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ing men and animals. He says that though he
bestowed great attention on this branch of art, and
for many years studied diligently from statues and
living models in the Academy, yet he was never
able to remedy this failing. That he was well
aware of it is testified to by Baldinucci, who re-
lates that he was accustomed to observe jocularly
that he sold his landscapes but gave the figures.
Following the example of many other painters, he
frequently had recourse to other hands for the
groups which serve to animate and give titles to
his works. His chief assistant in this way was
Filippo Lauri, the son of a Flemish painter who
had settled at Rome, and he is also said, though
perhaps doubtfully, to have been assisted by J.
Miel, F. Allegrini, and the two Courtois.

Sandrart and Claude became very friendly ;
made sketching excursions together, and exchanged
specimens of each other's art. This acquaintance
is really the only trace of the Lorrainer having
been intimate with his brother artists. He is
mentioned casually, very casually, in connection
with other painters, but he does not seem to have
formed any other close intimacy. This isolation,
combined with the small amount of information
which has come down to us concerning Claude's
life subsequent to his settlement at Rome, leads to
the conclusion that his whole time and energies
were devoted to art. Whether in his studio or
in the short excursions he made into the surround-
ing country, his devotion to art never flagged.
He remained a bachelor, and, to secure himself
against the distractions caused by the care of a
house, he induced a relative to migrate from
Lorraine about 1636, and to take charge of his
household. He carried his isolation so far that his
name only occurs once in connection with Nicolas
Poussin, the chief figure amongst the French
artists then resident in Rome, and it is likewisa
absent from the biographies of the many great
painters who were his contemporaries. There is
no trace of his name in the records of the Academy
of St. Luke, neither was he included amongst the
members of the French Academy at Paris, which
was founded while he was in the heyday of his

Claude does not appear to have at once sprung
into fame after settling down at Rome. Some ten
years probably elapsed before he attracted the
attention of Cardinal Bentivoglio, one of the lead-
ing men in the Papal Court. A commission which



he executed for this patron was so much appreciated
that he was introduced by him to the reigning
Pope, Urban VIII. This Pontiff ordered four
works from him, two of which are now in the
Louvre, and bear the date 1639. Henceforth his
position was assured, and but few events occurred
to disturb the even tenor of his career. The
chief facts of his subsequent life might be included
in a list of the works he painted, and of the patrons
for whom they were executed. It must suffice
within the limits of this notice to mention among
the latter : M. de Bethune, French Ambassador at
Rome ; Cardinal Giorio ; Innocent X. and his
nephew, Prince Pamfili ; the Due de Bouillon;
the King of Spain ; Cardinal Giovanni de' Medici ;
Pope Alexander VII. ; the Bishops of Montpellier
and of Ypres ; Cardinal Rospigliosi, afterwards
Pope Clement IX. ; M. de Bourlemont ; the Con-
stable Colonna ; Cardinal Massimi ; Prince Altieri,
and the Elector of Bavaria.

There is an incident recorded by Baldinucci of
the latter part of Claude's life which must not be
omitted. In a spirit of compassion he had, about
the middle of his career, taken into his studio a
deformed and friendless boy, named Giovanni
Domenico. The lad grew up in the master's
house, and remained with him as pupil and as-
sistant for twenty-five years. Then the enemies of
Claude spread a report that the works which issued
from his studio were really executed by Domeuico.
The ungrateful assistant joined the cabal, left his
benefactor, and brought an action against him for
the payment of a salary during all the years he
had spent with him. Without waiting for the
decision of the court, Claude at once paid the
claim, and thenceforth closed the door of his
studio to all assistants.

It now remains to speak of what is known as
the "Liber Veritatis." This is a collection of 200
drawings of Claude's pictures, executed in bistre,
and occasionally touched up with white. Nearly
all bear inscriptions giving details as to when and
for whom the pictures they represent were painted.
The volume which contains them was bequeathed
by the painter to his nephews as an heirloom, but
their successors in the trust sold it. After various
vicissitudes it at length found a resting-place in
England in the collection of the Duke of Devon-
shire. Until of late years it was considered, fol-
lowing the account of Baldinucci, that the drawings
were done by Claude as a means of identifying his
works, and of protecting himself against the spuri-
ous productions which his fame caused unscrupulous
contemporary artists to palm off as his. It is not
necessary to enter into the details of the controversy,
as the painter's will, which has recently been dis-
covered, no longer leaves it open to doubt that the
" Liber Veritatis " was intended by him as a record,
whether complete or not, of his pictures and their

