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senting the ' Expedition of the Count Palatine
Otto,' and the paintings of the ' History of Paris '
and the ' Destruction of Troy,' executed in 1540,
in the gallery of Duke Litta. Some woodcuts in
a Missal for the use of the diocese of Augsburg,
printed in 1555, are also attributed to him, and it
is judged from them that he was a pupil of Hans
Burgkmair. His best wood-cuts are ' Christ on the
Cross,' and the ' Deposition from the Cross.'




GERST, JOHANN KARL JAKOB, a painter of land-
scapes and of theatrical scenes, was born at Berlin
in 1792, and was in 1818 appointed royal decora-
tive painter in that city, where he died in 1854.
He executed several of the grand designs of
Schinkel, as scenes for the ' Zauberflote,' ' Nur-
mahal,' 'Fernando Cortez,' &c., as well as a host
of splendid original decorations for operas, ballets,
and plays.

trait painter, etcher, and lithographer, was born

at Nyboder in 1818. He studied at Copenhagen,
but afterwards travelled a great deal. Among
his portraits, which are much esteemed, are
those of King Frederick VII., Count von Frysen-
berg, Thorvaldsen, Dahl, Eckersberg, and Count
Moltke. At first Gertner painted also landscapes
and interiors, and his earliest important work was
' A Shepherd driving a Flock of Sheep,' painted
in 1839, and now in the Copenhagen Gallery. He
died at Copenhagen in 1819.

GESELSCHAP, EDDARD, a genre and historical
painter, was born in 1814 at Amsterdam, where
his parents had taken refuge from the storming
of Wesel, their native place. Upon their return to
Wesel, Eduard obtained his first lessons in draw-
ing from a painter named Welsch. In 1831 he
settled in Diisseldorf, and attended the Academy
there from 1834 to 1841, receiving the instructions
of Schadow. He died after many years' illness at
Diisseldorf in 1878. Many of his pictures have been
engraved by Martinet, Fritz Verner, and others.
Among them may be named :

Faust in his Study.

The Bride at the Grave of her Lover.

Gbtz von Berlichingen before the Council.

Valentine's Death.

Romeo and Juliet in the Vault.

The Burial of Christ.

The Discovery of the dead body of Gustavus Adolphua.

The Eve of St. Nicholas. 1852.

The Eve of St. Martin.

The Grandmother's Picture Bible.

Old Woman at the Spinning Wheel.


GESSI, FRANCESCO, was born at Bologna in 1588.
He studied under D. Calvaert and Cremonini, and
was afterwards one of the ablest scholars of Guido
Reni, so that he obtained the name of a second
Guido, and was employed by that master to finish
many of his pictures. He possessed a vivacity of
genius, and a facility of execution, which are said
by Lanzi to have excited the jealousy of his master.
His ' Assumption ' in the church of La Morte at
Bologna ; his ' Martyrdom of St. Catharine,' in
the church of that Saint ; and, above all, his ' St.
Francis,' at the Nunziata, have frequently been
mistaken for the works of Guido. In later years
he left Guido, and founded a school of his_ own,
but his want of application impaired his genius, so
that his works of this period are very indifferent.
There are, however, several early pictures by him
in the churches at Bologna, which are greatly
admired, such as his picture of ' St. Charles Borromeo
interceding for the Plague-stricken,' in the church
of La Compagnia de' Poveri ; ' St. Anthony of
Padua,' in Santa Maria delle Muratelle ; and the
' Descent of the Holy Ghost,' at the Cappuccini.
He died at Bologna in 1649. The following
pictures by him are in public galleries :
Bologna. Pinacoteca. St. Francis of Assisi receiving the

The Madonna and Child.

Christ praying to the East.

The Holy Family with two Angels.

St. Bonaventura.

Madonna and Child, with Angels.

A Magdalen.


Madonna and Child, with Saints.

St. Francis.

Christ as a Child.

Christ with the Crown of Thorns.

Diana and Actseon.

Morpheus appearing to Halcyon.

