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with the annexed monogram : (\L Among them
are :

The Rape of the Sabines. 1649.

The Siege and Capitulation of Tournai in 1581.

A set of twelve small plates of the Sports of Children.

Anthony and Cleopatra.

Queen SemiramU quelling a Revolt.

GIMIGNANI, LODOVICO, (or GEMIGNANI,) was
the son of Giacinto Gimignani, and was born at
Rome in 1644. He chiefly excelled in fresco ; and
there are several of his works in the churches at
Rome, as well as others executed in conjunction
with his father. The vault of Santa Maria deHe
Vergini is one of his most admired performances ;
the principal altar-piece of the same church is by
him. He died in 1697.

GINDERICK, THEODORICH VON, painted in 1475
' Two Angels,' and a baldacchino, for the chapel of
St. Michael in the Victor's church at Xanten.

GINDTER, MATHA. See GUNTHER.

GINNASI, CATTARINA, the niece of Cardinal
Domenico Ginnasi, was born at Rome in 1590. She
was taught painting by Giovanni Lanfranco, after
whose designs she painted the whole of the pictures
in the church of the convent of Santa Lucia at
Rome. She died in 1660.

GIOCCHIO, ULISSE, a painter of the Florentine
school, born at Monte San Savino, flourished in the
early part of the 17th century. In 1616 he painted
a lunette, representing ' St. Dominick and a proces-
sion of Corpus Domini,' over the principal entrance
of the churcli of Santa Maria Novella in Florence,
and in the following year decorated with frescoes
the cloisters of San Lorenzo in Pistoja.

GIOJA, GAETANO, a painter of Rimini, who lived
in the last quarter of the 18th century, studied at
Florence and Rome, and executed historical and
mythological pictures. He was still living in 1824.

GIOLFINO, NICOOL6 called by Vasari NICOLA

244



URSINO, was a contemporary of Falconetto, and
born at Verona about 1465. His paintings are
chiefly to be seen in the churches of his native
city. The Museum of Verona possesses two of the
' Madonna and Saints ; ' and the Berlin Gallery has
a 'Virgin and Child between four Saints.' The
church of Santa Maria in Organo, Verona, is especi-
ally rich in frescoes by him. The National Gallery,
London, possesses two panels, originally in one,
containing portraits of the Giusti family. He was
a friend of Mantegna, and the master of Paolo
Farinati, a celebrated fresco painter of Verona.
The exact date of his death is unknown, hut he-
was alive in 1518.

GIOLFINO, PAOLO, a painter of Verona in the
16th century, was a brother and pupil of Niccolo
Giolfino. The Verona Gallery contains a ' Madonna
enthroned,' and a ' Resurrection,' by him.

GIOLITO, GABRIELE, was a native of Ferrara,
who resided in Venice, where from 1542 to 1567
he carried on the business of a printer, and also
engraved on wood the illustrations for his edition
of the ' Orlando Furioso ' of Ariosto, first issued in
1542. He died before 1577.

GIONCOY, MICHEL, (or GIONCQDOY,) a painter,
was a native of Tournai, who studied at Rome. In
conjunction with B. Spranger he produced several
works, but died in the year 1600, in the prime of life.

GIONIMO, ANTONIO, born at Padua in 1697,
was first instructed by his father, Simone Gionimo,
and afterwards studied under Aureliano Milani
and Crespi. Hie principal residence was at
Bologna, where he painted some pictures for the
churches. Among his best works are the ' Finding
of Moses,' in the church of Santa Cristina; and
the ' Martyrdom of St. Floriano,' in Sant' Agata.
He died at Bologna in 1732.

GIONIMO, SIMONE, the father of Antonio Gio-
nimo, was born in Dalmatia in 1655, but after-
wards removed to Vienna. He painted somewhat
after the manner of Guercino.

