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including some of his best, a few in the Victoria
and Albert Museum, and some fine examples in the
Whitworth Institute, Manchester. S. W.Reynolds
engraved in mezzotint on a small scale a set of
Girtin's drawings, which was published under the
title of ' Liber Naturae ' ; and David Lucas made a
larger mezzotint from his ' Ouse Bridge, York,'
with greater sympathy and skill. Roget's ' History
of the Old Water-Colour Society ' contains a full
and careful account of Girtin's life and times.

PRINCIPAL DRAWINGS IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM.

Bridgenorth. 1802.

Cayne Waterfall, Wales.

Denbigh.

Near Beddgelert.

Knaresborough Castle.

Set of studies for the London Panorama.

Kirkstall.

Great Hall, Conway.

Durham Cathedral.

Lindisfarne Abbey. L. B.

GISBRANT, JOHN, was an English historical
painter of the 17th century. He spent many years
at Lisbon, where he painted an altar-piece for the
church of St. Mary Magdalen.

GISELAER, N. B. In the Fitzwilliam Museum
at Cambridge is a picture of the 'Interior of a Hall,'
signed N. B. Gixelaer, fecit Anno Dni. 1631.
The colouring and perspective are good, but the
figures are too large, and the animals bad.

GISMONDI, PAOLO, called PAOLO PERUQINO, was
a native of Perugia, but was educated at Rome

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A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



under Pietro da Cortona, and was received into
the Academy in that city in 1668. Some of his best
fresco works, which are historical, are those in the
church of Sant' Agnese and in the tribune of Sant'
Agata at Rome.

GIUDICI, CARLO MAHIA, a painter, sculptor, and
architect, was born at Viggiu, in the Milanese, in
1723. From his thirtieth year he studied the
great masters in Rome, and afterwards settled
down in Milan, where he in 1760 started a school,
by means of which he sought to develope a purer
style, and inculcate closer study of the antique
and of nature. He died at Milan in 1804. His
works as a sculptor were considerable ; as a painter
he executed a few frescoes in San Francesco di
Paola at Milan, and some easel pictures from both
sacred and profane history, which in the heads
recall the style of Quido Reni.

GIUQNI, FRANCESCO. See ZUGNI.

GIULIANO DI ARRIGO. See GIUOCHI.

GIUNTA PISANO. See PISANO.

GIUNTALODI, DOMENICO, (i.e. GIUNTA DI
LODO,) was a painter and architect, who was born
at Prato in 1505, and learned painting under
Niccolo Soggi, and afterwards at Rome. He died
at Guastalla in 1560. He executed several im-
portant works as an architect, and was made
engineer to Charles V. As a painter, in addition
to the portraits of some notable persons of his
time, he is known to have produced a picture of
' The Coliseum,' which was engraved by Giro-
lamo Fagivoli, and of ' An Old Man in his Drawing
Chair,' engraved by Agostino Veneziano.

GIUOCHI, GIDLIANO, called PESELLO, the son of
Arrigo di Giuocolo Giuochi, was born at Florence
in 1367. He was more of a sculptor and architect
than a painter, and in 1390 was commissioned to
design a monument to Pietro Farnese in Santa
Maria del Fiore. In 1414-16 he painted flags
for the interior of San Giovanni, and in 1419 he
unsuccessfully competed for the erection of the
cupola of Santa Maria del Fiore, but was made
Brunellesco's substitute in the following year. In
1424 occurs the only record of his name in the
Guild of St. Luke. He died in 1446 at Florence,
and was buried in the church of the Carmine.
Owing to a confusion on the part of Vasari, much
doubt exists as to the authorship of various
works attributed indiscriminately to Giuliano and
his grandson Francesco, who resided for many
years in his grandfather's atelier in the Corso
degli Adimari. In the Uffizi Gallery at Florence
is an 'Annunciation,' painted for the church of
San Giorgio sulla Costa by Giuliano, who is said
to have excelled in the representation of animals.
Both grandfather and grandson were employed
in painting ' cassoni.'

GIUSTI, ANTONIO, was born at Florence in
1624, and first studied under Cesare Dandini, but
afterwards under Mario Balassi. He painted
with equal success historical subjects, landscapes,
animals, and hunting-pieces ; and continued to
exercise his profession with unabated vigour until
he reached his eighty-first year. He died in 1705.

