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plate.
The Golden Age ; from the print engraved by If. lie

Bruyn ; after A . Bloemaert.

JOHANNES ISRAEL DE BRT, of whom mention is
made in the two preceding articles, is recorded as
having died in 1611.

DEBUCOURT, PHILIBERT Louis. See BUCOURT.

DE' BUONI. See DEI BDOSI.

DE BUYTENWEG, WILLEM, (or BUTTEWECH,)
a Dutch painter and engraver, was born at Rotter-
dam about the year 1600, but lived at Haarlem,
and was instructed by H. Maartensz. He painted
conversation-pieces and landscapes in a style
which gained him much reputation. Houbraken
designates him ' Geestige Willem' (William the
Gay), and under this appellation he is to be found
in the collection of Catalogues of Pictures by Hoet
and Terwesten, as a painter of conversations and
familiar scenes. He died in 1640. Some of his
pictures have been engraved by G. H. Scheyndel
and E. van de Velde. His principal work, as a
painter, was 'The Triumph of William, Prince
of Orange,' 1623, engraved by C. Kittenstein. He
etched some plates from his own designs, in a
pleasing style, among which are the following :

Two of Women going to Market, one with Vegetables,

the other with Fowls.
Seven of Dresses of Noblemen.
Six of Dresses of Ladies.
Ten of Landscapes, with Ruins and Figures.

DE BYE, JACOB, (or DE BIE,) a Flemish en-
graver, was born in 1581 at Antwerp, where he
followed the profession of a picture-dealer and
antiquary. From the style of his plates, it is not
improbable that he learned the art of engraving in
the school of the Collaerts. He worked wholly
with the graver ; his execution is neat and firm,
and his drawing tolerably correct. In conjunction
with the Collaerts, he engraved some of the set
of fifty plates of the ' Life, Passion, and Resur-
rection of Christ,' after the designs of Martin De
Vos. Several of the plates in the ' Life of the
Virgin,' from the designs of the same painter, were
executed by this artist, together with Philip and
Theodoor Galle. He died in Paris about 1650.
The following are his principal prints :

The Medals of the Roman Emperors, in the collection
of the Duke d'Arschot. 1617.

The Portraits of the Kings of France, for Mezeray's
History ; fifty-eight plates.

The Descendants of the House of De Croy ; about sixty
plates.

Portrait of Francis I. ; after M. De Yos.

Christ healing Peter's Wife's Mother ; fine ; for Col-
laert's set.

The Resurrection of Lazarus ; fine ; for the same set.

DE BYE, MARCUS, (or DE BIE,) a Dutch painter
and engraver, was born at the Hague in 1612. He
was instructed in painting by J. van der_Does, and
produced some landscapes, with animals, in the style

22



of that master, which are not without merit ; but
he is chiefly deserving of notice for the excellent
etchings he has left us of animals, after the designs
of Paulus Potter and Markus Gerard. He died in
1670. We have by him :

The fat Spitzhund.

The Mule-driver.

Three sets, of eight each, of Cows and Oxen ; after Potter.

A set of sixteen of Sheep ; after the same.

A Bet of sixteen of Goats ; after the same.

A set of sixteen of Lions, Leopards, Wolves, Bears, &c. ;

after the same.
A set of sixteen of the Natural History of the Bear ;

after Markus Gerard. 1664.

DECAGNY, VIRGINIE POLYXENE AUGUSTINE
PHILIPPE. See DALLEMAGNE.

DE CAISNE, HENRI, a Belgian historical and
portrait painter, was born at Brussels in 1799.
As early as 1814 he began to study painting under
Francois, and in 1818 upon the advice of David he
went to Paris and entered the studio of Girodet,
whence he removed to that of Gros. Several
pictures by him are at Versailles ; among them are
the 'Entry of Charles VII. into Rouen' (1838),
and the ' Institution of the Order of St. John of
Jerusalem' (1842). In 1839 he completed his
colossal work, ' Les Beiges Illustres.' He died in
Paris in 1852. Among his best works are :

PORTRAITS.

The Queen of the Belgians. 1835.

The Duke of Orleans. 1833.

The Princess Clementina of Orleans. 1833.