During the latter part of his life Claude suf-
fered much from ill-health, his chief foe being the
gout. A severe illness in the early part of 1663
caused him to make the will which has just been
mentioned. From it we learn that, besides his
relative and housekeeper, Jean, there was also
living with him an adopted daughter named Agnes,
then 11 years old, whom he affectionately calls
"mia zitella." To her he leaves for life the
precious " Liber Veritatis," and makes minute anc
careful provision as to the property bequeathed for
her maintenance. After his recovery from this

attack, the painter resumed the brush. The state
of his health in the remaining years of his career
arobably precluded his working in the open air as
formerly, but the record of pictures executed
during this period shows that he manfully per-
severed, and produced many important works.
The inscriptions on two designs in the "Liber
Veritatis " attest that he painted pictures from them
as late as 1681. The end came in the November of
the following year, probably on the 23rd, and not
on the 21st, as stated in the inscription placed
on his grave by his nephews. He was buried,
according to his desire, in the church of the Trinita
dei Monti. In 1840, however, his remains were
removed to the French church of San Luigi, where
a memorial was erected to him by his country.
The property which he left, estimated by Baldi-
nucci at 10,000 scudi, chiefly consisted of obliga-
tions in the Papal " monti." There were twenty-
two of these " luoghi," of which fourteen were left,
either absolutely or for life, to his adopted daughter,
and eight to his nephew Jean. A codicil made in
1670 somewhat altered the disposition of his posses-
sions, but Agnes and Jean still remained the chief

Claude devoted considerable attention to etching,
and many of his works in this medium show .no
less than his pictures his peculiar excellences.
Meaume gives a list of thirty-two plates executed
by him, which date from 1630 to 1663. Besides
these, there is a series of etchings of the fireworks
exhibited at Rome on the election of Ferdinand III.
as King of the Romans in 1637.

The pictures painted by Claude number about
400. Of these the majority are in England, where
the private collections are very rich in specimens
of his art. For many years there was a great
rage amongst English amateurs for his works.
The galleries of the Dukes of Devonshire, Rut-
land, and Westminster, Earls of Ellesmere, Leices-
ter, Northbrook, and Yarborough alone contain
nearly half a hundred.

It will be noticed that many of his pictures bear
as a title some scriptural or classical incident. But
it must not be inferred that the incident occupies
any important part in the composition. The figures
introduced are quite subordinate, and frequently
only serve to give a title to the work. The interest
centres in the landscape. This is seldom an exact
reproduction of any particular view. It is fre-
quently a scene, more or less idealized, from the
neighbourhood of Rome. In other cases it is a
composition pure and simple, in which, however,
can often be traced many existing features, such
as the Colosseum, the temple of the Sibyl, and
other remains of classic buildings, the heights of
Tivoli, &c.

The following is a list of Claude's pictures in the
public galleries of Europe :







Dul \vich. Gallery.

Roman Ruins.

Landscape ; the Arcadian Shep-
herds. 1642.


jEueas hunting the stag on the
coast of Lybia.


Flight into Egypt.

Polyphemus and Acis and Galatea.
The Flight into Egypt.
Jacob and Laban.
Embarkation of St. Paula.
Two Landscapes.






Hague. Museum.

Innsbruck. Museum.
London. National Gal.

South Ke


,, Buckingham Pal.
Madrid. Galleiy.


Landscape. 1672.

Marine View.




Two Landscapes.

Cephalus and Procris. 1645.

Seaport. 1644.

David at the Cave of Adullanj.

Marriage of Isaac and Kebecca.

Embarkation of tbe Queen of

Sheba. 1648.
Narcissus and Echo.
Embarkation of St. Ursula.
Death of Procris.
The Annunciation.
Anchises and ^Eueas at Delos.

I Landscape. 1670.

Rape of Europa. 1667.
Burial of St. Sabiiia.
The Finding of Moses.
Embarkation of St. Paula.

Tobit and the Angel.

Temptation of St. Anthony.

The Magdalen before the Cross.

Landscape with Hermit.

The Ford.

Two Landscapes with Shepherds

and Cattle.
Munich. Gallery. The Expulsion of Hagar and


Hagar in the Desert.


Three Landscapes.

Naples. Museum. Marine View.

Diana reposing after the Chase.

Paris. louvre. The Campo Vaccino.

The Village Dance. 1639.

Samuel anointing David. 1647.

The Ford.

Siege of La Eochelle.

Forcing the Pass of Susa. 1651.

Disembarkation of Cleopatra at


Ulysses restoring Chryseis.

Six Marine Views.

Two Landscapes.

Meeting of Jacob and Rachel.
Flight into Egypt.
Tobit and the Angel.
Jacob wrestling with the Angel.
Apollo and the Cumaean Sibyl.
The Journey to Emmaus.
Apollo and Marsyas.
Ulysses and Diomede received by


., Three Seaports.

