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Bryan's dictionary of painters and engravers (Volume 2) online

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were often taken for those of the master himself.
One result of this widespread fashion was that a
countless number of inferior works were ascribed
to Giorgione's hand and passed under his name.
The more scientific spirit of modern criticism has
reduced the amount of the painter's genuine works
to a very limited number. Morelli's list includes
nineteen, that of Mr. Berenson only seventeen. On
the other hand, Mr. Herbert Cook, the painter's
latest biographer, extends the number to upwards
of forty, and accepts several others with reserve.
The following list includes the chief paintings that
are now generally recognized to be Giorgione's work:

Portrait of a Young Man.

christ bearing the Cross .

Portrait of Antonio Brocardo.
Madonna with St. Francis and S.

Sleeping Venus.
The Trial of Moses.
The Judgment of Solomon.
Portrait of a Knight of Malta.
Madonna with St. Roch and

Anthony of Padua.
Portrait of Caterina Cornaro.
Christ bearing the Cross.

Adrastus and

Berlin. Museum.
Boston,U.S A. J/rs. j

Buda-Pesth. Gallery.
Castelfranco. Duomo.

Dresden. Gallery.
Florence. Ujffizi.

Hampton Court.
Madrid. J'rado Gall.

Milan. Sic/nor Crespi.
Venice. St. Rocco.


Seminario. Apollo and Daphne.

Accademia. Storm at sea calmed by St. Mark.
Vienna. Gallery. Evauder and Pallas.
Paris. Louvre. Fete Champetre.

London. Nat. Gall. Golden Age.
Rome. Villa h'orghese. Portrait of a Lady.
St. Petersburg I Judith .

fiernutaye Gall. j

This last-named picture was formerly ascribed to
Moretto, but is now pronounced to be the work of
Giorgioneby Mr. Claude Phillips and severalGerman
critics who have seen the original. Morelli and Mr.
Berenson, however, consider it to be an old copy.
The chief authorities for the Life and Works of
Giorgione are the following :

G. Vasari. ' Le Vite de' piu eccellenti Pittori, con nuove

annotazioni di Gaetano Milanesi,' 1879.
C. Ridolfi. ' Le Maraviglie dell'arte della pittura,' 1648.
Anonimo. ' Notizia d'opere di disegno,' 1525, ed. by G.
Frizzoni, 1884, and by Dr. Williamson in English, 1903.
G. Morelli. ' Italian Painters.' Translated by C. J.
Ffoulkes, 1892.

A. Conti. 'Giorgione,' 1894.

B. Berenson. ' The Venetian Painters of the Renais-
sance.' Third edition, 1897.

Crowe and Cavalcaselle. ' History of Painting in North

Italy,' vol. ii., 1871.

G. Gronau. ' Zorzon da Castelfranco,' 1894.
F. Wickhoff. ' Gazette des Beaux- Arts,' 1893. ' Jahr-

buch der preussischen Kunstsammlungen,' 1895.
A. Venturi. ' L'Arte,' 1900.
H. Cook. 'Giorgione ' (' The Great Masters in Painting

and Sculpture '). G. Bell & Sons, 1900. J. C.

GIOTTINO, whose real name is not known with
certainty, is supposed, from late researches, to
have been Giotto di Maestro Stefano, who lived in
the 14th century, and was evidently a careful and
conscientious pupil of Giotto ; another account
has given his name as Tommaso di Stefano. There
are still in the chapel of San Silvestro in Santa
Croce, at Florence, a series of frescoes, attributed
to Giottino, illustrating 'The Miracles of St.
Sylvester.' The drawing and general composition
of these frescoes is admirable, the colouring warm


and clear, and plainly show that the maxims and
spirit of Giotto aided and animated this artist.
The frescoes in the crypt chapel of the Strozzi in
Santa Maria Novella, which represent scenes from
the life of Christ, and a ' Pieta,' formerly in
San Romeo, but now in the Uffizi Gallery, are
also to be attributed to him. All the above-men-
tioned works are of the latter half of the 14th
century. The frescoes in the chapel of the Holy
Sacrament at Assisi, representing scenes from the
life of St. Nicholas, and now much damaged by
damp and partly obliterated, are considered by
many to be by Giottino. Nothing authentic is
known concerning the birth or death of this artist.


