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cipher 5^. among them are the following :

A set of four mountainous Landscapes, with ruins and

figures. 1684.

Two rocky Landscapes, with figures. 1675.
Two grand Landscapes, with ruins and figures.
Four mountainous Landscapes, with ruins and waterfalls.
Four views of Gardens, with figures and statues.
Two large Landscapes, with waterfalls.







GENSLER, JAKOB, a genre painter, was born at
Hamburg in 1808, and received his first instruc-
tion in that city under Gerold Hardorf the elder.
In 1824 he was placed under J. H. W. Tischbein
at Eutin, and remained with him for two years,
after which, in 1828, he attended the Academy at
Munich. After a short stay in the Tyrol and
Salzburg, he proceeded in 1830 to Vienna for
further study, and returned in the following year
to Hamburg, where he settled down. He visited
Holland and Belgium in 1841, and died at Ham-
burg in 1845.




GENTILESCA, SOFONISBA, a French lady, illus-
trious in art, is mentioned by Palomino as coming
from France in the train of Queen Isabella of Valois,
third wife to Philip II. of Spain. She painted with
great skill miniature portraits of their Majesties,
the Infant Don Carlos, and many of the court
ladies. She died at Madrid in 1587.

GENTILESCHI, ARTEMISIA, the daughter and
the disciple of Orazio Gentileschi, was born at Rome
in 1590. She accompanied her father to England,
where she painted some portraits of the nobility,
and some historical pictures for the king, the best
of which was ' David with the Head of Goliath.'
Her portrait by herself is at Hampton Court. But
she passed the chief part of her life at Naples and
Bologna, where she was much admired for her
accomplishments and her talents as a painter. She
was favoured with the friendship and advice of
Guido, and studied attentively the works of Do-
menichino. In the Pitti Gallery at Florence are
her best performances, representing ' Judith with
the Head of Holofernes,' and ' Mary Magdalen ; '
and in the Madrid Gallery the ' Birth of St. John
the Baptist,' and a Portrait. She married Antonio
Schiatessi. She died in 1642.

GENTILESCHI, FRANCESCO, who flourished in
the first half of the 17th century, was the son of
Orazio Gentileschi, with whom he came to Eng-
land. He studied under Domenico Fiasella, called
Sarzana, but his pictures, which are said to have
been historical, are little known.

GENTILESCHI, ORAZIO, called LOMI, after his
step-father, was born at Pisa in 1562. He studied
tinder his half-brother, Aurelio Lomi, and his uncle
Bacci Lomi, and then went to Rome, where he
improved his style by studying the works of the
best masters, and by the advice and assistance of



Agostino Tassi, -with whom he formed an intimate
friendship, and whose landscapes he frequently
decorated with figures. Several of their joint works
are in the Quirinal and Rospigliosi Palaces, and
in other places in Rome. He also painted his-
torical subjects for the churches and public edifices,
particularly for La Pace, and a fine picture of ' St.
Cecilia and St. Valerian,' in the Palazzo Borghese.
Some of his best works are in the royal palace
at Turin, and at Genoa. He afterwards visited
France, from whence his repute travelled to Eng-
land, and caused Van Dyck to send for him to
London, where he was employed by Charles I.
Nine pictures by Gentileschi in the royal collection
were sold after the king's death for six hundred
pounds, and are now the ornaments of the hall at
Marlborough House. He also painted two pictures
for the Duke of Buckingham a ' Magdalen,' and
the ' Holy Family.' Van Dyck painted an admir-
able portrait of him, which has been engraved by
Vorsterman. He resided in England twelve years,
and died in London in 1647. The following are
some of his paintings :

Compiegne, Meditation. Hampton Court, A Sibyl;
Joseph and Potiphar's Wife. Madrid, Assumption ;
Moses rescued by Pharaoh's Daughter. Milan, SS.
Cecilia, Valerian, and Tiburtius, crowned by an
Angel. Parts, Repose of the Holy Family. Vienna,
The Penitent Magdalen.

GENTSCH, ANDREAS, was a German engraver,
who resided at Augsburg, and flourished early
in the 17th century. He engraved several small
copper-plates of grotesque ornaments, some of
which are dated in 1616. He usually marked his
plates with the same cipher as Heinrich Aldegrever

^G^_ ; but they are inferior to the works of that

artist, and the date also furnishes a distinction.