Dresden. Gallery.
Madrid. Gallery.

Milan. Brera.

Modena. Estense Gal.
Stockholm. Gallery.




GESSNER, KONEAD, a painter and etcher of
horses and battle-pieces, born at Zurich in 1764, was
the elder son of Salomon Gessner. After study-
ing first at home, and then under Landolt and J. H.
Wiist, he went in 1784 to the Dresden Academy,
where he received the instructions of Graff and
Zingg, and where he exhibited his first large
battle-piece in 1785. After a brief term at home,
he proceeded in 1787 to Italy, but on his father's
death in the following year he once more returned
to Zurich, where he remained till 1796, when he
proceeded to England, and continued successfully
working here till 1804. He again returned home,
and prosecuted his experiments in etching upon
stone, which he had commenced in England with
Senefelder. He died in 1826. Among his best
etchings are those of ' A Riding Horse at the
Water-trough,' 'Horses at a Manger," and 'A
Dragoon leading a Horse.' In the South Kensing-
ton Museum are two water-colour drawings by
him, ' Horses at a Pool,' and ' Soldiers playing at
Cards in a Stable.'

GESSNER, SALOMON, was born at Zurich in 1730,
and died in 1788. He is well known to the literary
world by his ' Death of Abel,' and other poetical
works. His paintings, which are mostly in water-
colours, are in various European countries. He
etched several plates of ornaments for his ' Death
of Abel ' and his ' Pastorals,' and over three
hundred by him are known. He practised art as
an amateur till he was thirty, when he took to it
as a profession, studying nature, and engravings
from the works of Claude and Poussin. He also
executed several landscapes in a very pleasing
and finished style.

GESTELE, MARCUS VAN, a native of the Nether-
lands, flourished in the first half of the 15th cen-
tury. In conjunction with Van Coudenberghe he
painted for the church of Roselede, and in 1485 an
altar-piece for the church of St. Martin at Courtrai.

GEUZENDAM, G. J., a native of Pekel-A, a
village in the province of Groningen, received his
education from G. de San in Groningen, where he
established himself from 1801 to 1811 as a miniature
portrait painter. After that time he travelled in
Russia for a short time, and died shortly after his
return to his own country, either at Deventer or at
Zutphen, after 1815.

GEYER, ALEXIUS, landscape painter, was born
at Berlin in 182G, and studied in the academies
of Berlin, Munich, and Dresden. He worked for
some years in Rome and Paris, and was patronized
by King Otho of Greece. He painted a number of
large water-colours for the Arch;eological Museum
at Berlin, and also worked for King Frederick
William IV. of Prussia. He died in 1883.

GEYER, JOIIANN, a genre and historical painter,
was born at Augsburg in 1807, and originally
brought up as a cartwright. He, however, attended
the school of the higher arts in that city, and in
1826 went to the Munich Academy, where he
studied under Clemens Zimmermann. He then
travelled in Belgium and France, and in 1833 was
appointed professor of figure drawing at the Augs-
burg Polytechnic School. He died at Augsburg in
1875. Among the best of his works, in which he
was fond of introducing the costume of the reign
of Louis XIV., the following may be mentioned :

The Night 'Watchman.

The Emperor Louis committing himself to the Pro-
tection of Augsburg. (Auysburg Toton-hall.) 184-1.
Capture of a Patrician. (Bremen Art Coll.) 1863.

Opening the "Will. (Bremen Art Coll.) 1857.

Keception of a Prince. (Hanover Gallery.)

Gtitz von Berlichingen in Heilbronn. (Erfurt Art Coll.)


Rehearsal for a Concert. (Leipsic Museum)
Interior of a Menagerie. ( The same.)
Concilium Medicum. (Munich Gallery.)
End of a Bal Masque. (The same.)
Christening Feast.