Madame Malibran as Desdemona. 1831.

Victor Schoelcher. 1833.

Alphonse de Lamartine. 1839.

HISTORICAL AND OTHER SUBJECTS.

An Indian Family in Exile. 1824.

Milton dictating Paradise Lost ' to his Daughter. 1827.

Charles I. taking leave of his Children. 1827.

Cromwell and his Daughter. 1829.

Mater Dolorosa. 1835.

Hagar in the Desert. 1836.

The Guardian Angel. 1836. (Hi$ lest work.)

Charity. 1839.

The Adoration of the Shepherds. 1841.

DECAMPS, ALEXANDRE GABRIEL, a French his-
torical, landscape, animal, and genre painter, was
born in Paris in 1803. When a child, he was sent
into a retired part of Picardy, and for three years
ran wild in the society of peasants. He thus acquired
a distaste for serious study, which subsequently
proved a great hindrance to his artistic develop-
ment, and he contracted an aversion to discipline
and to the ordinary habits of polite society. He
subsequently studied desultorily in the studios of
Bouchot. Abel de Pujol. David, and Ingres, and
about this period produced many small genre
works, pictures of dogs, horses, cattle, &c. To a
man of his disposition, travel had a great charm,
and he spent some years in the south of France, in
Switzerland, in Italy, and in the Levant. It was
in the East that he found the subjects most suited
to his genius, and his oriental pictures were the
first of a class in which there have been many
followers. Decamps' constant aim, however, was
to obtain fame by historical painting. In 1834 he
produced a ' Defeat of the Cimbri by Marius,' and
in 1845 a series of designs illustrating the life of
Samson. But he met with no encouragement, and
he complained bitterly of his disappointment.
He was awarded medals at the Salon in 1831
and again in 1834; but his works were subse-



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PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



quently seldom exhibited, and they were generally
gold without appearing in public. He died in
1860, through a fall from his horse while hunting
at Fontainebleau. Decamps was a thorough
member of the Romantic school. His rebellion
against systematic training in his youth precluded
him from obtaining success in historic art. The
representation of wild scenery and objects was his
forte, and in this he was aided in a marked degree
by his great mastery of light and shade. Amongst
his chief works are :

Solflier of the Vizier's Guard. 1827. (Hertford House.)
Turkish Patrol, Smyrna. 1831. (Hertford House.)
Turkish Children near a fountain. 1833. (Duke

d'Aumale.)

Bertrand and Raton. (Ihike d'Aumale.)
The Finding of Moses. 1837.
Joseph sold by his Brethren. 1839.
Turkish Execution. 1839. (Hertford House.)
Children with Turtles. 1839.
Village Street in the Papal States. 1839.
Joshua commanding the Sun.
The Guardians of the Sepulchre.

The Miraculous Draught of Fishes. (Hertford House.)
Turkish School. 1 1( ,, fi /p-j.

The Shepherd's Return. I 1 . 846 ! g

Souvenir of Turkey in Asia, f Amsterdam.)
The Little Pastry-Cooks.
Avenue in a Park. (Marseilles Museum.)
Eliezer and Rebecca. 1851.
Towing-Horses. 1842. (Louvre, Paris.)
The Caravan, a sketch. (Louvre, Paris.)
Huntsman and Dogs at fault. (Fodor Museum, Amster-
dam.) O.J.D.

DE CAUWER, EMIL, was a painter of archi-
tectural subjects, born at Ghent in 1828. He was
a pupil of his father, Joseph De Cauwer. His
pictures are characterized by truth and very care-
ful execution, but they are lacking in artistic effect.
Amongst them may be noted the ' Church of St.
Martin at Oudenarde,' the 'Town Hall at Oude-
narde,' and the ' New Synagogue at Berlin.' He
died at Berlin in 1873.

DE CAUWER, JOSEPH, a Belgian painter, was
born at Beveren-Waes in 1779. He studied at the
Academies of Antwerp and Ghent, at the latter of
which he became eventually a professor. He
painted portraits and historical subjects, and many
of his pupils rose to eminence. His ' Prometheus,'
dated 1832, is in the gallery at Ghent, his ' Death of
Our Lord,' in the church of St. Bavon, and a
' Descent from the Cross,' in that of St. Nicolas.
He died at Ghent in 1854.

