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Bryan's dictionary of painters and engravers (Volume 2) online

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variety of landscapes which he treated in a master-
ful, if somewhat frigid, fashion. He obtained
medals in 1865 and 1870 ; a medal of the second
class in 1874. He was appointed Chevalier de la
Legion d'Honneur in 1878, receiving awards at
the Paris Universal Exhibition. He died in Paris,
November 5, 1892.

GOSSWYN, GERHARD, a Flemish flower and
fruit painter, born at Liege in 1616, was a pupil of
Gerhard Douffet. Whilst still very young he went

Richmond. Sir F. Cook.
Tournai. Museum.

Vienna. Mr. 0. Miethke.
,, Gallery.

to Italy, and worked for a lengthened period in
Rome and Paris, and became the first art instructor
of the Dauphin, afterwards Louis XV. He died at
Liege in 1691.

GOTTI, BARTOLOMMEO, a Florentine painter,
who flourished in the 17th century, was a pupil of
Ghirlandaio. He went to France and worked for
Francis I.

GOTTI, VINCENZO, a native of Bologna, was born
about 1580, and became a scholar of Dionysius
Calvaert at the time that Guido Reni studied under
that master. At twenty years of age he went to
Rome, in company with Guido, and there painted
some pictures. He was then invited to the court
of Naples, where he passed the remainder of
his life. This painter possessed so ready an in-
vention, and such surprising facility, that Orlandi
states, from a list of his works, found after his
death, that he had painted no fewer than two
hundred and eighteen pictures for public positions
in the different towns of the kingdom of Naples.
He died at Reggio in 1636.

GUTTING, ANDREAS, a painter who flourished
at the close of the 16th and beginning of the 17th
century, is the author of a picture in the Rotterdam
Museum, representing 'Diana surprised by Ac-
tseon ; ' signed and dated 1607.

RODDELSTET, was a painter and engraver from the
town of Roddelstet (Rudestedt?), who was work-
ing at Weimar from 1548 to 1572, where he was
made court painter in 1553. He both painted and
engraved on metal and on wood the portraits of the
three Electors Johann Friedrich. Besides these and
other portraits, there are among his engravings :

The Victory over Death and Hell. 1552.

The Fall of Man ; after L. Cranach. 1552.

The Prophet Jonah. 1552.

Madonna in a Landscape. 1555.

The Redemption ; after L. Cranach. 1556.

GOTZENBERGER, JACOB, an historical painter,
was born at Heidelberg in 1800, and educated after
1820 in Diisseldorf under Cornelius, and after 1824
'n Munich. It is stated that so early as 1823 Cor-
nelius could pass off as his own a painting by
this artist. He was employed, together with Her-
nann and E. Forster, to decorate with frescoes the
lall of Bonn University, and in 1828 he visited
Rome and Naples to gain ideas for this work. He
returned in 1832, and executed his undertaking,
jainting alone the designs for Jurisprudence,
Vledicine, and Philosophy, and that for Theology
n conjunction with his two collaborators. After
his he obtained the two appointments of court
iainter at Baden and inspector of the gallery at
lannheim. He visited Paris and London in com-
>any with Cornelius, and on his return executed a
lew cycle of frescoes in the chapel at Nierstein in
Ihemsh Hesse, as well as in the drinking hall
it Baden-Baden, the latter of which, painted in
844, represented legends from the Black Forest.
An offence led to his dismissal from his offices, upon
vhich he proceeded to England, where he painted
)oth portraits and frescoes, and especially dis-
inguished himself by his performances in Bridge-
vater and Northumberland Houses. The last of
bese works was accomplished in 1863-5. His
.eath occurred at Darmstadt in 1866.

