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in his early life in the Royal Navy. He afterwards
devoted himself to art, and from 1830 to 1840
held the appointment of professor of painting
in the Andersonian University at Glasgow. He
afterwards emigrated to New Zealand, where he
died. In the Glasgow Corporation Galleries is a
picture of 'Robinson Crusoe landing stores from
the Wreck ;' and in the South Kensington Museum
is a picture of a ' Scotch Loch.'

GILIO, a native of Siena, painted a book-cover,
preserved in the Academy of Arts, representing a
monk of St. Galgano in a white dress, seated in
profile on a chair, dated 1257.

GILIOLI, GIACINTO, a Bolognese painter, born
in 1584, was brought up in the school of the Car-
racci. Of his works at Bologna, the most esteemed
are his picture of the ' Death of St. Joseph ' in
Santa Mattia, and ' David with the Head of Goliath '
in San Salvatore. He died in 1665.

GILL, ANDR, a French painter and political
caricaturist, was born in October 1840. He studied
under Leloir, and at the Acade'mie des Beaux Arts.
He exhibited a few portraits, &c., at the Salon, but
was best known by his caricatures of notabilities
under the Second Empire. He became insane about
five years before his death, which took place in
1885.

GILL, CHARLES, a portrait painter, was the son
of a pastry-cook at Bath. He became a pupil of
Sir Joshua Reynolds, and exhibited a few portraits
at the Royal Academy between 1772 and 1819.

GILL, EDMUND, born in Clerkenwell, November
29, 1820. The son of a japanner, he was at first
destined to follow his father's trade, but, owing to



SIR JOHN GILBERT




HanfstSngl photo] [Liverpool Gallery

RICHARD II. RESIGNING THE CROWN TO BOLINGBROKE



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS



his marked liking for art, he became a portrait
painter, in which capacity he at first established
himself with limited success at Ludlow. It would
not appear that he received any regular training
at the Academy or elsewhere, but great industry
served to help his natural sympathies, and he very
soon obtained considerable skill in the branches of
art he had chosen. At Hereford he found so much
favour that a ^local subscription helped him to
undertake landscape-painting in Wales, and after-
wards to goto London. His first picture, ' View in
Croft Park,' was shown at the British Institution
in 1842, and four years later he sent a ' Storm
Scene ' to the Royal Academy, and was also repre-
sented at the Suffolk Street Galleries. To these last-
named he was indeed a very frequent contributor,
sending in over a hundred and fifty works. His
taste led him to paint cascades (hence his nickname
"Waterfall Gill") and breaking seas, especially as
viewed from lofty cliffs. After a brief illness he
died at Hackbridge, Carshalton, on May 14, 1894.

GILLARDINI, MELCHIOKRE. See GEEARDINI.

GILLBERG, JACOB, a Swedish engraver, was
born in Wermland in 1724. He engraved several
portraits of distinguished personages of Sweden ;
and afterwards went to Paris, where he executed
several plates in imitation of chalk drawings ;
among which were some heads after Raphael, and
some landscapes engraved jointly with Demarteau.
He died in 1793.

GILLBERG, JACOB AXEL, a Swedish miniature
painter, the elder son of Jacob Gillberg, was born
in Westmanland in 1769. He is known by his
equestrian portrait of Charles XIII., and his por-
traits of Charles XIV. (Bernadotte) and his Queen,
after GeYard. The date of his death is not known.

GILLE, JEAN BAPTISTE. See C'OLSON.

GILLEMANS, JAN PAULO, a fruit and flower
painter, born at Antwerp in 1650, was the pupil of
Georgius van Son. In 1673, along with his brother,
Pieter Matthias, he was made free of the Guild of
St. Luke. He then went to Paris, and from there
in 1713 to Amsterdam. He is said to have fallen
into a canal and been drowned about 1742. There
are by him a signed picture in the Museum at Lille,
and another in the South Kensington Museum.

