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BORGOONONE DALLE TESTS, a Spanish portrait
painter, was born at Madrid about 1630. It is
not known by whom he was instructed, but his
beat studies were from the works of Titian. He
excelled in portrait painting, and from his extra-
ordinary talent in that branch, acquired the name
of ' II Borgognone dalle Teste.' About the middle
of his life he went to Italy, and painted many
portraits at Brescia and Bergamo. He died at
the latter city in 1696.

GIACHETTO. See JAQUET.

GIALDISI, FRANCESCO, or GIOVANNI. According
to Zaist, in his 'Notizie de' Pittori Cremonesi,'
this painter was of Parma, but flourished at Cre-
mona about the year 1720. He excelled in painting
flowers and fruit, and particularly in his pictures
of Btill-life, such as carpets, with musical instru-
ments, books, &c., which he represented with a
fidelity of form and a truth of colour which are
admirable.

GIAMBONO. See BONI, MICHELE GIOVANNI.

GIAMPICCOLI, GIULIANO, an Italian engraver,
was born at Venice in 1698. He was the nephew
of Marro Ricci, and his style renders it probable
that he was brought up in the school of Wagner.
He was still living in 1765. He engraved several
plates after Marco Ricci and others, among which
are the following :

A set of twelve Landscapes, with a frontispiece ; after

Marco Eicci.

A set of four pretty Pastoral Subjects.
A set of four Landscapes; after M. Kicci and F.

Zuccarelli,

GIANCARLI, POLIFILO. See ZANCARLI.

GIANNETTI, FILIPPO, was a landscape painter
of Messina, who studied under the Dutch painter
Casembroodt. He excelled his master in the great-
ness of his designs, but was not his equal in
execution. He painted so quickly that he was
called ' The " Fa presto " of Landscape Painters.'
He died at Naples in 1702.

GIANNICOLA DI PAOLO MANNI. See MANNI.

GIANNUZZI, GIULIO DEI. See DEI GIANNDZZI.

GIANOLI, PIETRO FRANCESCO, born at Camper-
togno about 1620, was a pupil of Antonio Rossi.
His portrait is in the Brera at Milan, where he
died about 1690.

GIAQUINTO, CORRADO. See CORRADO.

GIAROLA, ANTONIO, (or GEROLA,) called ' II
Cavaliere COPPA,' was born at Verona in 1595, and
studied at Bologna under Guido and Albani. In
the church of San Bernardo at Bologna is a picture
by him of ' St. Maurus kneeling before the Virgin
and Infant ; ' but he is seen to more advantage in
his ' Magdalen in the Desert,' in the church of
the Padri Servi. In the refectory of the seminary
at Verona is a fine picture by Giarola of 'Christ
with the Disciples at Emmaus.' His pictures are
crowded with figures. He died in 1665.



GIAROLA, GIOVANNI, a painter of Reggio, who
died in 1557, is said to have been a pupil of
Correggio. Wall-pictures of his are still to be
seen in the Donelli Palace at Reggio.

GIBB, ROBERT, a Scottish landscape painter, was
born at Dundee about the beginning of the 19th
cantury, and on the formation of the Royal Scottish
Academy in 1830, was elected one of its first
members. He died in 1837. The following works
by him are in the National Gallery of Scotland :

Craigmillar Castle. Borthwick Castle.

GIBBON, BENJAMIN PHELPS, a line-engraver,
was born in 1802. He was the son of the vicar of
Penally, Pembrokeshire, and after having been
educated at the Clergy Orphan School, learned
engraving under Scriven and J. H. Robinson. He
died in London in 1851. Amongst his plates after
Sir Edwin Landseer are :

The Twa Dogs. Suspense. Jack in Office. A Fireside
Party. The Highland Shepherd's Home. The
Shepherd's Chief Mourner. The Shepherd's Grave.
There's no Place like Home. Roebuck and Hounds.