GIUSTI, FELICE, who was born at Pistoja, and
died at Bologna, flourished about the middle of
the 18th century. He studied under Crespi, and
painted sea-pieces and landscapes with figures.
He was surpassed by his brother, GlACOMO GIUSTI,
who also was born at Pistoja, and died at Bologna.

GIUSTI, GBEGOKIO, who was born at Pistoja in
1732, studied at Rome under Seblonca, and after-

252



wards under Battoni. In 1756 he executed several
pictures for the church of San Vitale, but he was
principally employed by the Directors of the
Kircher Museum in painting art objects.

GIUSTO DI ANDREA. See MANZINI

GIUSTO DI GIOVANNI (or GIUSTO PADOVANO).
See MENABUOI.

GIUVENONE, GIBOLAMO. See GIOVENONE.

GIXON, JUAN CARLOS Ruiz. See Ruiz GIXON.

GLADIATOR. See DE BAEN, JACOBUS.

GLAESER, GEORG, a portrait and historical
painter, was born at Altorf, near Nuremberg, in
1719. After receiving tuition from his own friends
he underwent a ten years' apprenticeship, and was
then appointed court painter to the Margrave
Friedrich at Baireuth, who sent him first to
Vienna, where he twice obtained the prize, and
then to Italy, from whence he only returned after
seven years, and died at Baireuth in 1748. The
following paintings by him are in the gallery of the
Landauer Briiderhaus at Nuremberg:

Lucretia stabbing herself.

Cleopatra applying the Asp to her Breast.

Alexander on entering India received by the High Priest.

The Baptism of Christ.

Portrait of a Rabbi. 1735.

GLANTSCHNIGG, ULRICH, was born at Hall,
in the valley of the Inn, in 1661, and after studying
at Venice, settled in 1686 at Botzen, where he died
in 1722. He chiefly painted altar-pieces, but also
genre scenes. The following are among his works :

Botzen. Franciscan Ch. St. Francis receiving the Stig-
mata. 1712. (Restored by Siei
in 1856.)

Pariah Ch. The Three Wise Men from the

East.

Briieu. Chapter ffovse. The Marriage at Cana.

His son and pupil, JOSEPH ANTON GLANTSCHNIOG,
who was born at Botzen in 1695, and died there
in 1750, but who lived chiefly at Wiirzburg, was
a painter of historical, genre, and landscape
subjects.

GLASER, HANS, a wood-engraver and card-
painter, lived at Nuremberg about the middle of
the 16th century. His works, which are very rare
and have chiefly an historical interest, are for the
most part views of old castles and fortresses ; one
of them represents 'An Owl surrounded by other
Birds.'

GLASER, JOHANN HEINRICH, was a Swiss
wood-engraver, who flourished at Basle about
1630.

GLASS, JAMES \V., an American artist, born
about 1825. He was in his early days a pupil of
Huntingdon, but travelled to London in 1847, and
studied there for many years. It was there that
he painted his equestrian portrait of the Duke of
Wellington, which attracted some attention and
was purchased by Lord Ellesmere, but a replica of
it was commissioned at once by Queen Victoria,
and the picture was engraved by Faed, and was
deservedly popular. Glass excelled in drawing
and painting horses. Some of his best-known
works are the ' Battle of Naseby,' ' Edge Hill,'
' The Royal Standard,' ' Puritan and Cavalier,' and
' Free Companions.' It may be noted as a curious
fact, that although greatly attached to his native
land, there are not any of the works of Glass which
represent scenes in America, nor are his historical
pictures derived from the history of the United
States, but always from that of England. He re-



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



turned to America in 1856 and died in the following
year. The best of his works are in English
Galleries.

GLASS, JOHANN KILIAN, (not KLASS, as given
by Nagler,) was born at Dornsied in the province
of Hanau in 1701, and afterwards settled down at
Frankfort-on-the-Main. He worked variously at
the painting of portraits, house facades, ornaments,
snuff-boxes, &c. He was much employed by Oppen-
heimer, the Finance Minister of Wiirtemberg, and
at Lausanne (in 1742) for the Margrave of Baden
and some English noblemen. He afterwards went
to Paris, where he was lost sight of.