GILLEMANS, PIETER MATTHIAS, brother of
Jan Paulo, was born at Antwerp, where he also
died in 1692. He had a high reputation as a fruit
and flower painter.

GILLES OF ANTWERP. See CONONET.

GILLIES, Miss MARGARET, the daughter of a
Scotch merchant settled in London, and niece of
Lord Gillies the judge, was born in Throgmorton
Street in 1803. Her father having lost his fortune,
she lived as a girl under the care of her uncle in
Edinburgh, where she enjoyed the society of some
of the most notable men of the day, among them
Scott, Erskine, and Jeffrey. Determined, however,
to earn an honourable livelihood for herself, she
resolved to become an artist, and went to Paris to
study, where she made the acquaintance of the
Scheffers, and worked more or less under their
direction. She made her debut as a painter of
miniatures, and afterwards devoted herself to water-
colour drawings of domestic or romantic subjects.
In 1852 she was elected an associate of the Water-
Colour Society, of which she was the first lady
member. With that body she was a constant
exhibitor, contributing down to the year before her
death, which took place at her house at Hampstead
in the spring of 1888.

VOL. II. B



GILLIG, JAKOB, (or GELLIG,) a Dutch painter,
was born at Utrecht about the year 1636, and
is stated by Balkema to have died there in 1688.
He excelled in painting fish, which he represented
with great fidelity. He also painted portraits, and
it is said landscapes. Several of his works are in
the Berlin and Cassel Galleries, and the Kunsthalle
at Carlsruhe. He married a daughter of Adam
Willaarts, the landscape painter.

GILLIG, MICHIEL, a Dutch ainter, flourished
in the latter part of the 17th century, and executed
a portrait of Gerard De Vries in 1685.

GILLIS, F., a painter, born at Besanson at the
commencement of the 18th century, was a professor
of the Academy at Tournai. In the Museum of
that town are a ' Group of dead Birds,' a portrait
of Jean Baptiste Fauquez, a ' Head of an old Man,'
and 'St. Nicholas.' He died at Froidinoiit, near
Tournai, in 1790.

GILLIS, HERMAN, born at Antwerp in 1733,
was a pupil of Geeraerts, and painted portraits and
historical subjects. In 1768 he became a member
of the Guild of St. Luke, and afterwards travelled
in Germany and Austria. At Vienna he painted a
portrait of the famous General Laudon. He
executed some pictures for the church of Hoog-
straeten on the legend of the Holy Blood, and in 1773
was appointed Director of the School of Design at
Louvain. The date of his death is not known.

GILLOT, CLAUDE, a French painter and engraver,
was born at Langres in 1673. He was sent to
Paris when young, and became a scholar of J. B.
Corneille. He chiefly excelled in designing fauns,
satyrs, and grotesques, in which he acquired some
reputation, and was received into the Academy in
Paris in 1715. Antoine Watteau was his scholar,
and greatly surpassed him. He died in Paris in
1722. His works as a painter are little regarded ;
but he has left us a considerable number of etch-
ings, from his own designs, which are executed in
a bold, free style. Including the plates he en-
graved for the 'Fables' of La Mothe-Houdard,
Gersaint makes his prints amount to one hundred
and eighty. Among others, the following are by
him:

The Feast of Diana disturbed by Satyrs ; Cl. Gillot fee.

The Feast of Bacchus celebrated by Satyrs and Bac-
chantes.

The Triumph of Pan celebrated by Nymphs and Sy Ivans.

The Triumph of Fauuus, the God of the Forests.

The Milk-jug and the Upset Pot.

GILLRAY, JAMES, the most eminent of English
caricaturists, was born in 1757, and is supposed to
have been of Irish descent. Scarcely any particu-
lars of his early years are known. It is said that
he was the son of a Chelsea pensioner, and a person
of the same name, who was probably his father,
filled the office of sexton to the Moravian cemetery
at Chelsea for forty years, and was buried there in
1799. Like the illustrious Hogarth, and the cele-
brated engraver Sharp, he began his career as a
letter engraver, though we have been unable to find
any specimens of his works of that description.