GENTZ, WILHELM, eminent German painter of
Oriental subjects ; born at Neu-Ruppin, December
9, 1822. He received his early training at the
Berlin Academy, which was supplemented by a
long course of study abroad, particularly in the
East. He chose Antwerp as a place in which to
work, and subsequently studied in Paris with
Gleyre and Couture. His pictures represent life
and scenery in Spain, Egypt, Nubia, Palestine,
and Turkey, and his very rich colouring was well
suited to the vivid scenes which he portrays.
His ' Entrance of the Crown Prince of Prussia
into Jerusalem in 1869' is in the National Gallery
of Berlin, and other notable works are ' The
Flamingoes,' ' Evening on the Nile,' ' Arab Story-
tellers at Cairo,' and 'Prayer in the Desert.' He
died at Berlin on August 23, 1890.

graver, was born at Joinville in 1819, and died at
Passy in 1883. He engraved the 'Medee' of
Delacroix, the 'Harem' of Diaz, the 'Watermill'
of Ruisdael, and several portraits of theatrical

GEORGI, FRIEDRICH OTTO, a German painter,
was born at Leipsic in 1819, and died at Dresden
in 1874. There is by him in the Dresden Gallery
a picture of ' Jerusalem and Mount Moriah.'




French historical and portrait painter, was born in
1770 at Rome, where his father was in the service of

the ambassador of France. About 1782, he came to
Paris, and studied for eighteen months in an aristo-
cratic academy. He then became a pupil of the
sculptor Pajou, then of Brenet, and finally, in
1786, of David, by whom his style was chiefly
influenced. In 1789 he competed for the ' prix de
Rome,' but only succeeded in obtaining the second
place. The following year saw the death of his
father, which caused him to accompany his mother,
who was a native of Italy, back to Rome. On his
return to Paris, he managed with some difficulty to
escape the whirlpool of revolutionary politics, and
to devote himself to art. One of his best works,
' Belisarius," appeared in 1795, and was bought by
the Dutch minister. His chief support, however,
for some years was in working for the publishers,
for whom he produced drawings illustrating editions
of Virgil and Racine. He at length won a position
by means of his portraits, and was patronized suc-
cessively by Napoleon I., Talleyrand, Louis XVIII.,
the Emperor of Russia, the King of Prussia, Charles
X., Louis Philippe, and others. With such patrons
he did not lack honours : he was one of the original
knights of the Legion of Honour, he was elected a
member of the Institute, and in 1819 he was created
a Baron. In his latter years his house was the
resort of many celebrities, and he attracted a large
circle of friends. During this period he was much
occupied in the completion of some large decora-
tive works at the Panthe'on, representing ' Death,'
'Patriotism,' 'Justice,' and 'Glory.' Gerard did
not keep an atelier for students as is customary
with French painters, but he was assisted in his
numerous works by Paulin Guerin, Steuben, and his
only pupil, Mademoiselle Godefroid. He died in
Paris, after a short illness, January llth, 1837.
It is computed that Gerard produced 28 historical
pictures, 87 full-length, and about 200 half-length
portraits, besides a great number of subject pic-
tures. The judgment of his contemporaries has
been ratified : Gerard's historical and subject pic-
tures lack that greatness of idea and power of execu-
tion which would have entitled him to a place in the
front rank of painters. It is by his portraits that
he is to be judged, and, thanks to the opportunities
he enjoyed, few portrait painters have had a greater
chance by the distinction of their sitters, of trans-
mitting their names to posterity. He may be con-
sidered as one of the last of the direct followers
of David : he did not seek for any new or striking
inspirations which might form a starting-point for
a new departure in art, but adhered closely to the
canons of classicism as enunciated by his master.

Baron Gerard's ' CEuvre ' was published with
descriptive text by his nephew in 1852-57, in three
folio volumes, and his ' Correspondance ' with
artists and distinguished persons of his time in 1867.
The following is a list of the works by him to be
found in some of the chief European collections :

Augers. Museum.








Lansdowne )
House. )


Joseph recognized by his

brethren. 1789.
Achilles and Patroclus.
Sappho. 1810.

Hope. 1829.

Corinna at Misenum. 1819.
The Plague at Marseilles. 1635
Belisarius. 1795.
The Three Ages. 1806.
Christ descending on earth
and dispelling darkness.


Paris. Inf


Louvre. Oupid and Psyche. 1798.
,, History and Poetry.
,, Daphnis and Chloe. 1825.
Victory and Renown.
Museum. Achilles finding the body of


Gallery. Battle of Austerlitz. 1810.
Entry of Henry IV. into Paris.

Philip V. called to the throne

of Spain. 1824.

Coronation of Charles X. 1829.