GEYN, G. D., (or GEIJN,) an obscure Flemish
engraver, who flourished from 1640 to 1650, was
principally employed in engraving book ornaments
for the booksellers, in which he attempted a humble
imitation of the style of Paul Pontius. Among
other prints by him is the portrait of Carolus

was born at Gorlitz in 1740. He executed several
plates for different works, among which are the
vignettes in Heyne's edition of Virgil, after
Fiorillo, and in Hinchfeld's ' Theory of Gardening.'
He died at Leipsic in 1803. His son, CHRISTIAN
GOTTLIEB, born at Leipsic in 1772, was also an

GFALL, ANTON, was born at Kaunserthal in the
Tyrol, in 1725, and educated first at the Imperial
Academy of Vienna, and afterwards under Antonio
Galli and Servandoni. He executed historical
pictures in oil and fresco, but was especially
successful in architectural and decorative
painting. He died at Vienna in 1770.

GHANDINI, ALESSANDBO, was a wood-engraver,
who worked for Andrea Andreani at Rome about
1610. One of his productions (marked A. G.) is
a chiaroscuro of two blocks, representing 'St.

GHEDINI, GIUSEPPE, was born at Ficarolo in
1707, and was a scholar of Giacomo Parolini.
There are several of his works in the churches at
Ferrara. In Santa Cattarina da Siena is a picture
by him of ' St. Lucy ; ' in San Leonardo, ' The
Martyrdom of St. Catharine ; ' in Corpus Domini,
'The Annunciation,' and 'The Death of St.
Joseph ; ' and in the refectory of the monastery of
Santa Maria degli Angeli, his principal work,
representing 'The Multiplication of the Loaves,'
painted in 1755. He died in 1791.




GHENT, GERHARD OF, a pupil of Hans Memlinc,
was engaged in 1479 in assisting his instructor
upon the miniatures for a large prayer-book now
in the Library of St. Mark at Venice.

GHENT, JOSSE, or JUSTUS OF, who was born
at Ghent in 1410, and flourished up to the last
quarter of the century, was probably a scholar of
the Van Eycks. He is supposed to have assisted
those masters in some of their most celebrated
pictures; and Waagen is of opinion that 'The
Last Judgment' in the church of St. Mary at
Dantzic is by him, though long held by connois-
seurs to be the work of Jan van Eyck. This
picture is ranked by Kugler, who has given a very
lull description of it, among the greatest master-
pieces of art. Kugler, however, does not say that
it is by Justus of Ghent; he speaks only of 'The
Communion ' in the church of Sant' Agata at
Urbino, and a small picture in the collection of
M. van Huyvetter at Ghent, of ' The Finding of
the Cross, and its Verification by the raising


of a dead woman to life.' The picture at Urbino
was probably finished in 1475, as Justus was paid
in that year the sum of 300 florins, by the brother-
hood of the ' Corpo di Cristo,' for whom it was
originally painted. The series of ' Poets,' ' Philoso-
phers,' and ' Doctors ' in the library of the Duke
Federigo of Urbino are probably his, but there
is much uncertainty about the painters of this
era. The late Sir Charles Eastlake possessed a
picture by this artist of ' The Burial of Bishop
Hubertus ; ' and a ' Last Supper ' is in the church of
the Lion at St. Petersburg.

GHERARDI, ANTONIO, who was born at Rieti
in 1664, and died at Rome in 1702, was a pupil of
P. P. Mola, and afterwards of Pietro da Cortona.
He painted for various churches in Rome, and has
also left six etchings of ' The Torture of St.

at Borgo San Sepolcro in 1500, was a disciple
of Raffaellino dal Colle. He went to Florence,
where he became acquainted with Giorgio Vasari,
with whom he remained on friendly terms until
his death. He excelled particularly in fresco,
and assisted Vasari in many of his most con-
siderable works. There are several grotesque
subjects by him in the Casa Vitelli. Of his oil
paintings the principal are, ' The Visitation of the
Virgin to St. Elizabeth,' in the church of San
Domenico at Citta di Castello ; and his picture of
' Santa Maria del Popolo,' at Perugia, painted in
conjunction with Lattanzio della Marca. In 1539
Vasari induced him to go to Bologna, where he
assisted in painting three altar-pieces for San
Michele in Bosco. He also assisted Vasari in his
fresco paintings for the brotherhood of the Scalza
at Venice. He died at Borgo San Sepolcro in
1556, whilst in the course of an engagement for
assisting Vasari with the frescoes for the ducal
palace at Florence.