Being disgusted with this monotonous occupation,
he ran away from his employer, joined a company
of strolling players, and after undergoing the
various hardships which this course of life invari-
ably entails, he returned to London, and became a
student of the Royal Academy, where he pursued
most energetically his studies in the art of design.
That he must have attained remarkable proficiency
is very evident from several plates which he



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



engraved after his own designs, particularly two
subjects from Goldsmith's ' Deserted Village,' in-
scribed 'The Village Train 'and 'The Deserted
Village,' published iu 1784. These are designed
in a remarkably free and picturesque manner, and
have some resemblance to the earlier works of
Stothard. They are exceedingly well engraved
in the dotted manner, and though the name of
his instructor in this art is not known, they so much
resemble the works of the unfortunate Ryland,
that one can have but little hesitation in assign-
ing the credit of the tuition to him. Among other
works of this class, and executed about the same
time, are, a capital portrait of Dr. Arne, after
Bartolozzi ; ' Colonel Gardiner's last Interview with
his Children ; ' ' The Burning of the Duke of Athole
Bast ludiaman, 1785 ; ' 'The Wreck of the Nancy
Packet off Scilly, 1784 ; ' and two portraits of
William Pitt, all after his own designs. The
two hist, though admirable representations of the
man, are nevertheless somewhat approaching to
caricature. He also engraved a few plates after
Lady Spencer's drawings. Either for the pur-
pose of amusement or of mystification, he occasion-
ally adopted fictitious names. Thus the following
plates, which are known to be by him, have other
names attached to them : ' The Nativity,' after
Copley, J. Hurd fecit, 1785 ; 'The Return,' a child
with a dog in a landscape, J. Kent fecit, 1781 ; 'A
Storm,' J. Penn fecit, 1786 ; and, were it necessary,
man}' others of his works might be quoted bearing
these names. He also, on many of his earlier
caricatures, made use of a monogram composed of
the letters J. S., interlaced in such a manner as to
resemble that used by Sayer the caricaturist, which
he probably adopted to mislead the public as to
the real author of the publications.

In 1792 he engraved a droll representation of
' John Bull and his family landing at Boulogne ' for
his friend Banbury, and in the same year he accom-
panied De Loutherbourg in his travels in France
and Flanders to collect materials for the latter's
great picture of the ' Siege of Valenciennes.' The
memorial of this tour is preserved in two groups
known as ' Flemish Characters. 1

Gillray appears to have worked as an engraver
long after his career as a caricaturist had com-
menced, for he engraved in 1792 a large plate after
Northcote, representingthe delivery of the prisoners
from the Bastille, inscribed, ' Le Triomphe de la
Liberte', ou, L'FJargissement de la Bastille ;' and
in 1794, ' Marquis Cornwallis receiving the royal
Hostages at Seringapatam,' after the same painter:
probably the last of his productions of this
description.

Admirable as many of these works are, it is as a
caricaturist that Gillray is best known, and upon
which his fame entirely rests. In this art he has
no rival ; and the exquisite tact with which he
seized upon points, both in politics and manners,
most open to ridicule, is only equalled by the con-
summate skill and wit with which he satirized them.
His earlier works are more carefully than spiritedly
executed, and look like the productions of an
engraver only. The earliest of his undoubted
caricatures, though many others antecedent have
been with great reason attributed to him, is dated
1779 ; it is probably a satire on the Irish Fortune-
hunter, and is called ' Paddy on Horseback,' the
so-called horse being a bull, on which he is riding
with his face to the tail. But his improvement
was rapid and extraordinary, and he soon attained

242



a marvellous freedom both of design and in the
management of the etching needle. It is said that
he etched his ideas at once upon the copper without
making a previous drawing, his only guides being
sketches of the distinguished characters he intended
to introduce made on small pieces of card, which
he always carried about with him. His caricatures
amount to more than twelve hundred, of which the
following are a few of the more important, arranged
according to the dates at which they appeared.