GLAUBER, DIANA, the sister of Johannes and
Jan Godlieb Glauber, was born at Utrecht in 1650,
and was instructed in design by her elder brother.
She painted historical subjects and portraits, in
which she distinguished herself at Hamburg,
where she chiefly resided. In the latter part of her
life she became blind.

GLAUBER, JAN GODLIEB, called MYRTILL, the
younger brother and scholar of Johan Glauber, was
born at Utrecht in 1656. At the age of fifteen he ac-
companied Johannes Glauber in his journey through
France to Italy. Whilst at Paris, he studied under
Jacob Knyf, who was in some repute as a painter
of architectural views and seaports. After this he
rejoined his brother at Lyons, and went with him
to Rome, where he studied two years. In 1684 he
went to Hamburg, and met with great encourage-
ment, but was afterwards invited to the court of
Vienna, where he passed a great part of his life.
Jan Godlieb Glauber painted landscapes in the style
of his brother, hence his nickname, though with
a less masterly handling; but he excelled in sea-
ports, which he embellished with small figures, cor-
rectly drawn and neatly touched. He died at
Breslau in 1703. Some good landscapes by him
are in the Augsburg, Munich, Pommersfelden, and
Vienna Galleries. In the Glasgow Gallery is a
picture of ' The Snake in the Grass.'

GLAUBER, JOHANNES, surnamed POLYDOR, was
the son of German parents, but was born at Utrecht
in 1646. He studied for some time under Nicolaas
Berchem, but havingseen someltalian landscapes he
was seized with a desire to go to Italy, and in 1671
left Holland upon a journey to Rome, travelling
through France in company with his brother and
sister and the brothers Van Dooren. He remained
a year at Paris and two at Lyons, studying under
various masters. Arriving at length in Rome he
received the name of 'Polydor,' upon joining the
Artists' Guild. He passed two years in that city,
sketching the most remarkable scenery in the
vicinity ; and afterwards visited Padua, Venice,
Hamburg, and Copenhagen. On his return to
Holland in 1684, he settled at Amsterdam ; and
formed an intimacy with Gerard de Lairesse, who
was then in the height of his reputation, and
joined him in his studio. The landscapes of
Glauber, decorated with the classic figures of the
' Poussin of Holland,' obtained such reputation,
that it was with difficulty they could execute the
commissions which they received. It was at this
time that Glauber painted the fine landscapes in
the chateau of Soestdijk, for the Prince of Orange,
in which the figures are painted by De Lairesse.
He died at Schoonhoveu in 1726. His works
exhibit nothing of the taste of his country, his
forms and scenery being entirely ItaHan. Among
his principal pictures are the following :
Amsterdam. Jfueeum. Diana at the Bath.



Amsterdam. Museum. Mercury carrying off lo.

Berlin. Gallery. Italian Landscape.

Brunswick. Afttseum. Five Landscapes.

Oassel. Gallery. Landscape.

Copenhagen. Gallery. Landscapes.

Dresden. Gallery. Idyllic Landscape.

Hague. Gallery. Departure of Adonis for the

chase.

Madrid. Gallery, Four Landscapes.

Munich. Gallery. Two Landscapes.

Paris. Louvre. Landscape.

Petersburg. Hermitage. Mountain Landscape.

There are by him several etchings, executed in a
slight, spirited style, some of them after his own
designs, and others after Berchem and Gaspard
Poussin. He also etched some plates from the
designs of Gerard de Lairesse. The following are
his principal prints :

Various Landscapes and Cattle ; after Berchem.

Two Landscapes ; after Gaspard Poussin.

A set of six oblong Landscapes ; from his own designs.

A set of six upright Landscapes ; from the same.

A set of circular plates of allegorical subjects, from the
histories of the four great Monarchies of Assyria,
Persia, Greece, and Rome ; after lie Lairesse.

GLAUCION, a painter of Corinth, is only known
through being recorded by Pliny as the instructor
of Athenion.