GIBELIN, ESPRIT ANTOINE, a French historical
painter, was born at Aix in 1739. He studied
under Arnulfi at Florence, and resided for a long-
time in Italy, receiving in 1768 a prize from
the Academy of Parma. He returned to France
in 1771, and revived fresco painting in mono-
chrome. The frescoes decorating the School of
Medicine in Paris are by him. He died at Aix in
1813. There is in the Museum of Aix a picture by
him entitled, ' Post equitem sedet atra cura.'

GIBERTONI, PAOLO, was a native of Modena,
who flourished about the year 1760. He resided
chiefly at Lucca, and excelled in grotesque subjects
in fresco, in which he introduced little animals of
every description. He also painted landscapes.

GIBOY, , a French engraver, who flourished

from 1810 to 1824, executed vignettes for Tasso's
' Gerusalemme liberata,' after Perrenot, as well as
plates for the work of De Clarac on the Louvre.
The following may also be mentioned :

Gaspard l'Avis6 ; after Horace Vernet.

The Year, drawn by the twelve months ; after Perrenot.

GIBSON, DAVID COOKE, a Scottish genre painter,
was born at Edinburgh in 1827. He was at first
taught by his father, who died early. He then, by
his own exertions, was enabled to enter the schools
of the Royal Scottish Academy, and afterwards to
study in London, Belgium, and Paris. His works
first appeared at the Royal Academy in 1855, and
he was showing much promise, when, after a visit
to Spain, he died in London in 1856. His exhibited
pictures were :

The Little Stranger, 1855. Rustic Education, 1855.
Un Corrillo Andaluz, 1856. Gipsies of Seville, 1857.

GIBSON, EDWARD, an English portrait painter of
the 17th century, was the son, or near relative, of
Richard Gibson the Dwarf, and was also his pupil.
He died in his 33rd year.

GIBSON, JOHN, a Scottish portrait painter, who
died in 1852 from the effects of a fatal accident. He
exhibited largely at the West of Scotland Academy.

GIBSON, PATRICK, a Scottish landscape painter,
was born at Edinburgh in 1782. He received a
good general education, and then studied under
Nasmyth, and in the Trustees' Academy. He did
much literary work, contributing to the ' Encyclo-
paedia Edinensis,' the ' Edinburgh Encyclopaedia.'
the ' Edinburgh Annual Register,' and the ' New
Edinburgh Review.' In 1818 he published a volume
of etchings of Edinburgh. He left Edinburgh in

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A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



1824, and settled as a teacher at Dollar, where he
died in 1829. His works are in the classic style,
and there is a characteristic Landscape composi-
tion by him in the National Gallery of Scotland.

GIBSON, RICHARD, usually called " The Dwarf,"
from his diminutive size, being only three feet ten
inches in height, was born in 1615, probably in
Cumberland. He was, when a boy, page to a l.idy
at Mortlake, who, perceiving in him a disposition
for art, placed him under the care of Franz Cleyn,
under whom he made considerable progress. His
talent attracted the notice of King Charles I., who
made him one of his pages. He was married
to a little lady of his own height, named Anne
Shepherd, and their marriage was celebrated in
the presence of Charles I. and his Queen, who
ordered a diamond ring for the bride. The union
of this diminutive couple was commemorated by
Waller in one of his prettiest poems. After the
death of the king Gibson was taken under the pro-
tection of Philip, Earl of Pembroke, and is said to
have painted the portrait of Oliver Cromwell
several times. When Sir Peter Lely visited
England, Gibson improved himself greatly by copy-
ing the portraits of that master ; and he rose into
such repute that he was sent to Holland to teach
the Princess Mary to draw, and had also the honour
of instructing Queen Anne. He lived to the age of
75, and died in 1690. His widow died in 1709, at
the age of 89. They had nine children, five of
whom lived to grow up to the ordinary stature of
mankind.

GIBSON, SUSAN PENELOPE, a miniature painter,
the daughter of Richard Gibson the Dwarf, was
born in 1653, and died in 1700. There is a portrait
of Bishop Burnet by her.