A Jfew Way to pay the Rational Debt. George III. and
his Queen are coming out of the Treasury loaded with
money, which is overflowing their pockets ; on the
right is the Prince of Wales in a very shabby condi-
tion, gratefully receiving money from the Duke of
Orleans. April 21, 1796.

Ancient Music. A caricature of the King and Queen in
ecstasy at a concert performed bv the ministers.
May 10, 1787.

Monstrous Crates. A satire on the grasping avarice of
George III. and Queen Charlotte. May 29, 1787.

March to the Bank. An etching, executed in the most
masterly style. August 22, 1787.

Market Day. Lord Thurlow, as a grazier, is attending
Smithfield Market, and examining the beasts, the
heads of which represent the leading political charac-
ters of the day. May 2, 1788.

Election Troops bringing in their Accounts to the Pay
Table. A satire on the means employed by ministers,
unsuccessfully, however, to frustrate the election of
Fox for Westminster. This is the first caricature on
which the name of Gillray appears. 1788.

Frying Sprats, and Toasting Muffins. Two small but
very clever caricatures on the parsimonious habits of
George III. and Queen Charlotte. 1791.

Anti-.Saccharites,or JohnlluU and his Family If aving off
the use of Sugar. The King and Queen, from eco-
nomical motives, are enjoying and praising their tea
without sugar, while the Princesses are evidently
very much disgusted. The Royal Family, it is said,
were highly delighted with this caricature. 179:!.

A Connoisseur examining a Cooper. A very bold and
happy idea, capitally carried out. George III. is re-
presented almost purblind, looking with great atten-
tion at a miniature of Oliver Cromwell, by Samuel
Cooper, which he holds in one hand, while he has a
caudle in the other. The bitterness of this satire was
occasioned by the disparaging observations the King
made on the portraits Gillray had sketched during bis
tour in Flauders with De Loutherbourg. The King
had said, " I don't understand these caricatures." The
exasperated artist made this drawing, and said, " I
wonder if the royal connoisseur will understand
this?" 1792.

Temperance enjoying a frugal Meal, and ^1 foluptuary
under the Horrors of Digestion. Two most admirable
productions, unsurpassed in humour, design, or
execution. The temperate habits of George III. in
the former, and the Epicurean manners of the Prince
of Wales in the latter, are portrayed with the most
consummate ability. 179J.

Bengal Levee, from an original draining made on the spot
by an amateur. A very large and skilfully-executed
plate. 1792.

The Dagger Scene, or the Plot discovered. A capital
representation of a well-known scene in the House of
Commons, in which Edmund Burke was the chief
performer. 1792.

Fatigues of the Campaign in Flanders. The Duke of
York luxuriating in the company of Flemish women,
attended by his soldiers, who are bringing in large
bowls of punch. 1793.

The Loyal Toast. The Duke of Norfolk giving his
celebrated toast, " The majesty of the people," at the
Crown and Anchor Tavern, for which he was dismissed
from his offices. 1798.

The Consequences of a successful French Invasion. A set
of four plates, iu which the horrors to be expected
are given with extraordinary spirit.

The Cow-pock, or the wonderful effects of the new Inocu-
lation. A very humorous burlesque on the popular
opinions respecting Jenner's invaluable discovery.



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



L'AssembUe ffationale, or a grand co-operative Meeting
at St. Anne's Hill (the residence of Charles James
Fox), respectfully dedicated to the admirers of a Broad-
tottom'd Administration. This is undoubtedly the
most talented caricature that has ever appeared.
The King is supposed to have been executed, the
Republic proclaimed, and Fox, as first consul, is hold-
ing his levee at his house at St. Anne's Hill. All the
leading Whigs are present, of whom the likenesses
are most admirable, and in the right corner is seen a
portion of the figure of the Prince of Wales, to whom
this caricature gave so much offence that he offered
a large sum of money for its suppression, which being
accepted, he ordered the plate to be destroyed. The
plate, however, was not destroyed, but secreted, and
it still exists. 1804.