GLEDITSCH, PAUL, an engraver and etcher,
was born at Vienna in 1794. He was instructed by
J. F. Leybold, and in 1819 obtained the first prize,
whilst in 1848 the King of Prussia awarded him
a gold medal for his plate of ' St. Catharine,' after
Carlo Dolci. He died at Vienna in 1872. Other
engravings by him are :

Mary observing the sleeping Child ; after Guido Reni.
Madonna and Child, with St. Jerome ; after Raphael.
Madonna and Child, with the Magdalen and St.

Catharine ; after Peruaino.
Madonna Velata ; after Sasso Ferrato.
Cupid the Bow-Cutter ; after Parmiyiano.
Portrait of the Emperor Joseph I. ; after Pompeo Bottom.

GLEICHAUF, RUDOLF, German historical
painter ; born at Hufingen in Baden, June 29,
1826. Completed several important mural paint-
ings ; and was prominently associated with Moritz
von Schwind in decorating the Treppenhaus of the
Art Gallery at Carlsruhe. It was in this town that
he died on October 18, 1890.

GLEN, JAN DE. See DE GLEN.

GLEYRE, MARC CHARLES GABRIEL, an historical
painter belonging to the French School, but Swiss
by birth, was born at Chevilly, a small village
near La Sarraz, in the Canton of Vaud, in 1806. His
father, who was a farmer, encouraged his son's
predilection for art. He first studied at Lyons, but
in 1824 he migrated to Paris, and became a pupil
of Hersent. This master did not exercise any
marked influence on him, and he owed more to hia
study of the old masters in Italy, where he went in
1828. He stayed chiefly at Padua, Florence, and
Rome, and whilst in the latter city, he sent some
water-colour portraits to the Salon of 1833 his first
appearance at the annual exhibition. He then made
a long tour in the Levant, visiting Egypt, Greece,
and Asia Minor. The fruits of Ms travels were
seen in two decorative works, a ' Nubian Girl,' and
'Diana,' typifying Egypt and Greece, which he
painted in 1838 for M. Lenoir of Paris. Two years
later he made his debut at the Salon with an im-
portant picture called 'St. John inspired by the
Apocalyptic Vision.' Soon afterwards he suffered
from a dangerous attack of ophthalmia, which at
one time threatened him with loss of sight. On his

253



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



recovery, he painted the well-known ' Evening,'
which established his position, and henceforth the
history of his life is almost contained in the list of
the works he executed. It should be mentioned that
from some cause not clearly ascertained, he did not
exhibit his pictures at the Salon after the year
1849. Paul Delaroche had a high appreciation of
Gleyre's art, and on giving up his atelier, recom-
mended his pupils to him. Amongst those who
passed through his studio were the English painters,
Poynter, Marks, and Calderon. Gleyre died on the
4th May, 1874, from the rupture of a blood-vessel
while visiting the exhibition at Paris on behalf of
the expatriated inhabitants of Alsace. The chief
characteristics of his works are the softness and
poetic feeling with which they are imbued, although
in some of his productions, as the ' Pentheus ' and
the 'Battle of Leman,' he exhibits considerable
strength and vigour. The following are some of
his principal pictures :

St. John in the Island of Patmos. 1840.

Evening, or Lost Illusions. 1843.

The Departure of the Apostles. 1845.

Dance of Bacchantes. 1849.

The Pentecost. 1851. (St. Marguerite, Paris.')

Execution of Major Duval. 1852. (Lausanne Museum.)

Battle of Lemau. (Lausanne Museum.)

Venus on a Goat.

Hercules at the feet of Omphale. 1863.

Pentheus pursued by the Maeuades. (Basle Museum.)

The Charmer. (asle Museum.)

The Bath. 1868.

Joan of Arc in the Forest.

The Deluge.

Kuth and Boaz.

Minerva and the Graces.

Portrait of General Jomini. \ (Lausanne Museum.)

M. W. Haldimand. ) v

Thomas Carlyle. O.J.D.

GLIEMANN, PHILIPP ALBERT, a German portrait
painter, was born at Wolfenbiittel in 1822. He had
from his youth to struggle for his subsistence, so
that it was not until 1844 that he was able to re-
sort to the Dresden Academy for instruction. After
this he entered Julius Hiibner's atelier, and then,
with the exception of brief trips to Paris and
Antwerp, he remained settled in Dresden, where he
died in 1872. There is a ' Head of a bearded Jew '
by him in the Dresden Gallery.