DE CAYLUS, ANNE CLAUDE PHILIPPE, COMTE,
(DE TUBIERES, DE GRIMOAED, DE PESTELS, DE LEVI,)
engraver, painter, writer, and collector. He was
born October 31, 1692. His mother was the cele-
brated beauty, the Marquise de Caylus, cousin of
Madame de Miiintenon. When a mere lad he was
thrown into contact with artists, and learned to
appreciate matters of art. His life-long intimacy
with Watteau began in 1711, at M. De Crozat's.
He was sent on foreign service, and was present
at the siege of Freiburg in 1713. In 1714 he was
in Rome. The following year he journeyed to the
East, and did not return to Paris till 1717. His
travels gave him the opportunity for studying the
treasures of art in the great galleries and churches.
He became an enthusiastic collector of antiquities,
medals, curios of all kinds, and drawings. The
latter he copied with great care, and was speedily
distinguished as a draughtsman. He turned his
attention next to engraving, and gained great
facility and success in that art. Mariette speaks



of his "vivacity of manner." He had, as was
usual among the protectors of artists, his little
coterie of good fellows, including Bouchardon,
Duclos, Fagan, Colle, C. Coypel, and Watteau. He
was elected Honorary Councillor-Amateur at the
Academy on November 24, 1731. In 1732 he was
at Florence with Gaburri, who spoke in the very
highest terms of him and of his skill. He exercised
a great influence upon the art of his time by his
talent, his example, and his personality. His en-
gravings are marked by truthfulness of design and
fineness in the earlier stages of work. His coloured
drawings and oil paintings were careful copies, or
adaptations, of the work of the painters of the
Fetes Galantes. He had also great admiration for
the style of Bouchardon. As a writer, in addition
to the biography of Watteau (1748), he wrote the
lives of C. Coypel, Mignard, Le Moyne, and other
painters (1715-1757), and of Bouchardon (1762).
He died in Paris September 5, 1765. Among his
engravings were the following :

More than two hundred plates ; after the best pictures

in the Royal Galleries.
Collection of Heads ; after drawings by Rubens and

Van Dyck, in the Crozat Gallery.
Suite of Heads ; after drawings by Leonardo da Vinci,

in M. Mariette's Cabinet.

Six plates, History of Joseph ; after Rembrandt.
Several plates, Life of Christ ; after Raphael.
Twenty-four plates; after ' Caricatures ' by C. Gillot.
Love the Teacher, and Goddess in Clouds ; after C.

Coypel.
Venus wounded by Love, Venus and Cupid, Acis and

Galatea, Le Medecin, and others ; after Watteau.

(Sixty-eight plates.)
Fifty-eight plates ; after Boucher.
Venus restraining Cupid, Five Senses, Fetes Galantes,

and others ; after Bouchardon.
Plates after Baccio Bandinelli, Guercino, Titian, the

three Carracci, Zuccari, J. Cesari, Lafage, and others.

More than three hundred heads from antique gems,

and many reproductions of coloured drawings,

ancient and modern, in the Royal Galleries.
(Many examples are in the Louvre.)

DECKER, C., was a German engraver, who,
about the middle of the 17th century, went from
Nuremberg to Amsterdam, and there learned the art
from Romeyn De Hooghe. He appears to have been
much employed by the booksellers, and his plates
are often executed in a coarse, harsh style. They
are principally executed from his own designs ;
and among his best are those engraved for Kircher's
1 Turris Babel,' published at Amsterdam in 1679.
He marked his plates with his name or with the

cipher (F} .

DECKER, I. DE. See DE DECKER.

DECKER, JOHANN STEPHAN, a French painter,
was born at Colmar in 1784. At the age of twenty
he went to Paris, where he studied under David
and Krapf, but at the end of seven years he
returned to his native city. In 1821 he settled at
Vienna, and was much employed at the court in
teaching drawing and in the execution of miniatures
and water-colour paintings. He died at Vienna
in 1844.