GIBSON, THOMAS, a portrait painter, was born
about 1680. His art was good, and he had a
large practice. Highmore said that Thornhill was
much indebted to him. He retired to Oxford in
1730, but returned again to London, where he died
in 1751. Amongst his works are :

Flamstead, the astronomer. (Royal Society, London.)
Vertue, the engraver. (Society of Antiquaries, London, 1 )
Archbishop Wake. (National Portrait Gallery.)

GIBSON, WILLIAM, a miniature painter, born in
1644, was a nephew of Richard Gibson the Dwarf,
under whom and Lely he studied. He made many
copies of the latter's works, and purchased part of
his collection. He died in 1702.

GIDE, THOPHILE, French painter ; born in Paris,
August 15, 1822 ; pupil of Delaroche and Cogniet ;
devoted himself to historical and genre painting.
He excelled in the portrayal of Italian convent
life, as such pictures as ' Le Reiectoire,' 'Les
Adieux an Couvent,' 'Visite du Pape au Couvent
de Femmes,' 'Convent St. Barthelemy a Nice,' and
others attest. Of his more famous historical can-
vases we may mention ' Sully quittant la Cour de
Louis XIII.,' ' Coligny sortant du Louvre,' ' Othello
raconte ses Combats,' ' Louis XI. en priere,' &c. In
1861 M. Gide obtained a medal of the third class ;
also medals in 1865 and 1866 ; and in the last-named
year he received the decoration of the Legion of
Honour. He died in Paris, November 29, 1890.

GIERYMSKI, MAS, a Polish genre painter, was
born at Warsaw in 1846. His father, a military
administrative officer, sent him to the Polytechnic
School in Pulawy to learn mechanics. In 1863 he
took part in the Polish Revolution, and remained
till January 1864 an officer of the national troops.
He visited the University of Warsaw after peace
238



had been signed, and showed a great inclination for
music ; but the Governor, General Berg, persuaded
him to devote himself to painting, and helped him
with an allowance, by which he was enabled to visit
the University of Munich, where his great talent
was developed under Alexander Wagner and
Franz Adam. In 1870 he established a studio of
his own. In 1872 he revisited his native land, but
had to go to Meran in 1873 on account of his
health, which his life as a soldier had greatly im-
paired ; he spent the summer at Reichenhall, and
the winter at Rome, but returned to Reichenhall
in a worse condition, and died there "in 1874.
His first picture was 'An Attack by Cossacks.'
He afterwards devoted his time to winter scenes,
rainy landscapes, moonlight nights, and so forth,
all more or less of a melancholy cast. Other well-
known pictures by him are :

A Polish Spinning-room.
Duel with Pistols on Horseback.
Jews at the Evening Prayer.
A Visit by Moonlight.
The Meet for the Hunt.
Cossacks hi a Country Street.

Hunting in the reign of Louis XIV. (Berlin National
Gallery.)

GIESMANN, FBIEDRICH, an historical painter,
born at Leipsic in 1810, was the son of a sculptor
and wood-engraver, and devoted himself to the
study of sculpture for a while, but afterwards
abandoned it for painting. He took to the depict-
ing of scenes from nature, and in particular of
wild beasts from a menagerie ; further on he pro-
duced portraits. He received the patronage of
the King of Saxony during a two years' stay at
Dresden, but in 1832 he left that city for Munich,
with the intention of devoting himself exclusively
to historical painting. He died there in 1847. He
executed numerous wall paintings, as well as de-
corative and encaustic work, and he assisted Schnorr
von Karolsfeld in adorning the halls of the new
royal residence at Hohenschwangau, where he
painted from Schnorr's cartoons five large wall
pictures from the lives of Charlemagne, Rudolf of
Hapsburg, and Frederick Barbarossa, as well as
four friezes from his own designs. Of his easel
paintings, ' The Parable of the Prodigal Son ' is
specially praised.

GIETLEUGEN, JOSSE, a painter and engraver,
was a native of Courtrai, who was living in 1545.
His original name was Van Gulleghem, but he
changed it for some unknown reason. He engraved
the wood-cuts for Hadrianus Junius's ' Emble-
mata,' printed at Antwerp in 1585.