Louis Philippe at the Hotel de

Ville. 1836.


Ajaccio. mtel-de-Ville.





















Louis Bonaparte.

Napoleon I.

Louis XVIII.


Madame de St. Jean d'Angely.

His own Portrait.

Queen Hortense as a child.

Due de Bassano.

Napoleon I.

Louis XVIII.

Louis XVIII.

Madame Pasta.

Napoleon I.

Isabey and his Daughter. 1796.
Antonio Canova.

-, Charles X.

Prefecture de ) ,, ,

la Seine, j Madame Recamier.

Toulouse. Museum. Louis XVIII.

Versailles. Gallery. Madame Bonaparte.

Empress Josephine,

i) Empress Marie Louise, and the

King of Home.
Joachim Murat, King of


Charles X.

Duke of Berry.

i> Duchess of Berry and children.


GERARD, Louis ATJGUSTE, a French landscape
painter, was born at Versailles in 1782, and studied
under Bertin. He died in Paris in 1862. Amongst
his works are :

View of the Porte d'Auteuil. 1S19.

View of Rouen. 1822.

View of the Chapel of Betharam. 1827.

The Bridge of Neuilly.

View at Senlis.

View of Chateau de Polignac. (Narlonne Museum.)


GERARD, MARGUERITE, born at Grasse in 1761,
was a pupil of Fragonard. There are by her in
the Bordeaux Museum full-length portraits of M.
Tallien and M. Re'camier, and at Fontainebleau a
picture entitled ' Les Torterelles.'



GERARDI, ANTONIO, is mentioned by Le Comte
as an engraver of funeral pomps, monuments, &c.

GERARDIN, JEAN, a French engraver, flour-
ished about the year 1680. He worked entirely
with the graver, in a neat style, but without taste.
He engraved a set of plates after the pictures by
Pietro da Cortona, in the palace at Florence.

DINI, or GILARDINO,) a painter and engraver, was,
according to Orlandi, a native of Milan, and was
a scholar of Giovanni Battista Crespi, called Cerano.
After the death of that master, Gerardini was
employed to finish the pictures he left imperfect ;

and he also painted for the churches several altar-
pieces of his own composition. At San Celso,
a small town near Milan, is a picture by him of
St. Catharine of Siena, of which Lanzi speaks in
favourable terms. He etched some plates after
Pietro da Cortona, Guido, and others, as well as
several from his own designs in the style of Callot,
representing battles and other subjects, executed
with neatness and spirit. He died in 1675.


GERBIER, Sir BALTHASAR, Baron d'Ouvilly,
was born at Middleburg in 1592, and distinguished
himself as a miniature painter, at a period when
the ablest artists of his country were in their
greatest celebrity. He came to England as a
retainer of the Duke of Buckingham in 1613, and
painted the portraits of the principal nobility of
the time. He accompanied the Duke of Bucking-
ham to Spain, where he was sent to bring about
the treaty of marriage. Among the Harleian
manuscripts is a letter from the Duchess of Buck-
ingham to her lord, when in Spain, in which she
says, " I pray you, if you have an idle time, sit to
Gerbier for your picture, that I may have it well
done in little." The Earl of Denbigh possesses
a portrait of Donna Maria, Infanta of Spain, by
Gerbier. On it is inscribed : " This is the picture of
the Infanta of Spain that was brought over by the
Duke of Bucks. She was to have married Bang
Charles the First." In the collection of the Duke
of Northumberland is a large oval miniature of the
Duke of Buckingham on horseback, by him, dated
1618. The head is well painted, and it is finished
with great labour. The head of the horse is spirited.
In a letter dated 1628, it is said, " That the King
and Queen were entertained at supper at Gerbier's,
the Duke's painter's house, which could not stand
him in less than one thousand pounds." In 1641
he was appointed master of the ceremonies, and the
same year was naturalized as an English subject,
and also made successor to Inigo Jones as surveyor
of the royal palaces. But falling into disfavour soon
after, he left England and went to Surinam, where
he was seized as a Dutch subject and sent back
to Holland. He returned to this country during
Cromwell's Protectorate, and founded an academy,
which, however, had but very slight success. He
was employed on the decorations for Charles II. "s
triumphal entry into London, and met with con-
siderable occupation as an architect. He died in
London in 1667, while engaged upon the building
of Lord Craven's residence, Hempstead Marshall,
and there he was buried. He published several
works, including an ' Encyclopedia of Art.' Van
Dyck painted a fine picture of Sir Balthasar Gerbier
and his family, which is now at Windsor Castle.