DECKER, PAUL, an architect and engraver, who
was born at Nuremberg in 1677, designed and
engraved for Andreas Schluter in Berlin, and was
by him instructed in architecture. He died in
1713. His son, PAUL DECKER, excelled in painting
history and portraits, and was for three years
director of the Academy at Nuremberg. He died

23



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



DE CLE, CORNELIS, a Flemish historical painter,
who was a native of Antwerp, was received into
the guild of St. Luke in that city in 1660-1661.
In 1690 he painted for the 'Sodalite des Hommes
mane's,' a picture representing the 'Mount of
Olives,' as well as the figures of Christ and Pilate.
He died in 1724.

DE CLERCK, HENDRIK. who was born at
Brussels about 1570, was a pupil of Marten De
Vos, and imitated that master. He painted his-
torical subjects, of which there are several in the
churches of the Netherlands ; but his small pictures,
in which he may be compared to Kottenhammer
and Van Balen, are more esteemed. He died about
1629. Among his best works are:

Brussels. Museum. Holy Family (triptych).

,, Christ calling little Children to

Him.

St. James. Crucifixion.
Notre-Dame. Holy Family.
Resurrection.

Vienna. Gallery. Cephalus and Procris (in o

forest Landscape by Alsloot).
1608.

DE COCK, FBANS, a Flemish ecclesiastic, was
born at Antwerp in 1643. His love for art led him
to visit Rome, and after his return to Antwerp in
1662, all his leisure time was devoted to drawing
and painting. Although but an amateur, his por-
traits were very successful. He died in 1709.

DE COCK, JAN GLAUS, a Flemish engraver,
flourished about the year 1660. His name is affixed
to an etching representing the ' Martyrdom of a
Saint.' It is executed in a bold masterly style,
and appears to be the production of a painter.

DE COCKQ, PAUL JOSEPH, a Flemish historical
painter, was born at Bruges in 1724. He was a
pupil of Matthias De Visch, and became Director
of the Academy at Bruges in 1775. He died in
his native city in 1801. The following works by
him are in the Bruges Academy :

The Holy Trinity.

Apollo crowning Poetry and Music.

Landscape with old Monuments ; after Canaletto.

DE COENE, JEAN HENRI, a Belgian painter of
genre and historical subjects, was born at Neder-
brakel in 1798. He was a pupil of David and of
Paelinck, and became professor in the Brussels
Academy. He died in that city in 1866. His
picture of the ' Incredulity of St. Thomas ' gained
him the prize in 1827.

DE CONINCK (or CONINGH). See DE KONINCK.

DE' CONTI, BERNARDINO. See DEI CONTI.

DE CORT, HENDRIK, a Flemish landscape painter,
was born in 1742 at Antwerp, where he studied.
He settled in England, and, from 1790, exhibited
many works at the Royal Academy. He died in
London in 1810. His landscapes, previous to his
settling in England, were embellished with figures
and animals painted by Ommeganck and P. van
Regemorter. They are much in the Italian taste,
with views of cities and ancient ruins, pleasingly
coloured and neatly finished. In the Belvedere at
Vienna there is by him a ' View of the old Castle
of Temsch on the Scheldt at Antwerp ' (1774).

DE COSTER, ADAM, was a native of Antwerp,
and is supposed to have been a disciple of Theodoor
Rombouts. He painted historical subjects and por-
traits with considerable skill ; but he particularly
excelled in depicting gallant assemblies and festi-
vals, which are ingeniously composed, and coloured

24



with great force and vigour. We have a fine print
of a ' Concert,' engraved by L. Vorsterman, after a
painting by this artist.

DE COSTER, DOMINICUS, the son of the painter
and poet Pieter Balten, was born at Antwerp in
1560. At an early period of his life he settled at
Augsburg, where he assumed the name of De
Coster or Gustos, and formed a considerable estab-
lishment as a print-seller. He died in that city in
1612. He engraved several plates in a neat but
somewhat formal style. Among them are :

A set of the effigies of the German Emperors. 1601.
Fourteen Plates, entitled ' Effigies piorum ac doctorum

aliquot virorum.' 1594.
Twenty-eight Plates, entitled ' Tirolensium principum

comitum genuine Icones.' 1599.
Sixty-four Portraits of the Fugger Family. 1593.
Edward VI.