Renues. Museum. Landscape.

Stockholm. Museum. Landscape.

Arch of Constantiue and Colos-

Two Landscapes.
Village Fete.
Two Landscapes,
Two Landscapes.
Landscape near Tivoli.
Landscape : Claude sketching.
,. Landscape.

Seaport. 1643.
Marine View.


J. von Sandrart, ' Academia Artis Pictorise.' 1683.

F. Ealdinucci, ' Notizie del professori del disegno.'

Pestb. Gallery.

Petersburg. Hermitage.

Strassbvirg. Museum.

Stuttgart. Gallery.







Q 2

Comte Guillaume de L[eppel], ' CEuvre de Claude Gell<5e.'

J. P. f'oiart, ' Eloge historique de Claude Gell4e '

Victor Cousin, 'Sar Claude Gellee.' 1853. ('Journal da

Musfe Lorrain.')
C. Hequet, 'Essai biographique sur Claude Gellee.'

1803. ('Journal de la Soci<5t< d'Archeologie Lor-
Sobert-Dumesnil, ' Le Peintre-Graveur franeais.' vol xi

1871. (Claude Gellfe, par E. Meaume.)
F. del Tal, ' Le Livre des Feux d'artifice de Claude

Lorrain.' 1861. (' Gazette des Beaux Arts,'

vol. xi.)

M. F. Sweetser, ' Claude Lorrain.' 1878.
Mrs. Mark Pattison (now Lady Dilke), 'Claude

Lorrain.' 1884.





GEMINUS, THOMAS, (or GEMINIE,) who was an
engraver, as well as a printer, executed several
plates to ornament his publications. In the year
1545, he published a translation of Vesalius's
'Anatomy,' which was first printed at Padua in
1542, with woodcuts. Geminus copied them on
copper, and the book was dedicated to Henry
VIII., with the title ' Compendiosa totius Anatomie
Delineatio, sere exarata,' and published in folio in
1545. These plates, according to Ames, were
some of the first rolling-press printing in England.
He afterwards published an English translation
of the same work by Nicholas Udal, in 1552,
dedicated to Edward VI. Geminus lived in Black-
friars, where he published a 'Prognostication,' re-
lating to the weather, the phenomena of the
Heavens, &c. , with a number of plates, engraved
by himself. Vertue states, that he published
another small work on Midwifery, with copper
cuts by himself.

GEMMEL, HERMANN, an architectural painter,
was born in 1813 at Barten in Eastern Prussia. He
was instructed by E. Biermann and W. Schirmer,
and afterwards travelled in Italy. In 1855 he was
made professor of perspective and architecture at
the Academy of Painting in Konigsberg, where he
died in 1868. Mention is made of the following
works by him :

Family Room in a mediaeval Castle. 1855.

Chapel of Cardinal Zeno in San Marco.

Baptistry in San Marco.


GENDALL, JOHN, an English landscape painter,
was born about the year 1789. He assisted in the
production of many illustrated books of scenery,
notably with Pugin in ' Picturesque Views of the
Seine,' 1821, and with Westall and Shepherd in
' Views of Country Seats,' 1823-28. Between 1846
and 1863 he exhibited at the Royal Academy many
oil and water-colour views in Devonshire, where
he lived. He died at Exeter in 1865.

torical painter, was born in Paris in 1817. He
studied under Paul Delaroche, and afterwards spent
six years in Italy, whence he sent to the Salon of
1844 his first exhibited picture ' Dante commented
on by Boccaccio.' There also he painted ' The
Willis,' which has been often lithographed, and
'The Nereids.' Among his later works may be
mentioned ' Sunday : a Florentine Scene in the
Fifteenth Century ' (1855) ; ' The Funeral of a young



Girl at Venice (1859) ; ' Nymphs at the grave of
Adonis' (1864) ; and ' Lucretia' (1869). He like-
wise decorated the chapel of St. Catharine in the
church of St. Gervais in Paris. He died in 1881.

GENELLI, CAMILLO, who was born at Munich
in 1840, was a son of Buonaventura Genelli, and
while a boy drew landscapes under his father's
tuition. From 1856 to 1859 he attended the
Munich Academy, and went, in 1864, to Vienna,
where, under Eahl, he executed oil and sepia
compositions from Grecian mythology, among
which is 'Ulysses slaying the Suitors.' In 1865
he removed to Weimar, where he died in 1867.