GIFFART, PIERRE, was born in Paris in 1638.
He engraved a considerable number of portraits
and book ornaments, which are neatly executed
with the graver, but without much taste, though
his merit was sufficient to procure him admission
into the Academy in 1682, and the distinction of
engraver to the king. He died in Paris in 1723.
The following prints are by him :

PORTRAITS.

Marie Anne Victoire of Bavaria, Dauphiness of France.
Franchise d'Aubigne, Marchioness de Mauiteuou.
Philip, son of Thomas XIII., Count of Savoy.
Edward, son of Amadeus XV., Count of Savoy.

VARIOUS SUBJECTS.

A set of Medals from the French King's Cabinet.
A set of designs for Chimney-pieces ; twenty plates,
engraved in conjunction with Scotin ; after erain.



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



GIFFORD, GEORGE, an engraver of portraits,
flourished about the year 1640. He was chiefly
employed by the booksellers, and his plates are very
indifferently executed. Among others, he engraved
the following :

Hugh Latimer, Bishop of Worcester.

Sir Edward Marmion.

John Bate ; prefixed to his ' Mysteries of Nature,' 1635.

GIFFORD, SANDFOBD ROBINSON, an American
landscape painter, was born at Greenfield, in Sara-
toga county, New York, in 1823. He studied art
at Hudson, New York, where he was influenced by
the works of Thomas Cole, and in the National
Academy of Design, New York. In 1850 he visited
England and the Continent, and on his return, in
1851, he was elected an Associate of the National
Academy, and became a full member three years
later. He subsequently, in 1860, started on a
journey through parts of Europe, Asia,-and Africa,
and in 1870 he visited the Rocky Mountains. His
works bear ample proof of the results of his travels.
He died in New York in 1880. The following are
some of his best paintings :

Mount Mansfield. 1869.

Twilight on Mount Hunter. (Exhibited at Paris in 1867.)

Morning in the Adirondacks. 1867.

San Giorgio, Venice. 1870. (Exhibited at Paris in 1878.)

Fishing Boats on the Adriatic. 1871.

Near Palermo. 1876.

The Ruins of the Parthenon. 1880.

Sunrise on the Matterhorn. 1880.

GIGANTE, GIACINTO, an Italian painter, litho-
grapher, and etcher, born at Naples in 1806, was
descended from a family of artists. He was at
first a geographer, but studied painting under
Pitloo, and then executed water-colour drawings
for H. Wolfensberger, etchings of the 'Bay of
Naples,' along with Vianelli, and landscape studies
in lithography. In 1846 he accompanied the
Emperor and Empress of Russia to Sicily, and
composed an album of the island, after which he
was appointed drawing-master in the family of
King Ferdinand II. He died at Naples in 1876.
He chiefly produced landscapes and architectural
pictures in water-colours, for which he received
the principal prize at Brussels. Two of his best
works are : ' The Interior of the Treasury of St.
Januarius on the Miracle Day ' (Gallery of Capo-
dimonte), and ' The Tomb of Giovanni Caracciolo
at Carbon ara.'

GIGOLA, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, was born at
Brescia in 1796, and after studying five years in
Rome, where he painted numerous portraits, and
further in Paris, became first a miniature, and after-
wards an enamel painter. He died at Milan in
1841. He executed miniatures on vellum for ' Gli
Amori di Dafne e Cloe,' and Da Porto's ' Giulietta
e Romeo,' as well as for Byron's ' Corsair.' The
Ambrosian Library at Milan also contains several
admired miniatures by him.