Marco Bragadini ; after J. von Aachen. 1591.
Charles III., Duke of Lorraine. 1597.
Dorothea, Duchess of Lorraine.
Pope Sixtus V.
Bust of Sigismund, Prince of Moldavia ; after J von

A achen.

Maria Christina Carolina, his consort.
Cosmo de* Medici. 1609.
Rudolph II., Emperor of Germany.
Four Plates of the Prodigal Sou ; D. Custodis inv. etfec.
Judith with the Head of Holofernes ; after J. von

Aachen.

Christoph Fugger ; after the same.
Georg Basta ; after the same.

His three sons, RAPHAEL, DAVID, and JAKOB, were
also engravers ; but the first only obtained any
celebrity.

DE COSTER, PIETER, a painter and engraver of
Antwerp, is usually known as BALTHAZAR, or BAL-
TEN, or BALTENS (the shortened form of Baltens-
sone, i. e. the son of Balten, Balthazar). His father
was Balten Janssone de Coster, a painter. Pieter
entered the Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp in 1540,
and became its Dean in 1569. He died about 1598.
He painted landscapes, village festivals, and fairs,
in the style of Pieter Brueghel. His small figures
are correctly drawn and neatly touched, and his
landscapes are painted with great precision. He
engraved portraits, and also a sacred piece, ' Suffer
Little Children to come unto Me,' after Ambrosius
Francken.

DE CRAEYER, GASPAR, a Flemish painter, was
born at Antwerp in 1582. He was first instructed in
the art by Raphael van Coxie of Brussels, an artist
of little repute, whom he soon surpassed. Taking
for his guide the works of the able artists of his
country, and indefatigable in his study of nature, he
gave early proof of his ability in some public works,
so that he was received a member of the Guild in
1607. His paintings also attracted the notice of the
court of Brussels, and he was engaged to paint the
portrait of the Cardinal-Infant Don Ferdinand, the
Governor of the Low-Countries, to be sent to his
brother, the King of Spain. This work gave so
much satisfaction, that he was appointed painter
to the court, with a considerable pension, and was
also employed in the churches and public edifices.
If De Craeyer had only looked for emolument, this
flattering patronage, and the applause of the great,
would have satisfied his ambition, and secured his
fortune by fixing him at the court. But intent
solely on excelling in his art, and desirous of that
repose and tranquillity so essential to his work, he
resigned his situation at Brussels, and sought the
retirement he longed for, by removing to Ghent.
This retreat did not diminish the reputation he



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



had acquired, and he continued to receive com-
missions from every part of the country. It was
at this time that he painted his fine picture for the
refectory of the abbey of Affleghem, which is one
of his most celebrated works. It represents (lie
' Centurion dismounting from his horse to prostrate
himself before Christ.' It was this admirable pic-
ture that procured for him the flattering homage of
Rubens, who, on beholding it, exclaimed aloud,
" Craeyer, nobody will surpass you." The churches
of the principal cities in Flanders and Brabant are
decorated with a surprising number of the works
of this master, who spent a long life in unremitting
labour. The biographers of the Flemish painters
have not hesitated to place De Craeyer on a level
with Rubens and Van Dyck. Although this high
compliment may be rather strained, he is un-
doubtedly entitled to rank next after them among
the ablest artists of that school.

His compositions are learned and judicious ; re-
jecting all superfluity and ostentation, he aimed at
the higher qualities of correctness and simplicity.
Less daring than Rubens, he is always correct ; arid,
although he never soared to the height of that
aspiring genius, his works possess both grandeur
and dignity. His colouring is chaste and tender,
resembling in its carnations the clear tinting of
Van Dyck. He died at Ghent in 1669. The fol-
lowing are the principal among his numerous
works, in which the landscapes are painted by De
Vadder and L. Achtschellinck :

Museum. The Taking down from the Cross.
Museum. Elijah in the Desert.
Gallery, Christ at Ernmaus.
Museum. The Miraculous Draught of

Fishes.
St. Paul and St. Anthony as

Hermits.