GOTZLOFF, KARL WILHELM, a landscape painter,
vas born at Dresden in 1803, and became a member



of the Academy there in 1835. He, however, went
to Italy in 1823, and remained there painting prin-
cipally the scenery of the country. He died at
Naples in 1866.

was born at Antwerp in 1616, is said to have
studied under one Jan de Farius. He was admitted
into the Guild of St. Luke in 1636-37. He visited
Italy in later life, and was there much impressed by
the works of Jan Asselyn, whose style he after-
wards copied. In 1668, he received as a pupil the
young Nicolas de Largilliere, and afterwards Petrus
Cornelis Hessels. Goubau died at Antwerp in 1698.
His works, which are rather scarce, are noteworthy
for good drawing and colouring, but more especi-
ally for excellence of composition. The Antwerp
Gallery possesses two good examples of this master,
'Artists studying from Ruins near Rome,' signed
and dated 1650, and a ' Market-scene in the Piazza
Navona in Rome,' dated 1680 ; and in the church of
St. Jacques is a ' Last Supper.' In the Brunswick
Museum is a 'Landscape with old ruins ;' at the
Hague is an ' Italian Landscape ; ' and in the
Museum at Lille is an 'Italian Market-place.'
Specimens of his early style, which are camp scenes,
are in the galleries at Meiningen and Prague.

GOUBAU, FRANS, born at Antwerp in 1622,
is supposed to have studied under Gerard Zegers,
and was free of the Corporation in 1649. He
painted for the Carmelite Church a picture of 'St.
Agabus building the first Chapel to the Virgin ; '
and for the church of St. Willebrod, a portrait of
Pieter Luycx, both of which pictures have disap-
peared. In the Antwerp Gallery is the ' Adoration
of the Sacrament,' dated 1650, and in the church
of St. Jacques a ' Dead Saviour,' and a portrait of
Frans van den Bossche, Dean of St. Jacques.
Goubau died about 1678.

GOUDA, CORNELIS VAN, a Dutch painter, was
born at Gouda in 1510, and was the best known
scholar of Maiten van Heemskerk. He died in

GODDT, HENDRIK, a distinguished amateur
artist of a noble family of Holland, and a Count
of the Palatinate, was born at Utrecht in 1585.
A passionate admiration for art led him to an
early application to drawing, and when he was
young he went to Rome in search of improvement.
Arrived in that capital, he was one of the most
assiduous students of his time, and daily frequented
the Academy to draw from the model. He con-
tracted an intimacy with Adam Elsheimer; and
purchased some of his most finished works, which
he has engraved in a style peculiar to himself,
and perhaps better adapted to express the polished
finish and the admirable effect of chiaro-scuro of
the originals, than any other that could have been
adopted. His plates are wrought entirely with the
graver, and their extraordinary effect is produced
not by the usual mode of deepening and strength-
ening the stroke, but by delicately crossing and re-
crossing them several times in the shadows. The
following are the seven prints by him, after Adam
Elsheimer, as described by Strutt :

Ceres drinking from a Pitcher. An old woman appears
holding a candle at the door of a cottage, and a boy
naked standing by her, is laughing and pointing at the
goddess, for which contempt he was metamorphosed
into a frog. This print was well copied by Hotlar.
It is distinguished by the name of ' The Sorcery."

The Flight into Egypt ; a night scene.

The Angel with Tobit; who is drawing a fish by his


The Angel with Tobit crossing a stream of water ; Tobit
holds the fish under his arm. Hollar has copied this
print with much success.
Baucis and Philemon entertaining Jupiter and Mercury ;

a small plate, nearly square.

Aurora, representing the Dawn of Day ; a small land-
scape. The effect is very beautiful.
The Beheading of St. John the Baptist in Prison ; a

very small oval print, very scarce.
GOUGE, . This little-known portrait painter
was a pupil of Riley, and many of his best portraits
have been ascribed in error to Kneller, Lely, Dahl,
and Richardson. He painted the portraits of many
of the nobility of his time in England, notable
among which are the full-lengths of Sir Roger and
Lady Hudson at Shottesbrook, Berks, and the full-
length of Sir Robert Vansittart, and the three-
quarter-length of Sir John Stonehouse, comptroller
to the household of Queen Anne, which are at North
Cray Place, Kent. Very little is known of the
history of this talented artist, whose works are
sound in drawing and opulent in colour, albeit a
little dull in conception, and the dates either of
his birth or death are uncertain.