graver, is stated to have been born in 1635,
and to have studied under Carlo Maratti. Plates
by him are known of ' The Child Jesus upon a
Cloud beside the Manger,' 'The Adoration of the
Shepherds,' after Maratti, and ' Saturn enthroned. 1

GIOVANNARIA, a monk of the Carmelite order,
born at Brescia about 1460, excelled in per-
spective. His brother, GIOVANNI ANTONIO, was
also a painter.







POGGIO, was a contemporary and occasional assistant
of Sano di Pietro ; he was already known in 1423,
and was on the roll of the Guild at Siena in 1428.
He died about 1481. The Academy at Siena
possesses a ' Last Judgment' by him, dated 1453,
and several panels of his production are in the col-
lection of M. Ramboux of Cologne. Giovanni del
Poggio has also some repute as a miniature painter.

GIOVANNI DI PIERO, who was born at Naples,
lived in the 14th century at Pisa, where he kept a
shop, and had as partner Martino Bartolommei, with
whom he painted an altar-piece for the hospital of
Santa Chiara, Pisa, in 1402, for the sum of ninety-
five golden florins. This painting represents the
' Virgin and Child enthroned between four Saints,'
with a Trinity, and SS. Mark and Luke in its
pinnacles. In 1403 and 1404 he also furnished a
canvas, and did other work in the hospital; and in
1405 he executed the ' Crucifixion ' on canvas
that is now hanging in the inner choir of the
church of San Domenico, Pisa, with his signature
and date. No dates can be given of this artist's
birth or death.

GIOVANNI DI PIETRO, who flourished in the
15th century, was an occasional assistant of Sano
di Pietro, and is of little note. In the choir of
Santa Maria dei Servi, at Siena, is a ' Virgin of
Mercy ' by him. No further details concerning
him are known.

GIOVANNI DI PIETRO, called, from his nation-
appears as his own master at Todi in 1507. His
instructors in the art seem to have been Perugino
and Pinturicchio ; he was the companion of Raphael
at Perugia, and his style shows a mixture of Peru-
ginesque and Raphaelesque, without the higher
qualities of either school. His death took place
at Spoleto between 1528 and 1530. Amongst


Alinan photu\


[Pitti Gallery, Florence


other paintings by him, the following may be
cited :

Assisi. S. Francesco. Virgin enthroned, with Saints

Berlin. Gallery. Adoration of the Magi. (For-

merly ascribed ti Raphael.)
London. National Gall. Virgin in Glory.

Stafford House. Christ crowned with Thorns.

Christ on the Mount o

Earl Dudley. Six Saints (in two frames).

St. Catharine.

Paris. Louvre. The Nativity.

The Virgin and Child.

Perugia. Gallery. Virgin and Child, with four


Petersburg. Hermitage Adoration of the Infant Christ.
Eome. Vatican. The Nativity.

Colonna Pal. St. Jerome.

Spoleto. Palaz:o > Virgin and Child, with Saints.

Comunale. j (Fresco. )

Todi. Riformati. Coronation of the Virgin. 1507.

Trevi. Uladonna delle ) Deposition from the Cross.

Lagrlme. j (Fresco.)
St. Catharine.

St. Cecilia.

Maria Giovannini, was bom at Parma in 1695, and
died at Bologna in 1758, having resided in the
latter city from 1723. It is not said by whom
he was instructed, but he was a good historical
painter. He, however, devoted himself rather to
the restoration of pictures. Several of his works
are in the public edifices at Bologna, the following
being the most esteemed : ' St. Anne teaching the
Virgin to read,' in the church of La Morte ; ' Adam
and Eve driven from Paradise,' in La Madonna del
Piombo ; and ' Christ giving the Keys to St. Peter,'
in San Giovanni in Monte. He had a sister, BIANCA
GIOVANNINI, a portrait painter, who died in 1744.