GIGOUX, JEAN, French painter ; born at Besan-
gon in January 1806 ; studied in Paris, and
exhibited his first pictures at the Salon in 1833.
Historical painting was then in vogue, and it was
to this that Gigoux accordingly devoted himself.
Among his most notable works of this period
were, ' La Mort de Leonard da Vinci,' ' Henri IV.
et Gabrielle d'Estrees,' ' Antoine et Cleopatre,'
' Heloise et Abelard,' ' Manon Lescaut,' ' La Veillee
d'Austerlitz,' &c. Gigoux was a regular con-
tributor to leading French art exhibitions, and at
the close of his career took up portrait-painting



again, some studies of girls, charming in their
freshness and grace, coming as a veritable surprise
from the brush of the veteran, as well as sundry
vigorous portraits of Jules Simon, Henner and
Bonnat. Gigoux left a valuable collection of
pictures, and embodied his art experiences in a
volume of souvenirs (' Causeriessur les Artistes de
mon Temps, 1885 '). He ranks as the last of the
romantic school. He died December 10, 1894

GIL, GERONIMO ANTONIO, a Spanish painter and
engraver, born at Zamora in 1732, was a pupil of
Tomas Prieto. His works show correct drawing
and attention to technical detail. He died at
Madrid in 1798.

GILARDI, PIETRO, was born at Milan in 1679,
and was instructed in art by Federigo Bianchi, but
he afterwards went to Bologna, where he became
a scholar of Marc Antonio Franceschini and
Giovanni Giosefio dal Sole. He was successful in
historical painting, and especially excelled in large
fresco works, his talents being particularly adapted
to the embellishment of cupolas, ceilings, and other
extensive operations. Such are his frescoes in the
refectory of San Vittore at Milan. The year of
his death is not recorded, but he was in his best
repute from 1700 to 1718. Sassi completed such
of his works as were left unfinished at his death.

GILARDINO, MELCHIORRE. See GERARDINI.

GILARTE, MATEO, a Spanish painter, was born
at Valencia about 1648. He was a scholar of
Francisco Ribalta, and proved an eminent painter
of history, both in oil and in fresco, working
principally in Murcia, where he formed a great
friendship with Juan de Toledo, the battle painter,
with whom he worked. In the Madrid Gallery is
a picture of the ' Birth of the Virgin.' In the
church of Nuestra Senora del Rosario are three
large pictures in fresco, representing ' Esther before
Ahasuerus,' ' Jacob wrestling with the Angel,' and
' St. Dominic with other Saints.' For the convent
of that church he painted the 'Miracle of the
Loaves and Fishes.' He died at Murcia in 1700.
His daughter, MAGDALENA GILARTE, painted much
in his style for the cloisters of Murcia, Toledo,
and Madrid.

GILBERT, ARTHUR. See WILLIAMS.

GILBERT, JOHN GRAHAM. See GRAHAM-GILBERT.

GILBERT, JOSEPH FRANCIS, a landscape painter,
was born in 1792. He resided at Chichester, and
exhibited at the Royal Academy and the British
Institution. He contributed to the Westminster
Hall competition a picture of ' Edwin and Emma.'
He died in 1855. Amongst his works are :

View of East Street, Chichester.

Goodwood Race-course : Priam winning the Gold Cup.

View of the Ruins of Cowdray.

GILBERT, Sir JOHN; this eminent artist was
born at Blackheath in 1817. His father was a
captain in the Royal East London Militia, who,
after the disbanding of his regiment, adopted the
calling of an estate agent, and young Gilbert was
brought up to the same business. Early in his
life, after a very scanty education, he was placed
with a firm in Charlotte Row, City of London, as
a clerk ; but the work was such a drudgery to
him, and his interests were so completely on the
side of art, that after two years his parents were
convinced of their error, and allowed him to select
his profession and devote himself to art. From
the very earliest years he had sketched with more
than ordinary ability, and had taken off prizes
repeatedly fur his drawings, but he needed educa-