GERBO, Louis, a Flemish painter, was born at
Bruges in 1761, but went to Paris, where he was
engaged as a decorative painter. In the church of
St. Jacques in Ghent is a ' Holy Family,' and several
pictures are at the chateau of St. Andre near Bruges.
He died in 1818

GERCO, B., a Dutch engraver, executed some
plates in imitation of the charming prints of Water-
loo. After etching the plates he scratched upon them
with the graver, and from not having afterwards
cleared away the barb, has left a clumsy effect.

GERHARD, OTTO, a painter of Regensburg,
flourished about the year 1720. His historical
pictures and other works, which are in the style of
Bourguignon, show considerable talent.




a French animal and historical painter, was born at
Rouen, September 26th, 1791. He was the son of
an advocate in good circumstances, and was sent
to Paris to complete his education at the Lycee
Imperials. While still at school, the bent of his
inclinations was plainly to be seen. His holidays
were spent at the circus, and in the streets there
was no greater attraction to him than the horses in
a well-appointed equipage. In 1808 he became
for a short time the pupil of Carle Vernet. He
then studied under Gu^rin, with whose academic
traditions he had but little sympathy. His art-
training was really due to his study of the old
masters in the Louvre, and the works of Rubens
exercised a very powerful influence on him. His
family was much opposed to his becoming a painter,
and his ardent spirits, checked in one direction,
sought other pursuits. He became a member of
the Jockey Club, and plunged into all the dissipa-
tions of the ' jeunesse doree.' At length, in 1812, he
was enabled to have a studio of his own, and the
first-fruits of his work in it was the ' Chasseur de
la Garde,' now in the Louvre. On the Restoration
in 1814, he served for three months in the Royal
Musketeers, and for the next two years he did but
little painting. In 1816 he set out for Italy, where
he occupied himself in making copies from the old
masters. Hitherto he had devoted his attention
chiefly to animal painting, but on his return to
Paris he produced what is really his only great
historical work, ' The Raft of the Medusa.' It was
exhibited at the Salon of 1819, where it evoked a
great storm of criticism, and its appearance may
be said to mark the commencement of the struggle
between the Classic and Romantic schools in
France. Gerioault shortly after visited England,
in company with his friend Charlet, and by the
exhibition of this work in London realized the
sum of 800. During his stay in this country, he
practised the then new art of lithography with
much ardour. Many of his works in this medium
represent English scenes, amongst which mention
should be made of 'The Coal Waggon.' On his
return to France, his health, sorely tried by dis-
sipation, began to give way, and his condition was
aggravated by a fall from his horse. He, never-
theless, produced at this time a great number of
sketches, studies, &c., and also made some pro-
gress in sculpture. His death took place in Paris
on January 18th, 1824. The following is a list of
Gericault's works in public galleries :

Chalons- 1 ,,
sur-Saone. j M *
Grenoble. Museum,
Montpellier. Museum

seum. A Negro.




Two Horses in a stable.
Portrait of Lord Byron.
Two Horses in a stable.

Museum. Officer of Chasseurs of the Guard.
(A study for the Louvre picture.)
Louvre. The Derby at Epsom. 1821.

Wounded Cuirassier quitting the

field. 1814.

Head of a Bull-dog.

Turkish horse in a stable.

Spanish horse in a stable.

A Carabineer.

Stable with five horses.

The Lime-kiln.

Officer of the Chasseurs of the

Guard. 1812.

The Raft of the Medusa. 1819.
Museum. Study of a horse.

Study of heads of goats.

San Gimignano. Gallery.

GERIKE, SAMUEL THEODOK, an historical painter,
was born at Spandau in 1665, and studied under
Romandon. He was court-painter in Berlin, and is
also known by two etchings, ' The Virgin kissing her
Son's Body at the Tomb,' and ' John the Baptist in
the Wilderness.' He died at Berlin in 1730.

GERINI, LORENZO DI NiccoLb, the son of Niccol6
di Pietro Gerini, flourished in the 15th century.
In the passage leading to the chapel of the
Medici in Santa Croce at Florence is a '^Corona-
tion of the Virgin, with attendant Saints, ' painted
by him in 1410; but his principal work is an altar-
piece in San Domenico, Cortona, representing the
'Coronation of the Virgin,' with a predella con-
taining the ' Adoration of the Magi,' signed by
Lorenzo in 1440. Little is known about his life
or death, but the following works by him are
preserved :

Florence. Academy. Coronation of the Virgin.

1401. (The central panel of
an altar-piece.)
Glorification of St. Bartholo-
mew. 1401.
Virgin and Child.