The King of Brobdinynatj and Gulliver (George III. and
Bonaparte) ; two plates. 1803 and 1804.

The Middlesex Election. Sir Francis Burdett dragged in
his carriage to the poll by the Duke of Norfolk,
Charles James Fox, and other leading Whigs. 1804.

The Reconciliation (between George III. and the Prince
of Wales). Admirably treated. 1804.

The Life of William Coboett, written by himself. Eight
satirical plates. 1809.

installation of the Chancellor of Oxford (Lord Gren-
wlle), August 8, 1810. A large plate, and the last
political engraving bearing Gillray's name.

Other pieces not of a political nature, but full of
humour, and sometimes severely satirical on the
fashionable frivolities of the time, wherein he did
not spare the persons of the prime leaders of society,
iiay be added :

A Pic NIC Orchestra, This plate contains the por-
traits of the Marchionesses of Buckingham and Salis-
bury, Lady Mary Cholmondeley, Lord Edgcumbe, and
Charles Greville.

Dilettanti Theatricals, The same characters are intro
duced as in the preceding plate.

loicing up Pic A'ics. The same parties assailed by
Sheridan in the character of Harlequin, assisted by
Mrs. Siddons and John Kemble.

The Buhtnde Siren. Mrs. Billicgton and the Duke of
Portland.

Push-pin. Duke of Queensberry and Miss Vanneck.

Twopenny Whist. The party consists of Betty Marshall,
the assistant to Mrs. Humphreys, Mrs. Turner, Mr.
Mortimer, and a German of the name of Schotter.
Betty Marshall is showing the trnmp card.

Cockney Sportsmen ; four plates. 1800.

Elements of Skating ; four plates. 1805.

Hake's Progress at the University ; five plates. 1806.

Gillray executed a series of twenty stippled
plates, usually printed in a red colour, bearing the
title ' Hollandia Regenerata.' They have Dutch
inscriptions, were published in Holland, and were
intended principally to ridicule the republican cos-
tumes and appointments. The last plate published
during his life was ' A Barber's Shop in Assize
time,' from a drawing by Bunbury. It is dated
January 9th, 1811, but was engraved much earlier.

Gillray was unfortunately another example of the
imprudence that so frequently accompanies genius
and great talent. His habits were in the highest
degree intemperate, and for many years he resided
in the houses of his publisher, Mrs. Humphreys,
in New and Old Bond Streets, and lastly in St.
James's Street. By her he was most liberally
supplied with every indulgence, and during his
residence with her lie produced nearly all his most
celebrated works, which were bought up with
unparalleled eagerness, and circulated not only
throughout England, but all over Europe. Though
under an engagement not to work for any other
publisher, yet, to satisfy his insatiable desire for
strong drink, he now and then etched plates for

E2



Mr. Fores of Piccadilly, disguising, and occasion-
ally very successfully, both his style and handling.
It has been before observed, that the last of his
works is dated in 1811 ; soon after this he sank
into a state of mingled imbecility and delirium, and
died in London in 1815.

There exists a specimen of his practice of the art
of lithography. It represents a ' Domestic Musical
Party ; ' the mother is playing on the pianoforte,
the husband stands behind her playing the flute,
the children are singing. It exhibits considerable
ability, and is excessively rare. He engraved on
wood a medallion portrait of William Pitt, placed
against a rustic monument overshadowed by the
branches of an oak, and a few small woodcuts,
among which are ' A Woman crying Fish,' ' A Boy
near a Cottage drinking,' and ' A Beggar at a
Door.'