GHERARDI, FILIPPO, bom at Lucca in 1643,
studied under Pietro da Cortona, and worked with
Giovanni Coli at several large paintings. His work
is BO similar to that of Coli, that it is hard to dis-
tinguish one from the other. Pietro da Cortona
invited him back to Rome, to assist him in paint-
ing the cupola of Santa Maria in Campitelli. In
the Colonna Gallery are two fine pictures by him
of ' The Battle of Lepanto,' and ' The Triumph
of Marc Antonio Colonna.' There are several
pictures by him in the churches at Lucca, where
he died in 1704.

in 1655, was a scholar of Alessandro Rosi. Ha
proved a distinguished painter of history, both in
oil and in fresco. In the Monastery of the Augus-
tines at Florence, is a fine picture by this painter
of ' The Crucifixion ; ' and in the Casa Orlandini,
a subject from the life of Alexander the Great.
He died in 1723.


GHERARDINI, STEFANO, was a bamboccia
painter of Bologna, who studied under Giuseppe
Gambarini, and died in 1775.

GHERARDINI, TOMMASO, born at Florence in
1715, was a pupil of Vincenzo Meucci. Three
masterpieces by him are in the Vienna Gallery
' An Offering in Honour of Pan,' ' Victory and
Fame upon a Triumphal Car,' and a ' Triumphal Pro-
cession of Ariadne.' He died at Florence in 1797.

GHERARDO, one of the- best Florentine minia-
ture painters, was employed by Lorenzo the

Magnificent, for whom he worked in mosaic in
conjunction with Ghirlandaio in the cathedral of
Florence, and by Matthias Corvinus, King of
Hungary, whose Bible, illuminated by him, is in
the library of the Vatican, and is a lasting memorial
of the excellence of Gherardo's art. A Missal
of the year 1494, in the Laurentian Library at
Florence, and a Breviary in the National Library
in Paris, are also ascribed to him. In the Bologna
Gallery is a picture of the 'Marriage of St.

GHERINGH, ANTONIDS, was a Flemish painter
of the 17th century. He decorated churches in
the Renaissance style, and pictures of his may be
seen in the Dresden and Vienna Galleries. He
was made free of the Guild of St. Luke in 1662,
and died at Antwerp in 1667 or 1668. In the
Munich Gallery is a picture of the ' Interior of
the Jesuit Church at Antwerp,' with the date 1663.

GHERWETT, VAN, a pupil of Rembrandt,

lived in the middle of the 17th century. In the
Munich Gallery is a picture by this artist of
' Abraham on the point of sacrificing Isaac."

GHER20, DOMENICO, commonly known as
DOMENICO DI BARTOLO, was born at Asciano in the
early part of the 15th century. He belongs to the
decline of Sienese art. The frescoes which he
executed, in 1435-40, in the sacristy of the cathedral
of Siena, have perished ; but a weak production,
illustrating various works of mercy in connection
with the institution, in the hospital of Santa Maria
della Scala, Siena, still exists, with the exception
of the Angel of Mercy. This work was painted
between 1440 and 1444, and after that date nothing
further is recorded of him. His death appears to
have occurred in 1449. The galleries of Berlin,
Bruges, Perugia, Rouen, and Siena have works
ascribed to Domenico di Bartolo.



GHEZZI, GIUSEPPE, son of Sebastiano Ghezzi,
was born in 1634 in the Comunanza, near Ascoli,
and was for some time instructed by his father ;
but he afterwards went to Rome, where he studied
the works of Pietro da Cortona, whose style he
adopted. He was employed and highly esteemed
by Pope Clement XL, and at the time of his death,
in 1721, was secretary to the Academy of St. Luke
at Rome.