The Blessed Virgin as Pro-

tectress of the 'Grand-Seor-
ment de 1'Arbalete.'
Ascension of St. Catharine.
Judgment of Solomon.
Martyrdom of St. Blaise.
Martyrdom of a Man by burying

alive.
The Death of the Virgin. (His

principal work.)
Virgin and Child with Saints.
The Plague at Milan.
Virgin and Child adored by

Saints.

St. Augustine.

n Portrait of the Cardinal-Infant

Don Ferdinand of Spain, on
horseback.

Petersburg. Hermitage.'P<m and Syrinx.
Rotterdam. Museum. The Descent from the Cross.
Valenciennes. Gal/en/. The Penitent Magdalen.
Vienna. Gallery. The Holy Family.

Some recent writers ascribe to him a woodcut
representing St. Sebastian. Van Dyck painted his
portrait, which Paulus Pontius engraved. His



Amsterdam.
Antwerp.
Berlin.
Brussels.



Ghent.


S. Michael.
Museum.


Lille.


Museum.


Madrid.


Gallery.


Munich.
Nancy.
Paris.


Gallery.
Museum.
Louvre.



monogram is annexed : TTT*



DE CRITZ, JOHN, EMMANUEL, and THOMAS, were
decorative painters in England in the first half of
the 17th century. John, who had the greatest
reputation of the three brothers, was Serjeant-
painter to James I. and Charles I., in which office
he was succeeded by Emmanuel. They painted
scenery, ceilings, &c. John bought many pictures
at the sale of the collection of Charles I. He died
after 1657.



DE CROOCK, HUBERT, a Flemish typographer
and engraver on wood, was born at Bruges in 1490.
His name is affixed to a large cut, representing the
Trinity, which is neatly executed, but in a stiff,
formal style. Albrecht Durer engraved the same
subject, but in so superior a manner, that the print
by De Croock may be presumed to be a copy coeval
with the original. Besides the name, it is marked

with the monogram fEj.

DE CUYPERE, ANDKIES. See STEVENS.

DE DECKER, L, is mentioned by Strutt as the
engraver of a small copy of the print representing
the ' Treaty of Miinster,' engraved by Suyderhoef ,
after Terburg, in which he attempted to imitate the
style of the original, but with no great success.

DE DEYSTER, Louis, born at Bruges in 1656,
was a pupil of John Maes. He travelled in Italy
during six years, chiefly spent at Venice and in
Rome with Anthony Van den Eeckhout, whose
sister he married. He was admitted as free master
into the Guild of S. Luke on March 4, 1688. His
pictures are well composed, the hands and feet
well modelled ; colour in the style of A. van Dyck.
His etchings, which are rare, are remarkable. He
died December 18, 1711. His younger daughter,
ANNE, 1690-1747, was also a painter. Many of
their paintings are preserved in the churches and
convents of Bruges.

Bruges. Alusevm. Moses defending the Daughters
of Jethro.

Bibliography: Weale, 'Catalogue du Musee de
Bruges,' 1861 ; ' Bruges et ses Environs,' 1884.

DEDREUX, ALFRED, a French historical and
portrait painter, was born in Paris in 1812. He
was the son of the architect Pierre Anne Dedreux,
and nephew of P. J. Dedreux- Dorcy. He studied
under Le'on Cogniet, and painted animals as well
as portraits. He died in Paris in 1860.

DEDREUX-DORCY, PIERRE JOSEPH, a French
genre painter, was born in Paris in 1789. He
studied for some time under Guerin. His paint-
ings, one of which, called ' Bajazet et le Berger,' is
in the Museum of Bordeaux, are in the style of
Greuze. He also painted, together with Ge>icault,
a picture called ' La Baigneuse.' He died at Belle-
vue in 1874. His surname was Dedreux, but he
was usually called Dorcy.

DEELEN, DIRK VAN, (or DELEX,) a Dutch painter,
was born at Heusden in 1605. He afterwards settled
at Arnemuiden in Zealand, of which town he be-
came burgomaster. He possessed not only an
extraordinary talent in representing Italian archi-
tecture, but was also thoroughly acquainted with
linear and aerial perspective. He particularly de-
voted himself to the production of views of churches
and other buildings, and the figures in his paintings
are mostly by Van Herp, Palamedes, Stevens, and



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