GIORDANO, LUCA, called 'FA PRESTO,' was
born at Naples in 1632. He was the son of
Antonio Giordano, an obscure artist, whom he
had surpassed when he was only eight years old,
and the astonishment which he created caused
the Viceroy of Naples to place him under the care
of Giuseppe Ribera, called Lo Spagnoletto. Before
he was thirteen years of age he had acquired a
fertility of invention, and a readiness of hand, that
are perhaps without example. Animated by the
report he had heard of the wonders of Rome, he
withdrew himself from his father's house, and
made the best of his way to that city. He there
habitually copied the works of Raphael, Michel-
angelo, and Caravaggio. His talents recommended
him to the notice of Pietro da Cortona, who em-
ployed him to assist him in the many considerable
works in which he was at that time engaged. The
brilliant style of this master was particularly con-
genial to the taste of Luca Giordano ; and he appears
to have aimed at excelling him in the facility and
splendour of his execution. His father, who had
lived in a state of indigence and obscurity, followed
him to Rome ; and from the produce of the talent
of his son, whose designs after the works of the
great masters were esteemed and sought after, he
received a considerable emolument. Such was the
demand for his drawings and sketches, that his
father continually urged him to despatch, by repeat-
ing to him, ' Luca, fa presto,' (' Luke, make haste,')
and hence he came to be designated by this phrase.



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PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



In the last edition of Bellori's 'Vite de' Pittori,'
in which is introduced the life of Luca Giordano,
he is said to have made twelve different copies
of the paintings by Raphael in the Loggie of the
Vatican, and twenty drawings after the ' Battle of
Constantine,' by Giulio Romano; besides those from
Michelangelo, Caravaggio, and others. The fruits of
his industry enabled him in company with his father
to make a journey through Lombardy to Venice,
where he studied the works of Titian and Paolo
Veronese. He then returned by way of Florence
and Leghorn to Naples. His first public works in
his native city were a picture of the ' Holy Rosary '
for the church of San Potito, three small frescoes
from the life of St. John the Baptist for the chapel
of San Giacomo della Marca, and some oil paintings
for the church of Santa Teresa. In 1655 he painted
in competition with Giacomo Farelli.for the church
of Santa Brigida, a picture of ' St. Nicholas borne
away by Angels,' which was a work of such
power as to establish his reputation at the early
age of twenty-three. In 1678, on peace being
established between France, Spain, and Holland,
he painted an immense picture to commemorate
the event. In 1679 he was invited to Florence to
paint the chapel of Sant' Andrea Corsini, and was
overwhelmed with kindness by the Grand-Duke
Cosmo III. On his way to Florence he was received
by the Marquess of Heliche, the Spanish Ambassador
to Rome, who afterwards became viceroy of Naples,
by whom, as also by his successor, the Count of
Santistevan, he was largely patronized. By imitat-
ing the style of every distinguished painter, he
formed one which partook of the manner of each.
He is compared by Bellori to the bee, that collects
honey from the sweets of every flower. It would
have been better for his fame if he had estab-
lished a character of his own, and if imitation
were not so apparent in all his productions. Some
of his pictures having reached Spain, he was
invited to Madrid by Charles II., in 1692, where
he was appointed painter to the king. He has
nowhere left greater proofs of that despatch for
which he is so celebrated. In the space of two
years he painted in fresco the immense ceiling of
the church, and the staircase of the Escorial ; the
latter, representing the famous ' Battle of St. Quen-
tin,' and the 'Taking of Montmorency,' is considered
as one of his finest works. His next productions
included the great saloon in the Buen Retiro, the
sacristry of the cathedral at Toledo, the chapel
of Our Lady of Atocha, and the vault of the Royal
Chapel at Madrid. After the death of Charles II. he
was retained in the service of Philip V., and during
a residence of ten years in Spain he completed a
prodigious number of pictures, which might reason-
ably have been supposed to have occupied a long
life of the most industrious painter. In 1702 he
accompanied Philip V. to Naples, where the high
reputation he had acquired in Spain rendered his
reception enthusiastic. It was with difficulty that
even he could keep pace with the eagerness of his
fellow-citizens to possess his works. It is reported
of him, that the Jesuits, having engaged him to
paint a picture of 'St. Francis Xavier,' complained
to the viceroy that they could not prevail on him
to finish the picture, though it was to be placed at
their principal altar on the day of the festival of
that saint. Luca Giordano, finding himself pressed
on all sides, painted the picture in a day and a
half. Perhaps no painter has left so many pictures,
without even excepting Tintoretto. To such un-