GOULD, THOMAS R., an American sculptor who
deserves mention in these pages on account of the
beauty of his drawings, and on his wonderful
ability to sketch a portrait in pencil prior to the
execution of the work in marble. He was born
at Boston in 1818, studied for some time in Italy,
and settled down for some ten years or more in
Florence, where he executed many of his most
notable works. In 1878 he returned to Boston,
and there he died in 1881. Many of his busts may
be seen in the chief libraries of the United States,
in exhibitions and in town halls in that country,
but his sketches remain mostly in the possession
of his descendants. He was a profound student
of the imaginative works of Blake, and much
influenced by the mystic ideas of that great artist
and poet. His work was very original, free from
anything approaching the commonplace, and al-
ways distinguished by force, character, and living
actuality, combined with aquality of mystic imagin-
ation and poetic feeling very rare in sculpture or

GOUPIL, JULES ADOLPHE, born in Paris in 1839,
was a pupil of Henri and Ary Scheffer, and a
popular painter of portraits and genre. He first
exhibited at the Salon in 1878. He died in Paris
of consumption, April 28, 1883.

GOUPY, BERNHARD, a French miniature painter,
was the brother of Joseph Goupy, and like him
he practised in London about the middle of the
18th century.

GOUPY, JOSEPH, a French painter and engraver,
was born at Nevers in the beginning of the 18th
century. He came to England when he was young,
and about 1725 was engaged together with Tille-
mans in painting scenes for the Italian Opera.
He taught drawing to Frederick, Prince of Wales,
and to Prince George, af terwards King George III.,
who on his accession allowed him a small pension.
He resided here the remainder of his life, and
died in London at an advanced age in 1763.
He excelled in painting landscapes in water-
colours, which he treated with great spirit and
intelligence. His pictures in the style of Salvator
Rosa have considerable merit. He etched several
plates in a very spirited and masterly style, some
of which are from his own designs. Among others,
the following are by him :




Blutius Scsevola burning his hand before Porsena ; from

his own design.

Zeuxis painting Helen ; after Solimena.
Diana hunting with her Nymphs ; after Rubens.
St. Philip baptizing the Eunuch ; after Salvator Rosa.
St. John preaching in the Wilderness ; after the same.
The Calling of St. Andrew to the Apostleship, in a

landscape ; after Pietro da Cortona.
A grand Landscape, with the story of Pyramus and

Thisbe ; after If. Poussin.
A View of Castel Gandolfo, and of the Campagna near

Rome ; after Eolognese.
A set of eight Landscapes ; after Salvator Eosa.

GODPY, Louis, was a miniature painter and
copyist, who practised in London early in the 18th
century. He was the nephew, and, probably, the
pupil of Bernard Lens.
GOURDEL, PIERRE, a native of Paris, who lived
in the 16th century, was painter to Henry III.
He drew all the birds in a work by Pierre Belon
entitled ' Histoire de la Nature des Oyseaux,'
Paris, 1555.

GOURMONT, JEAN DE, a French painter ana
engraver, was living in 1557, and is supposed to
have worked chiefly for the illustration of books.
There is a picture in the Louvre assigned to this
artist, entitled ' The Nativity,' and there is a portrait
engraved by him of Charles, Duke of Bourbon.

GOUDTSBLOEM,) was an obscure Dutch engraver,
by whom there are portraits of the naval heroes
Jan van Galen and M. H. Tromp, after Jan Lievens,
and others.

GOUT, JOHANN FRANZ, a landscape and archi-
tectural painter, and an etcher, was born at Berlin
about the middle of the 18th century. He travelled
through Germany and Switzerland, and became
theatrical painter at Darmstadt ; he also painted
Swiss landscapes in fresco. In 1782 he designed
sixty plates of Ruins near Spires for Counsellor
Merk at Darmstadt. He died after 1812.


GOVAERTS, A., was a landscape painter of the
17th century, who adopted the style of Savery, on
what has been called a mixture of those of Jan
Brueghel and Paulus Bril. Mention may be made
of the following works :

Augsburg. Gallery. Landscape with Peasant's Cottage.
Brunswick. Gallery. Landscape with the Four Elements

as Nymphs. 1624.

Hague. Museum. Oak Forest. 1612.

Milan. Srera. A Wood, with Abraham and Isaac.

GOVERT, , a painter of landscapes with
humorous figures, is stated by Van Mander to have
been a pupil of Gerrit Pietersz at Amsterdam at
the commencement of the 17th century.

GOVERTZ, THEODORDS, was a portrait painter of
Utrecht, and the master of H. Verschuuring and
T. Camphuysen, who lived about the middle of the
17th century.