GHEZZI, PIER LEONE, who was born at_Rome
in 1674, was the son of Giuseppe Ghezzi, and
studied under his father, whom he surpassed. In
conjunction with L. Garzi. F. Trevisani, and B.
Luti, he was employed by Benedict XIV. to paint
' The Prophets ' in San Giovanni in Laterano, and
in other works. He was also employed in several
considerable works by the Duke of Parma, who
conferred on him the order of the Golden Spur.
But he was most celebrated for his talent in carica-
ture, and his works of that description are fre-
quently found in the collections at Rome, where he
died in 1755. There are by him a few etchings,
executed in a clear, neat style, from his own
designs, and after the works of his father. Among
them are:

The Virgin and Infant Jesus; after Giuseppe Ghe:n

Portrait of the Abbate Pietro Palatio.

Portrait of Nicola Zabaglia, engineer of St. Peter s.

GHEZZI, SEBASTIANO, was born in the Comu-
nanza, near Ascoli, and nourished about the_year
1634. He was a scholar of Guercino, and painted


historical subjects with some success. At the
Barefooted Augustines at Monsammartino, there is
a fine picture by him of ' St. Francis receiving the





born at Mantua in 1520, and died in the same city
in 1582. He was the elder brother of Teodoro
Ghisi, and like him a pupil of Giulio Romano. He
became one of the chief artists in damascene work.
He drew the nude very correctly, and excelled
more particularly in the depicting of hands and
feet, but his representations are all very much
alike, and his style is very monotonous. This defect
is particularly discernible in his immense print
of the 'Last Judgment,' after Michelangelo.
His engravings, especially those after the works of
Raphael and Michelangelo, approach in the excel-
lence of their drawing and execution those of
Marc-Antonio. They are generally signed with his
name, or marked with the cipher s~\ All \tfj~*
The following are his principal VX-iVT ./Vat

Portrait of Pope Julius II. ; after Raphael.

The Holy Family, half-lengths ; after the same.

The School of Athens; after the same. Two sheets.

The Dispute of the Sacrament ; after the same.

An emblematical subject ; sometimes called ' Raphael's
Dream,' and sometimes * The Melancholy of Michel-
angelo.' It represents an old man looking at a ship-
wrecked vessel, whilst a nymph appears approaching
him; in the background are seen several horrible
and fantastical figures. It is inscribed Kaphelis
J'rbinatis inventum. $c., and on a tablet, Georgius
Ghisi Meant. F. 1561.

The Prophets and Sibyls ; after the paintings by Michel-
angelo, in the Sistine Chapel. Six large plates.

The Last Judgment ; after the same. Ten large plates.

An allegorical subject, representing the Birth of a
Prince of the House of Gonzaga ; after Giulio Romano.

Cupid and Psyche crowned by Hymen ; after the same.

The Birth of Memnon ; after the same ; very fine.

Cephalus and Procris ; after the same.

The Interview between Hannibal and Scipio ; after the

Eegulus led to death by the Carthaginians ; after the

Kegulus shut up in the Tun ; after the same.

Venus in the Forge of Vulcan, sharpening the Arrows
of Cupid ; after Perino del J'aya.

Venus and Mars ; after Eaffaello Motta.

An allegorical subject, representing a Judge on his
Tribunal, with an Ass's Ears ; after Luca l*enni.

Endymion carrying Diana to the Chase on his shoul-
ders ; after the same.

Hercules conquering the Hydra ; after Giovanni Bat-
tista Sculptore.

The Judgment of Paris ; after the same.

The Siege of Troy ; after the same.

The Taking of Troy ; after the same.

A print representing tombs, skeletons, &c., called
' The Eesurrection of the Dry Bones ; ' after the same.

Venus and Adonis ; after Teodoro Ghisi.

Angelica and Medora ; after the same.

The Birth of the Virgin ; after B. Spranger.

The Trinity ; after his m-n design. 1576.

The Adoration of the Shepherds; after Angdo Bron-
zino ; in two sheets. 1554.