GLINK, FRANZ XAVIER, a German historical
painter, was born at Burgau in 1795. He was the
son of a carpenter, and learned his father's trade ;
he went with his parents in 1809 to Munich, where
his talent for art induced him to attend the
Academy. In 1824 he went to Italy, and upon his
return painted the altar-piece for the chapel of the
Military Hospital at Munich as a token of gratitude
for his travelling allowance. He painted several
church pictures, amongst them some for the Frauen-
kirche. He died at Munich in 1873. His finest
pictures are :

The Flight into Egypt.
The Virgin's Visit to Elizabeth.
The Virgin and Child.
Christ in Gethsemane.
Christ in Glory.

GLINZER, KARL, (or GLINTZER,) an historical
and landscape painter, was born at Breitenau, near
Cassel, in 1802. He was first instructed by J.
Krausskopf, a pupil of David, next passed two years
at the Munich Academy, and in 1825 made a brief
stay with Schadowat Dusseldorf ; he then proceeded
by way of Belgium to Paris, where he entered the
atelier of Baron Gros. In 1833 he made a journey to

254



Rome and Naples, which had much influence on the
character of his subsequent productions. Later in
life he partially abandoned the practice of art in
order to pursue the theoretical department, and in
1865 he published a treatise entitled 'Art and
School.' On the reopening of the Cassel Gal-
lery, however, he furnished chalk drawings from
Rembrandt, of the size of the originals, for the
publication of the Rembrandt Album. He died at
Cassel in 1878. Among his paintings, in addition
to numerous portraits, are the following :

Joseph's bloody Coat. 1838.

Susannah.

The Good Samaritan.

The Slave Dealer. 1840.

Pan and Syrinx. 1852.

GLOCKENDON, ALBERT, (or GLOCKENTON,) the
elder, a German engraver and miniature painter,
was born at Nuremberg about the year 1432. He
was educated in the school of the elder Rogier van
der Weyde, and was working at Wurzburg in
1481-85. His plates are wrought entirely with the
graver, in a neat but stiff style ; and he appears
to have imitated the manner of Martin Schon-
gauer, some of whose plates he copied. He
usually marked his prints with his initials ID

Gothic letters, thus : J7C f* The following plates
are by him : c^^XO

Twelve plates of the Passion of Christ ; after Martin

Schonyauer.
Ten plates of the Wise and Foolish Virgins ; after the

same.

Christ bearing His Cross ; after the same.
The Death of the Virgin ; after the same.
The Virgin and Infant seated on an altar.

GLOCKENDON, ALBERT, the younger, a glass
painter, illuminator, and wood-engraver, lived at
Nuremberg, where he is known to have been work-
ing from 1531 to 1543. He is probably identical
with an Albert Glockendon of whom Neudorffer
speaks as a brother of Nikolaus, and as a diligent
illuminator and " half a poet." The Berlin Library
possesses a Calendar, dated 1526, under this latter
name, adorned with cuts and verses to each month.
By the former (if they are really to be regarded as
two distinct men) are a fine engraving of ' Two
Honourable Women' (1531), and thirty-two plates
of Tarious Saints.

GLOCKENDON, GEORG, the elder, a wood-
engraver and illuminator of Nuremberg, was
working as early as 1480, and died in 1520. Two
of his plates are, ' Mary surrounded by five holy
Women,' and 'The Ascension of Christ' (1520).

GLOCKENDON, GEORG, the younger, who was
born at Nuremberg in the year 1492, executed
miniatures in the manner of Albrecht Diirer. He
was also an engraver on wood. He died in 1553.