GOWER, GEORGE, was an English portrait
painter, who was appointed in 1584 Queen Eliza-
beth's sergeant-painter in oils for life.

GOWI, I. P., appears to have been a painter ol
the Antwerp school, who flourished in the 17th
century but. the dates of his birth and death are
unknown. The Madrid Gallery has two pictures
by him of the story of ' Hippomenes and Atalanta,
and ' The Battle of the Titans.'

This peculiar genius and imaginative painter was

born at Fuendetodos in Aragon, March 30th,
1746. His parents were humble, living on the
produce of a small piece of land surrounding their
cottage. Here Francisco lived to the age of sixteen
without any knowledge of art, when his passion
for painting was awakened by a monk of Santa
Fe near Zaragoza, after which he got admitted
into the studio of Jose Luxnn Martinez, who had
been educated in Italy. Here he distinguished
himself not so much in the studio as in the streets,
in the quarrels of painters and confraternities,
sometimes ending in bloodshed. After one of
these fights he saw the emissaries of the Inquisi-
tion approaching, and having some reason to fear
them, he there and then took to his heels and
escaped to Madrid. Even at that late time the
different provinces of Spain resembled distinct
countries, so he lived in safety till similar exploits
exposed him to new dangers. He was struck
down by the blow of a poniard in the back, and
had to secrete himself till he recovered, when he
made his way to Italy. He settled down in Rome,
where he met Louis David, with whom he frater-
nized, exchanging ideas not only on art, but also
on religion and politics. In 1774 he returned to
Spain, married, and began industriously to follow
lis profession.

This sketch of Goya's youth indicates the character
of his painting: bizarre and wild, with a gleam,
so to say, of infernal splendour in his choice of
beauty. In his execution, he is the only Spaniard
of extraordinary quality during the latter half of
the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th.
His works are numerous church pictures in fresco
and in oil ; incidents in life of a highly fantastic
kind ; about 200 portraits ; and many miscellane-
ous works, came from his hand. Etchings and en-
"ravings in aquatint also, now much prized, were
executed by him. Of these ' The Caprices ' are the
most surprising, showing humanity in all the stages
of brutality and ugliness, with a melange of beauty
and demonology quite unexampled. All through
the occupation of Spain by the French, and during
their expulsion by Wellington, he lived gpetly
without taking any part in public affairs He had
been made 'pintor de camera' by Charles IV. in
1789 and in 1814, on the return of Ferdinand
VII., he published ' The Disasters of War,' in seven-
teen designs, as repulsive and fascinating as it is
possible to imagine. He also engraved thirty-three
plates of scenes in the Bull-ring. Not the least
valuable productions of his graver are his etchings
of the five great equestrian portraits, the bor-
rachos,' 'meninas,' dwarfs, and single figures,
executed by Velazquez. The British Museum pos-
sesses an exceedingly fine collection of Goyas
etchings and aquatints. He died at Bordeaux,
April 16th, 1828. His principal paintings are:
Lille Museum. Young Girls.

Old Women.
A Criminal garotted.
Madrid. Gallery. Equestrian Portrait of Charles

Equestrian Portrait of Maria
' Louisa, Queen of Charles IV.

Charles IV. and his Family.

Charles IV. ; full-length.

Queen Maria Louisa; full-

A Mounted Picador.

Episodes of the French Inva-
sion. 1808.

Portrait of the Infanta Maria

Josea - 265



St. Francisco.

., Museo de Fomento
Paris. Louvre.

Seville. Cathedral.

Toledo. Cathedral.

Valencia. Cathedral.


Zaragoza. Madonna del

Gallery. Portraits of the Infants Don
Francisco and Don Antonio.

Portrait of the Prince of

Portrait of the Artist's Wife.

His own Portrait.

Portrait of Ferdinand VII.

The Crucifixion.

La Maja nude.

Portrait of Juan de Villa-


Portrait of La Tirana.
Equestrian Portrait of Ferdi-

nand VII.

St. Francis preaching.
Equestrian Portrait of the

Prince of Peace.
The Mad-House.
A Bull Fight.
Portrait of Bayeu.
The Crucifixion.
Portrait of F. Guillemardet,

French Ambassador to Spain

in 1798.

A young Spanish Woman.
St. Justina and St. Eufina.
The Treason of Judas.
Two subjects from the Life of

St. Francis of Borja.
Portrait of Bayeu.
Portrait of Dona Jacquina.