239



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



tion, and on release from the work of the office he
set about obtaining it. He failed in his attempt
to enter the Academy schools, greatly to his father's
disappointment ; but he placed himself under
George Lance, who had been a pupil of Haydon,
and worked for a while in his studio. He also
attended evening classes, and filled up every scrap
of his time by sketching and by learning from
others wherever he could. At the age of nineteen
he sent in his first picture for exhibition, a water-
colour of the ' Arrest of Lord Hastings,' which
was hung at the Society of British Artists in 1836.
Two years after that, he was exhibiting at the
Royal Academy, and there he exhibited till 1851,
when a picture of his, having been badly hung, he
declined to send in on the following year, and
continued, with the exception of a single exhibit
in 1863, his refusal to have anything to do with
the Academy. In 1867, however, he was persuaded
to return to the Gallery, and from that time to the
date of his death he was a constant exhibitor.
He became A.R.A. in 1872, and R.A. in 1876, and
his works were always great attractions to the
annual show at Burlington House. He was elected
an Associate of the Old Water-Colour Society as
far back in his career as 1852, and in the following
year became a full member. In 1871 he was
President, and at that time the honour of knight-
hood was conferred upon him by Queen Victoria.
Many of his works he had kept in his own hands,
refusing to part with them on any consideration,
and his purpose in such action was revealed in
1893, when, having gathered together a large
collection of his pictures, he presented them to
the various important art galleries of the country,
giving them to the Guildhall Gallery in London,
and to the Galleries of Birmingham, Blackburn,
Liverpool, and Manchester. His large collection
of sketch-books he presented to the Royal Academy.
His gifts were received with much acclamation,
and the City of London gave him its freedom, he
being the first artist upon whom such a signal
honour had been conferred. His most popular
work was that of an illustrator, and it is in this
department of his labours that he has earned
undying fame. In 'Punch' and the 'Illustrated
London News ' his best work can be seen, whilst
euch books as Mackey's 'Thames,' Knight's 'Shake-
Bpeare,' ' Wordsworth,' ' Scott,' ' Cowper,' ' Long-
fellow,' ' Percy Tales,' ' English Ballads,' and the
' Proverbs of Solomon,' owe much of their interest
and delight to the charming and always suitable
illustrations which Gilbert drew for them. The
extraordinary feature of the whole of his work is
that it was not drawn from models. He had so
stocked his mind with figures, with ornaments,
and with scenes, from his constant habit of sketch-
ing upon every occasion, that he could sit down
wherever he was and prepare a drawing, which
was wonderful in its accuracy and in its dramatic
force. All his armour according to one credible
account was drawn from a dish-cover which he
kept in his studio, most of his vestments from some
scraps of velvet and brocade which he had by
him, and yet the truth of the work was quite
wonderful, and his memory was so extraordinary
that his results were seldom at fault. He is said
to have painted nearly 450 pictures, but in addition
to those, to have executed nearly 40,000 drawings,
so that his total output must have been a tre-
mendous one, and can only be accounted for by
the fact that he was never idle, and always hard at
240



work, even up to the last few days of his life. His
facility, as has been well said, was prodigious, and
his work was original, brilliant and full of verve.
He was supreme in composition, in depicting
movement and in a sense of dignity, and was fond
of incident and of historical scenes. His colouring
was rich and robust, his drawing sensitive and
charming, with a wonderful quality of beauty
about it, but there was no repose, no poetry, and
but little grandeur in any of his works, and they
were to the last strangely sketch-like and curiously
lacking in finish. Their vigour is, however, un-
mistakable, and the characteristics of breadth,
robust colour, spirited incident, and buoyant life
are never lacking ; and although he ignored
questions of "tone'' and " value," and the deeper
problems of atmosphere, and was frankly pictorial
and gloried in opulent colour, yet his pictures will
ever be popular and noteworthy, and so sound was
his craftsmanship that they are likely to perpetuate
his fame for many a long year to come. He lived
beloved by all who knew him, and died in 1897.

See ' Sir John Gilbert,' by M. H. Spielman, in
'Magazine of Art,' and other articles which appeared
soon after his death. G. C, W.

GILES, JAMES WILLIAM, a Scottish landscape
painter, the son of an artist of local reputation in
Aberdeen, was born at Glasgow in 1801. After
having studied painting under his father, he passed
a short time in Italy. In 1830 he was elected a
member of the Royal Scottish Academy, and about
this time sent several works to the Royal Academy.
His pictures chiefly depict Highland scenery,
especially fishing, to which sport he was much
addicted. A picture by him, ' The Weird Wife,'
is in the National Gallery of Scotland. He died at
Aberdeen in 1870.

GILF1LLAN, JOHN A., a Scottish painter, was



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