common powers it would not be reasonable to
refuse the claim to genius ; but it was certainly
that species of mechanical skill which produced
little that was marked with depth and originality.
He died at Naples in 1705. His pupils were his
son, Paolo de' Matteis, Aniello and Niccol6 Rossi,
Pavelli, Tommaso Fasano, Simonelli, Francisquito,
and some others. The following paintings by
him are preserved in the galleries of Europe :

Berlin. Gallery. The Judgment of Paris.

Bordeaux. Museum. Sleeping Venus.

Hercules and Omphale.

,, Head of an old Woman.

Brunswick. Museum. Jacob's Dream.

Moses and the Burning Bush.

The Sorceress Circe.

Roman Envoys to JSeculapius.

Caesel. Gallery. The Presentation in the

Temple.

The Birth of the Virgin.

Copenhagen. Gallery. The Judgment of Paris.

Roman and Sabine Women.

The Death of Abel.

Adam and Eve weeping over

Abel.

Darmstadt. Gallery. The Rape of Europa.
Dresden. Gallery. Hercules and Omphale.

Perseus with the head of

Medusa.

Lucretia and Tarquinius.

The Rape of the Sabine Women.

The Death of Seneca.

f , Bacchus and Ariadne.

Abraham erpelling Hagar.

David with the head of Goliath.

Jacob and Rachel at the Well.

The Slaughter of the Amalek-

ites.

Lot and his Daughters.

Susanna.

Virgin and Child.

The Penitent Magdalen.

Gideon's slaughter of the

Midianites.

Burial of St. Sebastian.
Eliezer giving presents to Re-
becca.

Two Portraits.

Florence. Uffi:t. His own Portrait.

Pitti Pal. The Conception.

Riccardi Pal. Olympus (frescoes).

Genoa. Spino/a Pal. St. Anne and the Virgin.

Hague. Museum. The Musicians.

Hampton Court. Palace. The Wise Men's Offering.

Cupidand Psyche (12 pictures}.

Lille. Museum. Combat of Turn us and ^Eneas.

tineas healed by Venus.

Liverpool. Royal Jnst. Dionysius, the Tyrant of Syra-
cuse, as a Schoolmaster.
Madrid. Gallery. Twenty Scenes from the Old

Testament.
Ten Scenes from the New

Testament.

St. Jerome.

St. Anthony.

^ The Assumption.

Battle of St. Quentin.

Five Allegorical pictures.

Flight of .<Eneas from Troy.

Scenes in the lives of Hercules,

Andromeda, Ixion, Tantalus,
and Prometheus.

, Tancred and Clorinda.

Portrait of Charles II.
Portrait of a Cardinal.
Milan. Brera. Virgin and Child, with Saints

and Angels.

Munich. Gallery. The Massacre of the Inno-

cents.

Christ raised on the Cross.

Portrait of the Artist's Father.

Portrait of the Artist.

245



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Munich. Gallery. Death of Lncretia.
-. Christ blessing the Loaves and

Fishes.

> - A Cynical Philosopher,

ii ii Archimedes.

55 An old Man.

,, Christ in the Wilderness.

Christ at the Well.

ii .1 Two Scholars.

Naples. S. Restitute. St. Eestituta carried by the

Angels.
<& Maria de/jli) T.. ..

Anyeli. j Birth of the Virgm.

ii ,, The Presentation in the Temple.

ii The Annunciation.

The Nativity.

Gesii Nuoiio. Virgin and Saints.

ii ii St. Charles Borromeo.

,, 8. Martina. The Triumph of Judith.

<$. Filippo A'eri. Christ driving the Dealers from

the Temple ( fresco).

ii Museum. The Virgin with the Rosary.