JOANNINUS,) was born at Bologna in 1667, and died
at Parma in 1717. He was a scholar of Antonio
Roli. He painted some pictures for the churches at
Bologna ; one of the most esteemed being that of
' The Magdalen worshipping the Cross,' in the
church of San Niccolo degli Alberi. He is more
known as an engraver than a painter. There are
by him several plates after the great masters, par-
ticularly after Correggio and the Carracci, of which
the following are the principal :

A set of twenty large plates ; after the paintings by
Lodovico Carracci, and others, in the cloister of San
Michele in Bosco, at Bologna.

Twelve prints from the frescoes by Correggio, in the
cupola of San Giovanni at Parma.

St. Jerome ; after Correygio.

The Virgin and Infant, with St. George ; after Correggio.

St. Sebastian ; after Lodovico Carracci.

The Communion of the Apostles ; after Marc A ntonio


a native of Vercelli, who flourished at the beginning
of the 16th century, as appears from two of his
pictures in the church of San Paolo in that city,
dated 1514 and 1516. At Vercelli, in the church
of the Augustines, there is a fine picture by him of
the ' Resurrection,' with two laterals representing
St. Margaret and St. Cecilia. Other works of his
are in the same town and in Bergamo.

GIOVENONE, GIUSEPPE, a painter of Vercelli,
appears to have flourished at the end of the 15th
century. His pictures are peculiar from the con-
trasts they exhibit. One of them, a representation
of 'Christ's Resurrection,' is in the Turin Gallery.

MACRO,) was a painter of Ferrara, who, between
1450 and 1477, painted miniatures for various
books, including a Missul, Breviary, and Psalter,
and the works of Tibullus, Appian, and Petrarch.


GIRAN, EMILE GEORGES, French painter and
lithographer; born at Montpellier in 1870; ex-
hibited at the Socidte 1 Nationale des Beaux Arts ever
since 1895 ; achieved considerable success as
a painter of popular scenes and landscapes, and
he also did good work as a lithographer, some of
his more striking posters attracting much notice.
He was a brother of the landscape painter, Max
Giran ; his death occurred, at the age of 32, at
Beauvoisin in March 1902.



GIRARD, ALEXIS FRANQOIS, a French engraver,
was born at Vincennes in 1789. He studied paint-
ing under Regnault, but later on turned his atten-
tion to engraving, in which he achieved much suc-
cess. He succeeded in uniting together in his
works the mezzotint, roulette, and Indian ink styles.
He died in Paris in 1870. The following are
among his best plates :

The Virgin with the Fish ; after Raphael.

The Virgin with the Pearl ; after the same.

Portrait of Talma; after Gerard.

Corinna ; after the same.

Louis XVIII. in his Cabinet ; after the same.

Cardinal Mazarin on his Death-bed ; after Delaroche.

Cardinal Kichelieu on the Ebone ; after the same.

The Archangel Gabriel ; after the same.

The Last Day of Pompeii ; after C. Bruloff. 1839.

Mary Stuart ; after Decaisne.

The Happy Mother ; after Prud'hon.

Dolce far niente ; after tfinterhalter.

Vintage at Naples ; after the same. 1842.

Daniel in the Lions' Den ; after Ziegler. 1839.

Bonaparte crossing the St. Bernard ; after Steuben.

Abduction of Eebecca ; after Coianet.

GIRARD, JEAN GEORGES, a French painter, born
at Epinal in 1635, was a pupil of Legrand. He
died at Nancy in 1690.

GIRARD, ROMAIN, a French engraver, was born
in Paris in 1751. He engraved after Cipriani ' The
Sacrifice of Love,' and ' Love caressing Beauty ; '
and after Greuze, ' The Broken Pitcher ; ' he also
copied ' The Death of Dido,' from Bartolozzi.

