ preaching on the Mount.
The Centurion imploring Christ.
Christ's Entrance into Jerusalem.
Christ bearing his Cross. 1617.
The Crucifixion. 1610.
The Resurrection. 1631.
St. Paul preaching. 1621.
St. Hubert. 1614.

Orpheus playing, surrounded by Animals.
A Family of Peasants.

A Landscape, with Lions, Tigers, and Stags.
A Spanish Assembly in a Forest.
A set of six Patterns for Goldsmiths.
A set of twelve of Quadrupeds. 1621.
A set of twelve of Birds.
A set of thirteen of Fishes.

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS.

St. John preaching in the Wilderness ; after Lucas van
Lfyden.

A Miracle wrought at the Tomb of St. James ; after the
same. 1600.

The Golden Age ; after A. Bloemaert.

Four Landscapes, with historical figures ; after O. van
Coninxlo.

Three Landscapes, with figures ; after D. Vinckeboomt.

A Landscape, with a Stag-hunt ; after Jan Brueghel.

A Landscape, with Moses defending the Daughters of
Jethro ; after J. Bol.

Four of the Seasons ; after Jtf. De Yos.

St. Cecilia ; after Kaph'ael.

A Knight on Horseback, accompanied by Time, and fol-
lowed by the Devil ; after A. Diirer. 1618.

DE BRY, DIRK, or THEODORUS, a German en-
graver, was born at Liege in 1528. He resided
chiefly at Frankfort, where he carried on the busi-



ness of a print and bookseller. It is not known
by whom he was instructed in the art of engraving,
but from his style he appears to have paid par-
ticular attention to the works of Hans Sebald
Beham. About the year 1587 he visited England,
and at the suggestion of the great cosmographer
Richard Hakluyt, who procured him many designs
after nature, he published a large collection of
voyages and travels in French, German, and Latin.
He died at Frankfort in 1598. This laborious
artist worked almost wholly with the graver, in a
neat, free style, well adapted to the subjects of
which he made choice, such as processions and
ceremonials, containing a great number of figures,
which he drew correctly, and to which he gave
great spirit and expression. He usually marked

his plates T. B., or with the cipher Ry,. He

engraved the plates for the four first volumes of
Boissard's ' Romanse urbis Topographia et An-
tiquitates,' 1597-98; the two last volumes were
completed by his sons, Johannes Theodorus and
Johannes Israel De Bry. We have also the follow-
ing prints by him :

St. John in the Wilderness; an etching; very scarce.

A Dance of Cavaliers and Ladies.

A Dance of Men and Women Peasants.

A Design for a Saucer, a Head representing Pride and
Folly, surrounded with grotesque subjects ; a circular
plate ; scarce.

Another Design for a Saucer, a Head of the Duke of
Alva, with the Mask of Folly, with grotesque sub-
jects ; circular ; scarce.

Another Design for a Saucer, the Head of William of
Nassau, with grotesque figures, indicative of Pru-
dence ; circular ; scarce.

A Medallion of Scanderbeg.

The companion ; Donice IScanderbegi Uxor.

The Nine Muses.

' The Procession at the Obsequies of Sir Philip Sidney ;
drawn and invented by T[homas] L[aut], Gent., aud
engraven on copper by Derick Theodore de Brie,
in the city of London,' 1587 ; thirty-four plates.

The Procession of the Knights of the Garter in 1576 ;
twelve plates, dated 1578.

A set of Portraits, entitled * Icones Virorum illustrium '
1597-99.

The plates for Harlot's ' A briefe and true report of the
new found laud of Virginia,' published at Frankfort
in 1590.

The plates for Las Casas' narrative of the cruelties of
the Spaniards in America ; entitled ' Narratio Regio-
num Indicarum per Hispauos quosdam devastatarum
verissima." 1598.

The plates for his great work, entitled, ' Collectiones
Peregrmationum in Indiam Orientalem et Indiam
Occidentalem,' in twenty-five parts, folio. 1590 1634.

Eighty-five plates of ' Emblemata.' 1592.

DE BRY, JOHANNES THEODORUS, the elder son
and pupil of Dirk De Bry, was born at Liege in
1561. He greatly assisted his father in the im-
portant works in which he was engaged, as,
Eor instance, the ' Florilegium novum,' which was
published at Frankfort in 1612, and with the
assistance of his brother Johannes Israel, he com-
pleted the two volumes of Boissard's ' Romania
urbis Topographia et Antiquitates,' which were left
unfinished at his father's death. He also published
Emblemata secularia,' 1596, and added consider-
ably to the collection of Portraits of Illustrious
D ersons, begun by his father. He died at Frank-
! ort in 1623. His prints are signed with the initials
T. T. B., or with
ne of these mono- w rr* Q
grams, _| Jj 5 y

21



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



We have also the following prints by him :

Portrait of Gerard Mercator, geographer.

Portrait of Daniel Specklin.

Four plates of the Elements ; J. T, de Bry, inv. et fee.

The Marriage of Eebekah ; after Baldassare Peruzzi.

A March of Soldiers ; a frieze ; after Titian.

Another March of Soldiers, conducting Prisoners, with

Death riding on a Horse ; a frieze, called the

Triumph of Death ; after the same.
The Little Village Fair"; after H. S. Beham.
The Fountain of Youth ; after the same.
The Triumph of Bacchus ; after Giulio Romano.
The Venetian Ball ; after Theodore Bernard ; a circular



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