A Pieta.

i, St. Francis Xavier baptizing

the Indians.

Consecration of Monte Cassino.

n I, Herodias.

it - Semiramis.

i Marsyas.

.. i, Venus asleep.

Paris. Louvre. Diana's Hunt.

11 ii Marriage of the Virgin,

ii Adoration of the Shepherds.

11 Tarquinius and Lucretia.

n ,, Death of Seneca,

i Circle of the Loves.

ii Mars and Venus.

Petersburg. Hermitage. Sleep of Bacchus.

ii 11 Mater Dolorosa.

ii i, The Judgment of Paris.

n i, The Entombment.

Rome. Capitol. The Golden Fleece,

ii Corsini Pal. Jesus with the Doctors.

Borghese Pal. Death of St. Ignatius.

Venice. Acadtmy. Descent from the Cross.

Vienna. Gallery. The Expulsion of Hagar.

ii ii The Massacre of the Innocente,

ii ,, The Martyrdom of St. Bar-

tholomew.

> The Promise to St. Joachim.

,, The Birth of the Virgin.

The Presentation in the Temple.

The Marriage of the Virgin,

ii .1 The Visitation.

ii .1 The Adoration of the Shep-

herds.

ii ., The Dream of St. Joseph.

i. , The Death of St. Joseph.

The Death of the Virgin,

ii The Archangel Michael. 1666.

There are some very spirited etchings by Luoa
Giordano, executed in a free, masterly style;
among them are :

Elijah calling Fire from Heaven to destroy the Priests

of Baal.

The Virgin and Infant Jesus.
St. Joseph and St. John.
The penitent Magdalen.
The Adulteress before Christ.
Christ disputing with the Doctors.
St. Anne received into Heaven by the Virgin.

GIORDANO, SOFIA, was born of poor parents
at Turin in 1779. She was placed under the tuition
of M. de Maron, the sister of Raphael Mengs, at
Rome, but she returned to Turin in 1801, and
married a surgeon named Giordano. Her chief
works were in miniature and pastel. She died at
Turin in 1829.

GIORDANO, STEFANO, was born at Messina,
and is known by a splendid picture of ' The Last
246



Supper,' produced in 1541, in the cloister of San
Gregorio at Messina.

GIORGETTI, GIACOMO, born at Assisi about
the year 1610, was a scholar of Giovanni Lan-
franco. He excelled in historical paintings and
frescoes, and several of his works are in the
churches of his native city, the most considerable
being the dome of the principal church. In the
sacristy of the Conventual; he painted some pictures
of the ' Life of the Virgin.'

GIORGIO, a miniature painter of the 15th
century, was a son of Alberto of Germany. In
1441 he was employed by the Marquis Leonello of
Ferrara in the preparation of breviaries and other
ecclesiastical work, which occupied him till 1462.
He left a son, who is known in art as Martino da
Mod en a.

GIORGIO, GIOVANNI, was an Italian engraver,
who was employed chiefly by the booksellers. He
resided at Padua, where he engraved the plates
for a work on antique lamps, published in 1653,
entitled ' De Lucernis Antiquoruin reconditis.'
He also .engraved a frontispiece with figures to
Vesling's 'Anatomy,' published at Padua in 1647.
There is also by him a ludicrous print, called
' The Bath of the Anabaptists,' after Raphael. He
died at the age of 77.

GIORGIO DE FLORENTIA, flourished from 1314
to 1325, and was probably a pupil of Giotto. He
is supposed to have painted at Borghetto and at
the castle of C'hambery.