G1RARDET, ABRAHAM, an engraver and etcher,
was born at Locle, in the canton of Neufchatel, in
1764, and when but thirteen years of age engraved
466 plates to a Biblical work. He then became a
pupil of B. A. Nicolet in Paris, and in 1794 sought
further improvement in Rome. The vignettes
which he engraved for editions of Horace and La
Fontaine are his best works. He died in Paris in
1823. The best of his larger plates are :

The Transfiguration ; after Raphael. 1806.

The Triumph of Titus and Vespasian ; after Giulio

Romano. 1810.

The Eape of the Sabine Women ; after Poussin.
The Dead Saviour; after Andrea del Sarto.
The Supper ; after Philippe de Champaiyne.
The Death of Arnold Winkelried.

lithographer, was born at Locle in 1780. He
received his first instruction from his brothers
Abraham and Alexander Girardet, and completed
his studies in Paris. At first he engraved views of
Swiss scenery, but executed 'The Resurrection of
Christ.' after Le Brun, in 1804. In 1811 he



turned his attention to lithography, and in that
medium depicted the ' Biblical Narratives,' after
Hiibner; 'The Transfiguration,' after Raphael; 'The
Battles of Alexander,' after Le Brun ; and ' The
Death of Eudamidas,' after Poussin. From 1833 to
1840 he made designs for the ' Magasin Universe!.'
He died in Paris in 1863.

and engraver, was born at Neufcli&tel in 1819. He
studied art under his father, Charles Samuel Girar-
det, and with his brother Karl, and became famous
as a painter of genre subjects and landscapes.
Journeys" in Egypt and Algiers resulted in several
good pictures representing those countries and their
people. Among his most successful paintings of
Swiss peasant- life are the following :

A Sale by Auction in a village.

A Dying Peasant blessing his family.

A Young Mother dying in the snows of the Great St.


The Doctor's Visit.
The Little Apple Thieves.

Girardet, in the midst of work such as this, suddenly
gave it up in favour of engraving, and worked in
aquatint, mezzotint, and a mixed style, with as
much success as he had done in painting. The
following are his best prints :

Divicon ; after Gleyre.

The Banquet of the Girondins ; after Delaroche.

The Fainting of the Virgin ; after the same.

The Rettrrn from Golgotha; after the same.

The Virgin in contemplation before the Crown of

Thorns ; after the same.
The Cenci ; after the same.

Moliere at the table of Louis XIV. ; after GerSrnt,
The Education of a Prince ; after Zamacols.
A Spanish Wedding ; after Fortuny.
Raphael in his Studio ; after Jalaliert.
The Marriage of Henry IV. ; after Lechevalier-Chevig-


He died at Versailles in 1880.

GIRARDET, JEAN, an historical painter, was
born at Nancy in 1709. He studied first in his
native city, but more especially in Italy, and painted
for churches and palaces in oil and fresco. He
died at Nancy in 1778. Some of his work, of a
classical character, may be seen in the town-hall
of that city.

GIRARDET, KARL, a genre and landscape
painter, was born at Locle in 1810. He -was a
son of Charles Samuel Girardet, and after being
instructed under L6on Cogniet he travelled in
Switzerland, Germany, Italy, Spain, Egypt, &c.,
and from 1836 brought out landscapes and repre-
sentations of the manners of those countries. In
1842 he excited much attention by a picture of
' A secret Protestant Meeting in a cave attacked
by Troops and Monks.' He succeeded especially
with views of Swiss lakes, North Italian landscapes,
scenes from popular and military life, children's
games, and so forth. He also illustrated Ariosto,
and Thiers's Histories of the Consulate and Empire.
His death occurred in Paris in 1871.

GIRARDET, PAUL, famous French engraver,
the son and grandson of engravers of note ; born
at Neuchatel, March 8, 1821. A pupil of his father,
whose talent and fame he was soon to inherit. In
the Salon of 1842 he exhibited certain landscapes
engraved from works by his elder brother, Karl.
He subsequently published plates which have
become famous, as, for instance, his engravings of
Delaroche's 'Marie Antoinette au Tribunal reVolu-
tionnaire,' Knauss' ' EscamoteurandCinquantaine,'


Brion's 'Noce en Alsace,' Miiller's ' Appel des
Condamn^s,' and Dubufe's ' Enfant Prodigue.'
He was a chevalier of the Legion of Honour, and
in 1883 was appointed member of the Acad^mie
des Beaux Arts. Died in Paris, February 26, 1893.