GLOCKENDON, NIKOLAUS, of Nuremberg, the
son of Georg Glockendon the younger, studied
under his father, and became a miniaturist of great
merit. His works display much feeling and senti-
ment in addition to great technical knowledge ;
they are, however, often incorrect in drawing. In
the Royal Library at Aschatfenberg there is a
Missal, painted by Glockendon for Albrecht of
Brandenburg, Archbishop of Mayence, for which
he received 500 gulden. It contains twelve illu-
minated borders to a calendar, with pictures repre-
senting the twelve months, and numerous miniatures
after Schongauer, Albrecht Diirer, and Cranach.
On the last page of the missal is written the
following inscription, "Ich Niklas Glokendon zu



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Nurenberg hab disses Bhuch illuminiert und vollent
ira jahr 1524." The Aschaft'enberg Library contains
also a prayer-book with designs by Glockendon.
This artist died in 1560 ; the date of his birth has
not been recorded. He had twelve sons, all of
whom he brought up to his own profession.

GLOVACHEVSKY, KIBIL, a Russian painter,
born at Korop in 1735, studied at Kiew, but after-
wards went to St. Petersburg, where he became a
Professor of the Academy of Fine Arts, and died
in 1823.

GLOVER, GEORGE, an engraver, was born about
the year 1618. He worked chiefly for the book-
sellers, and engraved several portraits of persons
distinguished in English history. They are exe-
cuted in a bold, open style, though without much
taste. He also engraved some frontispieces and
emblematicar subjects ; but his portraits are his
best works. The following are by him :

James I.

Charles I.

Henrietta Maria, Queen of Charles I.

Mary, Daughter of Charles I.

Charles IL

Catharine, Queen of Charles II.

Janies II.

Mary Beatrice, Queen of James II.

Oliver Cromwell.

Francis Russell, Earl of Bedford.

William Russell, Duke of Bedford.

Algernon Percy, Earl of Northumberland.

Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex.

Henry Rich, Earl of Holland.

Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford.

James Ussher, Archbishop of Armagh.

Sir Thomas Urquhart.

Sir Edward Dering. 1640.

Sir James Campbell.

Sir Henry Oxemli'n of Barbara.

Sir Anthony van Dyck.

John Pym, M.P. for Tavistock.

John Fox, the Martyrologist.

Lewis Roberts, merchant. 1637.

John Goodwin, presbyter. 1642.

William Banff. 1643.

John Lilburne. 1641.

Henry Burton, Rector of St. Matthew's, Friday Street.

1648.
Natt. Witt, an idiot.

GLOVER, JOHN, a landscape painter in water-
colours, was born at Honghton-on-the-Hill, Leicester-
shire, in 1767. He received no instruction in art,
and in 1786 became writing-master at Appleby Free
School. He, however, employed all his spare time
in drawing, and in 1794 removed to Lichfield,
where he devoted himself to practising and teach-
ing art. In 1805 he came to London, and joined
the newly-formed Water-Colour Society, of which
he was President in 1815. He resigned his
membership in 1818, and having been an unsuccess-
ful candidate for Academy honours, be, in 1824,
assisted in founding the Society of British Artists,
where he exhibited till 1830. In the following
year he emigrated to Australia, occasionally sending
home works until his death in 1849 at Launceston,
Tasmania. Glover's art was fashionable, and his
works commanded high prices during his lifetime.
He occasionally painted in oils, but his fame rests
on his work in water-colours. Amongst his best
drawings are :

Durham Cathedral. (Earl of Durham.")

Loch Lomond.

Tivoli. (South Kensington Museum.}

Windsor Castle. (The same.)

Landscape: Windsor Castle in the distance. (Tlie same.)

River Scene. (The same.)



Matlock Bath Mist clearing off

Chepstow Castle.

Landscape near CivitA Vecchia.

El ter Water.

Wingfield Manor, Antrim.

GLUME, JOHANN GOTTLIEB, who was born at
Berlin in 1711, and died in 1798, was a pupil of
Pesne and Harper. He painted historical and
genre subjects and landscapes, and also etched
several portraits. &c.

GMELIN, WILHELM FRIEDRICH, an engraver,
was born at Badenweiler in 1745, and studied under
Christian von Mechel in Basle. He went to Rome
in 1788, and died there in 1821. His engravings
after Claude Lorrain and Poussin are of a high
order of merit. His best plates are:

The Temple of Venus ; after Claude Lorrain.

The Mill ; after the same.

Landscape with the Flight into Egypt ; after the same.

Acis and Galatea ; after the same.

The Waterfalls of Tivoli ; two plates.

The Villa of Maecenas at Tivoli ; two plates.



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