GIORGIONE, Bio GEORGE, or ZORZO DA CASTEL-
FRANCO, as he is called by his contemporaries, was
born about the year 1477 or 1478, in this picturesque
old city of the Trevisan March. He was of humble
origin, being the son of a peasant of Vedeago, who
settled at Castelfranoo in 1460, and the fable of his
supposed connection with the Barbarelli family
was not invented for more than a hundred years
after his death. As a boy Giorgione came to
Venice and studied painting in the shop of Giovanni
Bellini, where he had Titian and Palma for his
companions. Like Leonardo, whom he resembled
in many ways, the young artist was noted for his
personal beauty and musical tastes. He sang and
played the lute with rare charm, and became a
welcome guest in the most distinguished circles.
" But he was none the less ardent in his studies,"
Vasari tells us, " and was so enamoured of beauty
in nature, that he only cared to draw from life, and
represent all that was fairest in the world around
him." The originality of his genius soon made
itself felt. The earliest works that we have from
his hand are the ' Trial of Moses,' and the ' Judgment
of Solomon ' in the Uffizi, probably painted when
he was seventeen or eighteen. These small panels
were evidently executed as companion pieces for
Giovanni Bellini's ' Allegory,' and, like that curious
little picture, once adorned the Medici villa at
Poggio Imperiale, but the romantic treatment of
the Bible stories, the brilliant colour and slender
grace of the forms already reveal Giorgione's strong
individuality. The same bold conception and
lyrical fancy meet us in another early work, the
' Christ bearing the Cross ' formerly at Casa Loschi
in Vicenza, now in Mr. Gardner's collection at
Boston. This Christ with the delicately-modelled
features and dreamy air is quite unlike the common
traditional representations of the subject, and haunts
us with the power of its strange and mysterious
pathos. Another version of the theme, a sadly-
injured, but deeply impressive figure of Christ



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PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



dragged along by a Jew on his way to Calvary,
which Vandyck copied in his Chatsworth Sketch-
book, may still be seen in the church of San Rocco,
where it was an object of the highest veneration
and brought more gold crowns to the confraternity,
Vasari tells us, than Giorgione or Titian earned
during their whole lifetime 1 The great altar-piece
which Giorgione painted in the first years of the
new century for the Costanzi chapel in the church
of Castelfranco, marks a new stage in his artistic
development. Here we see the Madonna raised
high above the altar, with Persian hangings
draping her throne, and the gallant soldier-saint
Liberale, with his banner in his hand, standing by
the side of St. Francis, at her feet. The whole
conception is marked by a freedom and novelty
which could only have been inspired by a genius
of the most daring type, and in spite of its damaged
state, this famous work remains a typical example
of the "modern manner" which was tirst introduced
by Giorgione. The lovely oval of the Virgin's
face and the embroidered patterns of the dossal
behind her throne are repeated in the Madrid altar-
piece, while the boldness and realism of the con-
ception is carried still further in the dimpled Babe,
and in the vigorous forms and characteristic
attitudes of the attendant saints. Venice soon
awoke to a sense of the young master of Castel-
frunco's genius, and his contemporaries hailed his
works with a sudden burst of applause. In their
enthusiasm for the wealth of his fancy and the
impassioned beauty of his creations, they felt the
old terms to be inadequate and coined a new
phrase " il fuoco G-iorgionesco." Early in his
career Giorgione attained great reputation as a
portrait painter, and Vasari, who saw his portraits
of the Doge Leonard Loredano, of Caterina Cornaro
and other noble personages, pronounces him to be
unrivalled in this kind of art. Unfortunately few
of these "admirably life-like paintings" have
come down to us. One early work a youth with
refined features and wavy locks, is in the Museum
of Berlin ; another portrait of a lady in a quaint
frilled head-dress, standing at a window, is at the
Villa Borghese, while the little Gallery of Buda-
Pesth contains the likeness of the sad-faced poet,
Antonio Brocardo, laying his hand with a speaking
gesture on his heart, and the noble figure of the
Knight of Malta clad in the gleaming armour which
Giorgione loved, is the pride of the Uffizi. To
these we may add the splendid portrait of the great
Venetian lady in the Crespi collection at Milan,
which, whether it is an original work, or as Mr.
Berenson thinks, only an old copy, evidently repre-
sents the Queen of Cyprus, Caterina Cornaro, that
illustrious lady whose villa at Asolo lay close to
Giorgione's native city, and who was one of his
first patrons. Fresco-painting was another branch
of art in which this master, we are told, took great
pleasure and attained rare excellence. He decor-
ated the house of Andrea Loredano, the Soranzo
Palazzo and his own house in the Campo di Si
Silvestro with friezes of musicians and children,
and was employed by the Signoria to adorn the
fagade of the new Fondaco dei Te'deschi, or Ex-
change of Foreign Merchants, with a colossal
figure of Justice and a stately procession of horse-
men. Unfortunately these frescoes, which were
finished in 1507, have suffered grievously from
exposure to sun and sea-air, and at the present
time have almost completely disappeared. The
admiration which they excited led the Signoria to