Count, a French historical and landscape painter,
was born in Paris in 1767, and became a pupil of
Bidault. He exhibited at the Salon of 1822 a
'View of Ermenonville,' and various other land-
scapes at the subsequent exhibitions until 1835,
after which year there is no further record of him.


GIRAUD, ANTOINE COSME, a French engraver,
born in Paris in 1700, was a pupil of Lingde, and
executed vignettes and plates for booksellers. His
best works are two plates after Borel, the one
representing ' Two Young Women lying on a bed,'
the other ' A Young Woman bathing her feet.' He
died after the commencement of the 19th century.

GIRAUD, VICTOR, a French genre painter, born
in Paris in 1840, was a pupil of Picot and Eugene
Giraud. His best known picture, ' The Slave-
Market," was formerly in the Luxembourg Gallery;
he also painted ' The Bird-Charmer.' He died in
1871, from disease brought on by exposure on; the
fortifications of Paris during the siege.

GIRLING, EDMUND, an amateur etcher, who
flourished in the early part of the 19th century,
was a clerk in a bank at Yarmouth. He etched
after Rembrandt, Crcme, and the Dutch masters,
and his works were exhibited at the Norwich

a French historical painter and writer, was born at
Montargis in 1767. Having lost his parents when
very young, he was adopted by an army surgeon,
M. Trioson, whose name he subsequently added to
his own. After some elementary instruction from
a painter named Luquet, he entered the studio of
David in 1785. In 1787 and 1788 he unsuccessfully
competed for the ' prix de Rome,' but at length, in
1789, obtained the coveted distinction with a
picture of ' Joseph making himself known to his
brethren.' He spent some time in Rome, and there
painted the 'Endymion,' which first brought his
name into notice. The political troubles of the
time obliged him to fly to Naples, and thence to
Venice, but on his way home he fell ill at Genoa,
and was carefully tended by Gros. Once more
settled in Paris, he devoted himself assiduously to
historical painting, and he met with such success
that at the decennial competition in 1810, he was
awarded the ' grand prix ' for his ' Scene from the
Deluge,' in preference to David's 'Sabines.' In 1812
Girodet's adopted father died, and with the pro-
perty bequeathed to him he was enabled to indulge a
taste for architecture. This amateur house-building,
and his literary pursuits for he wrote a poem on
painting, and contributed freely to the art literature
of the day did not leave him much leisure during
the next few years for the production of any large
works. In fact, throughout his career, he painted
but few pictures. His time was greatly occupied
with studies and sketches, and he executed an im-
mense number of designs for the illustration of the
classic authors, notably for editions of Anacreon,
Virgil, and Racine. In his latter years Girodet
suffered much in health, and he owed much to the
attention of his friend, the great physician Larrey.
He died in Paris in 18'24, and previous to his
burial at Pere-la-Chaise, Louis XVIII. ordered the



U6tel de Ville.

cross of officer of the Legion of Honour to be
affixed to his breast Like David himself, and
most of his disciples, Girodet lacked a mastery
over colour._ His power of drawing was his forte,
and to this is due the charm of many of his works.
He is seen at his best in his less ambitious sub-
jects, such as the 'Atala' and the 'Endymion;'
whilst in such works as the ' Insurrection at Cairo '
and the ' Deluge,' he is strained, not to say thea-
trical. The following is a list of some of his
works :

Portrait of Charles Bonaparte.

The Burial of Atala. (A replica
of the Louvre picture.}

Romulus and Tatius. 1788.

Head of a Turk.

Portrait of a Man.

The Four Seasons.





Head of a young Man.

Head of a young Woman.


Hippocrates refusing the pre-
sents of Artaxerxes. 1792.