The Last Supper ; after Lambert Lombard.

The Visitation of the Virgin to St. Elizabeth ; after his
own desiyn.

The Crucifixion ; after the same.


was born at Mantua in 1536. He was the younger
brother of Giorgio Ghisi, and had the advantage
of being educated under Giulio Romano, one of
the ablest of whose scholars he was. After the
death of Giulio, he was selected by the Duke of
Mantua to complete the works which were left
unfinished by that great master. He died at
Mantua in 1601.

GH1SLANDI, DOMENICO, was a native of Ber-
gamo, who nourished about the year 1662. He
excelled in painting architectural and perspective
views in fresco; though he occasionally painted
historical subjects. Tassi mentions some pictures
of the life and miracles of St. Francis of Paola
by him, in the cloisters of the Padri Minimi at
Bergamo ; and in the Palazzo Terzi is a saloon
ornamented with architecture, in which the figures
are painted by Giacomo Barbella.

GHISLANDI, Fra VITTORE, called 'II Frate
PAOLOTTO,' the son of Domenico Ghislandi, was
born at San Leonardo, in the Bergamese state, in
1655. He was a scholar of Sebastiano Bombelli,
but he soon went to Venice, where he in 1675 entered
the convent of St. Francis of Paola, and became a
most accomplished portrait painter. He died at
Venice in 1743. In the Rothan Gallery there is by
him a lifelike picture of a young Bergamese.

Milan in 1632, was a pupil of Salvator Rosa. There
are two architectural compositions of ' Ruins ' by
him in the National Gallery of Scotland. His
' Marius among the Ruins of Carthage,' and several
of his decorative pictures are in the Dresden
Gallery. He died at Milan in 1683.


GHISSI, FRANCESCUCCIO, was living at Fabriano
in the 14th century, and is the author of an altar-
piece of the ' Virgin and Child,' with rays issuing
from the person of the Virgin, which illuminate the
darkness, symbolised by a crescent moon and stars
on a dark blue background ; it is dated 1374, and
is now in the Augustine church of San Salvatore
at Monte Giorgio. The Fornari collection at
Fabriano possesses a ' Virgin and Child, between
two kneeling Angels,' which is signed by him in
1395. Other examples by this artist may be seen
in the church of San Domenico at Fermo ; at
Ascoli ; and in the Museo Cristiano at Rome.

GHISSONI, OTTAVIO, was a native of Siena,
who at an early age went to Rome, where he
studied several years, chiefly under Cherubino
Alberti. In 1610 he visited Genoa, and was for
some time a scholar of Ventura Salimbeni. He
painted some pictures in fresco for the public

GHITTI, POMPEO, was born at Marone, a small
town near Brescia, in 1631. He was first a scholar
of Ottavio Amigoni, but afterwards went to Milan,
where he studied five years under Giovanni Bat-
tista Discepoli, called ' Lo Zoppo di Lugano,' to
whom he subsequently became assistant. His
death is assigned to the year 1703, though it is
stated that one of his works bears the date 1704.
Four etchings by him are known ; they are, ' The
Holy Family; ' 'The Rest in Egypt,' after Disce-
poli ; ' The Crowning with Thorns,' after Titian ;
and ' St. Maurus healing the Sick.'

Flemish painter, born at Mechlin in 1599, was a
son of Jan Ghuens, called ' Prins.' He was still
living in 1672.


GHUENS, JACOB, a native of Mechlin, was a
painter who flourished about 1558.

GHUENS, JAN, a native of Mechlin, painted in
1528 a picture of ' Christ on the Cross,' surrounded
by different figures.

GHUENS, JAN, called ' PRINS,' or ' PBINSKE ' (the
'Little Prince'), flourished at the end of the 16th
and beginning of the 17th century. The Museum
at Mechlin has a picture by this artist of the
' Siege of Lierre ' in 1595. In 1596 he executed a
strategical plan of Mechlin and its surroundings.
He died at Mechlin after 1617.


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