give the painter a commission for a large picture
which was to hang in the Audience-hall of the
Council, but this work was left unfinished if, indeed,
it was ever begun. During the last year of his
short life Giorgione devoted his attention chiefly
to those classical myths and fantasie in which the
scholars and great ladies of the day took so much
delight, and which were especially suited to his
genius. The twelve panels of the story of Psyche
and the numerous subjects from Ovid's ' Metamor-
phoses ' which Ridolfi describes, have vanished,
but among the masterpieces of his ripest art we
have the 'Sleeping Venus' which Morelli dis-
covered in the Dresden Gallery, the wonderful
storm-landscape of the Giovanelli Palazzo, in which
Professor Wickhoff recognized the poet Statius's
fable of Adrastus and Hypsipyle, the charming
panel of Apollo and Daphne in the Seminary of
Venice, and the scene from the '^Eneid,' in the
Vienna Gallery, in which Evander and Pallas meet
jEneas at the feet of the Tarpeian rock and show
him the future site of Rome. In all of these we
find the same romantic invention and love of natural
beauty, the same delight in the magical effects of
light and shade, of setting sun and passing storm-
cloud, in feathery grasses and moss-grown rocks, in
green meadows and running waters. To the same
period we may ascribe the beautiful head of the
Shepherd with his flute, perhaps the identical boy
with the curling hair which Giorgione painted for
his friend, the Patriarch Grimani, the graceful little
idyll of the Golden Age in the National Gallery,
and the lovely pastoral of the Louvre which is the
latest and most perfect expression of the master's
art. In these later works Giorgione displays a
perfection of form and beauty of line in which he
comes nearer to the Greeks than any other master
of the Renaissance, while at the same time he
reveals a sense of high romance, a note of yearning
which the Greeks never knew. This mysterious
feeling of passionate longing and infinite regret
which meets us in the eyes of Giorgione's fairest
faces and divinest forms, was prophetic of the
coming end. For his brilliant career was brought
to a premature close, and in the flower of his age
and the fulness of his powers, Giorgione died of
the plague which carried off 20,000 citizens in one
fatal year. The exact date of his death is proved
by a letter of the merchant Taddeo Albano, who,
writing to Isabella d'Este, Marchioness of Mantua,
on the 8th of November, 1510, informs her that
Zorzo da Castelfranco has lately died, "more of
exhaustion than of plague." Among the works
that remained unfinished in his shop were the
matchless 'Venus' of the Dresden Gallery, which
was completed by Giorgione's friend Titian, the
' Evander and ^Eneas ' which received the last
touches from the hand of Sebastiano del Piombo.
and the magnificent landscape of ' St. Mark stilling
the Tempest,' the most dramatic of all the master's
conceptions, which is said to have been finished
by Paris Bordone. The extraordinary popularity
which Giorgione enjoyed in his lifetime, and the
immense demand that sprung up for Giorgionesque
subjects after his death, proves how completely he
had succeeded in expressing the spirit of his age.
Idyllic scenes and Arcadian groups, piping shep-
herds and sleeping nymphs became the _ rage.
There was hardly a painter in Venice who did not
imitate his style or try to reproduce his com-
positions. Catena, Palma, Lotto, Sebastiano del
Piombo, and Bonifazio each in turn fell under the

247



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



spell. Above all, Titian caught the fire from the
dead master's lips, and followed Giorgione's style
so closely that, in Vasari's words, his pictures



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