Scene from the Deluge. 1810.

The Sleep of Endymiou. 1792.

The Burial of Atala. 1808.

Head of a young Girl.

Head of a Child.

Napoleon receiving the Keys
of Vienna. 1S08.

The Insurrection at Cairo.

Portrait of Charles Bona-

Portrait of J. B. Belley.

Angers. Museum.
Avignon. Museum.
Cherbourg. Museum.
Compiegne. Palace.

Leipsic. Museum.
Le Puy. Museum.
Lyons. Museum.

Orleans. , Museum.
Paris. EcoledeMidecint

, ? Louvre.

Quimper. Museum.
Tarbes. Museum.
Versailles. Gallery





GIROUST, A. L. C., an historical and portrait
painter, born at Versailles about 1780, was a pupil
of David. He was still living in 1835.

historical painter, was born at Bussy-Saint-Georges
(Seine and Marne) in 1753. He was a pupil of
Le'picie', obtained the 'grand pris" in 1778, and
was received into the Academy in 1788 upon his
' CEdipus at Colonus.' He died at Mitry-Mory
(Seine and Marne) in 1817. He executed a great
number of works, among which were ' St. Theresa,'
in the cathedral of Boulogne-sur-Mer, ' The Tor-
tures of the Maccabees,' ' Eponine and Sabinus,'
and 'St. Godeliva.'

GIRSCHER, BERNHARD, a landscape painter,
was born at Rothenburg, near Gorlitz, in 1822.
He at first studied medicine, but in 1848 turned
his attention to art, and worked under the portrait
and landscape painter Resell at Breslau. In 1849
he proceeded to Munich, where he remained four
years, passing the summer months in walking
through the Bavarian highlands and the Tyrol.
He spent some time at Liegnitz, and then ia
1854 removed to Berlin, travelling, however, after
this in the Tyrolese and Styrian Alps. He died
in 1870. Among his best paintings are 'Moon-
light Night in the Tyrolese Highlands,' ' Water-
Mill in Silesia,' and those in which glaciers are

GIRTIN, THOMAS, water-colour painter, was born
in Southwark, Feb. 18, 1775. His family was of
French Huguenot origin, the name being Englished

from " Guertin." He was apprenticed to Edward
Dayes, and afterwards coloured prints for John
Raphael Smith. As a boy he was a close comrade
of Turner, the two sketching together Thames-
side scenes, and copying old masters at Dr.
Monro's. He exhibited at the Royal Academy
from 1794 to 1801. In the latter year he sent an
oil picture, ' Bolton Bridge,' which seems to have
disappeared ; his other exhibited works were all in
water-colour. Beginning with the topographical
drawing then so much in demand with publishers,
Girtin soon developed a powerful, free, and masterly
style which was the admiration of his contempo-
raries. His practice was founded less on his pre-
decessors in water-colour art, Sandby, Hearne, and
Dayes, than on the paintings of Canaletto, Rubens,
and Wilson. Many copies, chiefly of Canaletto,
made by him in boyhood for John Henderson, who,
like Dr. Monro, was an early patron and friend, are
now in the British Museum. Girtin drew in many
parts of England, his favourite subjects being the
ruined castles and abbeys, moorlands and moun-
tains of Yorkshire, Northumberland, and Wales.
About 1798 he painted a semicircular panorama of
the Thames from Lambeth and Westminster to the
City; and in 1802 he made a number of views of
Paris, twenty of which were etched by him in out-
line and afterwards aquatinted by other artists.
He had gone to Paris in search of health ; but the
visit failed to improve his rapidly-declining con-
dition, and he died on November 9 of the same year.
He was only twenty-seven. At the time of his
death Girtin had admittedly gone farther and
shown more original power in art than Turner, who
once said, " If Tom Girtin had lived, I should have
starved." Many of Girtin's finest works, such as the
beautiful ' White House at Chelsea,' or ' Battersea
Reach,' are in private hands ; but there are more than
a hundred of his drawings in the British Museum,

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