Four scenes from the lives of

S3. Fina and Gregory.

GERINI, Niccoi.6 DI PIETRO, who flourished in
the closing years of the 14th century, probably
received his early instruction from Taddeo Gaddi,
but afterwards became the pupil and assistant
of Spinello d'Arezzo. His earliest existing work
is a series of frescoes representing scenes from
the ' Passion,' with the ' Resurrection,' the ' Noli
me tangere,' the ' Ascension,' and the ' Descent
of the Holy Ghost,' in the convent of San Fran-
cesco, Pisa, which are signed by him and dated
1392. At Prato, in the convent of San Fran-
cesco, is likewise a series of frescoes by Niccolo,
representing scenes from the life of St. Matthew,
and other subjects from the New Testament.
At San Bonaventura he painted scenes from the
Passion, of which but fragments remain. The
sacristy of the church of Santa Croce, Florence,
contains frescoes that are assigned to this artist.
His latest known work is dated 1401. It is
the right side of an altar-piece in three compart-
ments, preserved in the Academy at Florence, and
contains the figures of ' St. Peter, St. John the
Evangelist, St. James, and St. Benedict.' The
central panel contains the 'Coronation of the
Virgin,' by his son Lorenzo, whilst the left side
consists of figures of Saints by Spinello Aretino.
An ' Entombment,' likewise in the Florence
Academy, assigned to Taddeo Gaddi, is by Crowe
and Cavalcaselle ascribed to Niccol6 di Pietro

GERINO DA PISTOJA, a native of Pistoja, was,
according to Vasari, a friend of Pinturicchio and a
follower of Vannucci. His earliest recorded work
was the ' Virgin of Succour ' at Sant' Agostino in
Borgo San Sepolcro, where also are some frescoes
by the same artist. In 1505 he was employed in the
cathedral of his native city, and in 1509 he fur-
nished for the church of San Pietro Maggiore an
altar-piece of the ' Virgin and Child, with Saints.'
About 1513 he was labouring in the Convent of San
Luchese, near Poggibonsi, and two scenes from the
life of Christ, signed and dated, are preserved in a
refectory. His later works, a fresco of ' St. Agatha
and St. Eulalia ' in San Paolo, a ' Coronation of the
Virgin ' in the Palazzo della Community, Pistoja,
and the ' Virgin with Saints,' of 1529, originally in
the Convento di Sala at Pistoja, and now in the


Uffizi Gallery at Florence, are decidedly inferior to
his earlier works.

GERMAIN, Louis, a French engraver, was born
in Paris in 1733. There are by him some spirited
etchings of the 'Ruins of Passtum,' published in
1769, from the designs of Dumont.

portrait painter, the son of an obscure artist,
was born at Seville in 1685. He studied under
Cristobal Lopez, whom he soon surpassed ; and
upon Philip V. visiting Seville, he was made choice
of to paint the portrait of the Infant, Don Philip,
in the execution of which he gave such satisfaction,
that he became the favourite painter of the court.
He, however, refused the offer of the post of court
painter, and preferred, though in the prime of life,
to betake himself to the seclusion of a hermitage.
in which he pursued his art in accordance with his
own simple taste. He was called ' Pintor de las
Pastoras,' because he painted many of his Virgins
in the attire of shepherdesses, one of the best
specimens of which adorned the chapel of St. John
Nepomuk in the church of San Ildefonso. He gave
to his heads so much grace, sweetness, and relief,
that many were sold as the work of Murillo, and
pass for such out of Spain. At the latter part
of his life, for the purpose of increasing the force
of his chiaroscuro, he darkened his pictures with
a kind of brown varnish, which was very detri-
mental, as it made them almost unintelligible. He
died at Seville in 1757. The following works by
him may be mentioned :

Madrid. Gallery. The Virgin as a Shepherdess.

Merced Calzada. The Virgin with the dead
Body of Christ.

GERMYN, SIMON, a native of Dordrecht, born
in 1650, was a scholar of G. Schalcken, whose
manner he for some time followed ; he afterwards
studied under Ludowyk Smits, called Hartcamp,
who instructed him in his peculiar manner of
painting fruit ; but his productions in that way are
not much esteemed. He next turned his attention
to landscape painting, which he practised till his
death, in 1719.


GERON, MATTHIAS, a painter and wood-engraver
of Lauingen in Bavaria, is known by a picture of
the 'Siege of Lauingen by Charles V.,' dated 1551,
and also by the large tapestry in Neuburg, repre-

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