GENELLI, JANUS, the father of Buonaventura
Genelli, was born at Copenhagen in 1771, and
died at Berlin in 1813. He was instructed in
Rome, and painted warmly-coloured landscapes,
particularly from the Harz mountains.

GENELLI, BUONAVENTURA, a German historical
painter, was born at Berlin in 1798. He was the
son of the landscape painter, Janus Genelli, and
received his first tuition from Bury and Hummel,
and from his unule, Hans Christian Genelli, the
architect, who obtained for his pupil the assistance
of the Queen of the Netherlands, who enabled him
to go to Italy in 1820. In 1832 he was recalled
to paint some wall-pictures for Dr. Hirtel, and
in 1836 he went to Munich, where he remained
until 1859. He then settled at Weimar, where he
died in 1868. A ' Rape of Europa' by him is in
the Berlin National Gallery.

GENOA, BARTOLOMMEO, the son of Girolamo
Genga, was born at Cesena in 1518. According to
Vasari, he painted some historical pictures in the
style of his father, but he is more known as a
sculptor and an architect, than as a painter. He
died at Malta in 1558.

GENGA, GIROLAMO, was born at Urbino in 1476,
and was first a disciple of Luca Signorelli, whom
he assisted in several of his works, particularly at
Orvieto. After some years he entered the school
of Pietro Perugino, at the time when Raphael was
a student under that master, and there he re-
mained three years and became an intimate friend
of his greater fellow-pupil. He then lived for a
time at Florence and Siena, but returned to Urbino
to execute a commission for Duke Guidobaldo II.
He, however, worked as a coadjutor with Signo-
relli, and with Timoteo Viti, and afterwards with
Raffaello dal Colle in the Imperiale at Pesaro. His
services to the Duke of Urbino were more in the
capacity of an architect than a painter, though he
made many designs for the decorations of the
theatre. He afterwards resided at Rome, where he
painted a fine picture of ' The Resurrection ' for
the church of Santa Cattarina di Siena. About
1512 he returned to Urbino at the bidding of the
Duke Francesco Maria, whom he afterwards fol-
lowed into banishment to Cesena, and there painted
an altar-piece representing ' God the Father, with
the Virgin and Four Fathers of the Church,' which
is now in the Brera at Milan. In the Pitti Palace
at Florence is a 'Holy Family' by him. He
died at Urbino in 1551. He was also a sculptor
and modeller. Among his pupils were Francesco
Menzocchi, and Baldassare Lancia.

painter of the school of Joseph Vernet, was born
about 1749. His subjects are naval combats, ship-
wrecks, sea-ports, eruptions of Vesuvius by moon-
light, and conflagrations at sea under a similar
aspect. He died in Paris in 1829.

GENISSON, VICTOR JULES, a Flemish painter,
was born at St. Omer in 1805. He studied _ at
Antwerp under the brothers Van Bree, and died
at Bruges in 1860. He excelled in painting
the interiors of churches, and amongst his works
are :

The Archduke Albert and Archduchess Isabella visiting

Tournai Cathedral in 1600. (Brussels Gallery. ,)
Interior of the Chapel of the Holy Sacrament, St.

Gudule, Brussels. 1835.
Interior of St. Jacques, Antwerp. 1836 (Dublin National


Interior of Antwerp Cathedral. 1837.
Confessional in St. Paul, Antwerp.
Interior of Strassburg Cathedral.
Interior of Amiens Cathedral.
GENNARI, BARTOLOMMEO, son of Benedetto Gen-
nari the elder, was born at Cento in 1594. He was
nearly of the same age with Guercino, and rather
emulated his style than copied him. In the church
of Santa Maria del Carobio, at Bologna, is a fine
picture of the ' Assumption ' by this master. He
died in 1661.

GENNARI, BENEDETTO, the elder, who was born
at Cento in 1570, and died there in 1610, was the
instructor of Guercino, and has left a painting
of 'Christ at Emmaus,' now in the Capuchin
monastery at Cento, which has passed for a work
of that master. He also produced a number of

GENNARI, BENEDETTO, the younger, born at
Cento in 1633, was the nephew and the scholar
of Guercino, with whom he soon became associated
in his work. Finding that his uncle's productions
were highly valued by Louis XIV. of France,
he proceeded to Paris in 1672, where he was
well received. Lanzi states, that he saw in the
Palazzo Ercolani, a picture of 'Bathsheba' by
Guercino, together with a copy of the same by
Gennari, and remarks that the former appeared to
be freshly painted, and the copy to be the older
picture. He also painted some pictures of his
own composition for the churches at Bologna and
Cento. He came to England in 1674, and was
for some time in the service of Charles II. and of
James II. When the latter was dethroned he re-
turned to France, and in 1690 went to Bologna,
where he died in 1715. His principal works are :

Bologna. S. Domenico. St. Rosa.