GILPIN, SAWREY, an animal painter, was born
at Carlisle in 1733. He was the son of a captain
in the army, from whom he received some instruc-
tion in drawing. On his arrival in London, he
was for some time under a ship painter. His
genius, however, led him to drawing animals ;
and some of his sketches having been shown to
the Duke of Cumberland, he took Gilpin under his
patronage, and employed him in painting the por-
traits of his favourite racers, and other subjects, at
Newmarket. He became one of the most correct
and spirited drawers of horses that the art has pro-
duced ; and that he possessed powers of a superior
cast, which would have enabled him to distinguish
himself in the more elevated walk of historical
painting, is evident in his pictures of the ' Election
of Darius ' and the ' Triumph of Camillus.' Gilpin
was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy
in 1795, and an Academician in 1797. He died
at Brompton in 1807. The animals, particularly
the horses, in Barret's pictures, are generally by
Gilpin ; and the landscape part of Gilpin' s pictures
is by Barret. In the South Kensington Museum
is a picture of ' Cows in a Landscape ; ' and in
water-colours, ' Sketch of a Lion and Lioness,' and
A Mansion in process of construction.' There
are a few very spirited etchings by this estimable
artist ; among others, the following :

A set of Oxen, Cows, &c.
A small Book of Horses.

Some Heads for his brother's, Rev. William Gilpin's,
' Lives of the Reformers.' 1809.

GILPIN, WILLIAM, a landscape draughtsman,
born in 1724, near Carlisle, was the brother of Sawrey
Gilpin. He graduated at Oxford, and was after-
wards master of Cheam School, and finally
vicar of Boldre, Hants, where he died in 1804.
He published a large number of topographical
works, for which he drew and engraved the
illustrations. There are four landscapes in Indian
ink by him in the South Kensington Museum.

GILPIN, WILLIAM SAWREY, born 1762, a water-
colour painter, was the son of Sawrey Gilpin. He
was the first president of the Water-Colour Society
(1804 1806), exhibiting there till 1814 ; and he
held the appointment of drawing-master at the
Royal Military College at Great Marlow. He died
in 1843.

GILSON, JEAN HENRI, called " Frere ABRAHAM
D'ORVAL," was born at Habay la Vieille in 1741.
He established himself in the Ardennes as a hermit,
till on the suppression of the hermits by Joseph
II. he entered the Abbey of Orval. The Prior,
struck by his talent, made him travel to Rome,

243



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Antwerp, Brussels, and Paris, and then sent him to
the Academy at Diisseldorf. There he carried ofi
the first prize with a picture of ' Adam and Eve
lamenting the Death of Abel.' On his return to
the Abbey he set to work to fill the refectory, halls,
and church of the Abbey with pictures. In 1793
the Abbey with all its pictures was destroyed by
the French, and Gilson retired to Florenville, where
he opened a studio, and died in 1809. He executed
a large number of portraits and religious pictures.

GILTLINGER, JOHANNES GUMPOLT. See GULT-
LINGER.

GIMIGNANI, GIACINTO, (or GEMIGNANJ,) was
born at Pistoja in 1611, but studied at Rome, first
under Nicolas Poussin, and afterwards in the school
of Pietro da Cortona. In his composition and
design he followed the classic style of his first
instructor, but in his colouring, and the taste of
his architecture, that of the second. He worked
in competition with Andrea Camassei and Carlo
Maratti, in the Baptistery of San Giovanni in Late-
rano, where he painted in fresco some subjects
from the life of Constantine. Several of his
works are in the Palazzo Niccolini at Florence ;
and a fine picture of ' Leander,' in the Uffizi, is so
much in the style of Guercino, that Lanzi says it
was for some time attributed to that master. In
the church of San Giovanni at Pistoja are two
pictures of subjects from the life of St. John ;
in the cathedral, ' St. Roch ; ' and in the Pitti
Palace at Florence, ' Rebecca at the Well.' He
died in 1681. There are a few etchings by this
master, executed with great spirit, "XT and marked



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