& Giovanni in Monte. St. Anianus baptizing a Pagan

Pinacoteca. Head of St. Peter.

Cappuccini. St. Anthony of Padua.

Dre'sden. Gallery. Painting and Drawing.

Florence. Pitti Palace. David.

Forli. Filippini. St. Zacharias.

Madrid. Gallery. St. Jerome.

Modena. Estense Gallery. St. Justin.

st - Peter -

Head of an Apostle.

Philip II.

Osimo. Cathedral. St. Leonard.

Vienna. Gallery. St. Jerome.

GENNARI, CESARE.the younger brother of Bene-
detto Gennari, was born at Cento in 1637, and was
also instructed by his uncle Guercino, whose style
he followed with success. He painted several pic-
tures, from designs of his own, for the churches at
Bologna. In San Martino Maggiore is a picture
of ' St. Mary Magdalen of Pazzi,' painted entirely
in the style of Guercino ; in San Niccol6, ' St.
Nicholas kneeling before the Virgin ; ' at the Padn
Servi, ' St. Apollonia ; ' in San Bartolommeo, ' Christ
praying in the Garden,' and in the Pinacoteca the


' Vision of the Virgin and Child to St. Nicholas.'
In the Pitti Palace at Florence is a ' Madonna and
Child.' He died at Bologna in 1688.

GENNARI, ERCOLE, a son of the elder Bene-
detto Gennari, was born at Cento in 1597, and died
there in 1658. He was instructed by his brother-
in-law Guercino, whom he closely imitated in his

Cento, who flourished about the year 1606. He is
stated by Lanzi to have been one of the masters
of Guercino, and to have been a successful historical
painter. In the ' Guida di Bologna ' is noticed a
picture by this master in the church of the Trinita
representing the ' Madonna in glory, with Saints,'
painted in the style of Procaccini. It is dated 1606.
GENNARI, LORENZO, was probably related to
Benedetto Gennari. He was a scholar of Guercino,
and flourished about the year 1650. One of his
best pictures is at the Cappuccini at Rimini.
GENOD, MICHEL PHILIBERT, a French genre and
historical painter, was born at Lyons in 1796, and
died there in 1862. He was instructed by Revoil,
and became one of the most noted artists of his
native city. ' The Family Festival ' (1855) is one
of his best paintings.

GENOELS, ABRAHAM, sometimes called ARCHI-
MEDES, was born at Antwerp in 1640. When he
was twelve years of age, he became a pupil of
Jacob Backereel, with whom he remained until be
was fifteen. His ambition confined itself at first
to portrait painting; but having made some suc-
cessful attempts at landscapes, he attached him-
self to that branch of the art, to which his genius
was more adapted. To perfect himself in per-
spective, he studied for some time under Fierlants,
a native of Bois-le-Duc, who resided at Antwerp,
and who was esteemed the most correct professor
of that science of his time. His desire for improve-
ment prompted him to travel ; and he visited Paris
at the time when Poussin, Mignard, and Le Brun
were in the zenith of their fame. It was not long
before his talent distinguished itself in that metro-
polis ; and he was employed to paint the cartoons
for eight large landscapes to be executed in tapestry
for M. de Louvois, in which the figures were painted
by De Seve. He was engaged by Le Brun to paint
the backgrounds of his ' Battles of Alexander ;' and
in 1665 was made a member of the Academy at
Paris, under the auspices of Le Brun. These flatter-
ing distinctions could not, however, detain him at
Paris; and after having in 1672 been made a member
of the Guild of St. Luke in his native city, he pro-
ceeded to Rome, where he arrived in 1674, and was
received into the Bentevogel Society, who conferred
on him the name of 'Archimedes,' on account of
his knowledge of mathematics, and with this title
he sometimes signed his etchings. He painted
several large pictures of views in the vicinity of
Home, for Cardinal Rospigliosi ; and after a resid-
ence of eight years in Italy, he returned to Flanders
in 1682 with an ample collection of drawings
which he had made of the environs of Rome. He
died at Antwerp in 1723. Genoels may be ranked
among the ablest landscape painters of his country.
His colouring is natural and vigorous ; he pos-
sessed a commanding facility, and a touch which
he could appropriate to the particular objects he
had to represent. A painting by him of ' Minerva
and the Muses' is in the Antwerp Museum, and
two of his landscapes are at Brunswick.

We have by this painter some masterly etchings
of landscapes, from his own designs, executed in a
bold, free style, and ornamented with figures and
cattle. He sometimes marked his plates with the

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