GOYEN, JAN VAN, who was born at Leyden in
1596. studied under Jan Nicola'i, Schilderpoort,
Jan De Man, Hendrik Klok, and Willem Gerritsz,
all unimportant masters. While still young, he
made a journey through France, and on his return
received some final instruction from Esaias van
de Velde. After a short stay at Haarlem he
settled at Leyden, where in 1618 he married
Annetje Willems van Eaelst. About 1631 he went
to the Hague, and in 1640 was elected a member
of the Painters' Guild. He died at the Hague
in 1666. Van Goyen was one of the earliest of
the Dutch landscape painters, and has etched a
few landscapes. He was father-in-law to Jan
Steen. The following are some of his principal
works :

Museum. A River. 1645.
View on the Meuse.

The Castle of Valkenhof, near


Landscape. 1641.

Gallery. Landscape.
Gallery. Landscapes (seven).
Gallery. Hilly Landscape. 1629.

Winter. 1621.
Winter Landscape. 1650.

View of the Town of Arnheim.


View of Nymwegen. 1649.
Bank of a Eiver.
A Village Scene.
View of Dordrecht.













f Two Eiver Views.

View near Dort.



Winter Scene.

Three Landscapes.

Dutch Village in a Flood.


Landscape. 1633.

Skating Scene. 1647.





Gallery. Eiver Bank. 1643.

Stadel Inst. Canal with boats.

Gallery. Four Views in Holland.

Museum. Eiver Scene in Holland.

^ j View of Nymwegen.
Bute Call. Scene at Scheveningen. 1649.

Kensinytoii Palace. Eiver Scene.

Louvre. Banks of a Dutch River. 1653
River Scene.

Banks of a Canal.

Hermitage. The Meuse near Dordrecht.
The Meuse.

Winter Landscape.

The Dunes near Scheveningen.

Three Landscapes.
River Scene.



GOYET, EUGENE, a French historical and genre
painter, was born at Chalon-sur-Saone in 1798, and
died in Paris in 1857. His best pictures are 'The
Death of St. Paul,' ' St. Francisca,' and a portrait
of Pope Pius IX.

GOYET, JEAN BAPTISTS, an historical and genre
painter, the father of Eugene Goyet, was born at
Chalon-sur-Saone in 1779, and died in Paris in
1854. He was self-instructed. A ' Virgin and St.
Anne ' by him was exhibited at Paris in 1855.

engraver, was born at Sens about 1620, and died
in 1662. He resided some time at Rome, as
appears from the inscription on one of his plates.
There are by this artist a variety of neat and
spirited etchings of landscapes and views after
Callot, Delia Bella, and others, of which the
following are the principal :

A set of twenty Landscapes, &c. ; after Callot.

A set of four Views ; the Castle of Bicetre, the In-

valides, the Ruins of an old Tower, and the Fountain

in the Garden of Tivoli.
Four Landscapes ; after Delia Bella.
Eight Views in Paris and its environs ; after the same.

The Chapel of Santa Maria Maggiore at Rome ; after

the same.
A small Head with an ornamental border ; worked with

the graver.

etcher, was born at Herniannstadt in 1754, and
after studying jurisprudence, was for some time in
the state service, but went in 1779 to Munich, then
to Augsburg, and in 1791 to Ratisbon, where he
died in 1815. He brought out a series of character
pictures in 160 etchings from his own designs, en-
titled ' Impassioned Outlines for Friends of Art and
the Drama' (Augsburg, 1784). He is also known
by his scenes from ' Bavarian Popular Life,' in
gouache, and by various portraits of notables,
some etched and some painted in oil.

GOZZI, MARCO, an Italian landscape painter, was
born about 1759, and died about 1839. There are
nine landscapes by him in the Brera at Milan.

GOZZOLI, BENOZZO, the son of a doublet maker,
was born at Florence in 1420. He followed Fra
Angelico to Rome, and having acted in 1447 as
his assistant at Orvieto, he in 1449 applied, but un-
successfully, for permission to finish Fra Angelico's
frescoes in the cathedral of that city. In the same
year he went to Montefalco, and there painted in
the church of San Fortunate a ' Virgin and Child,'
and a ' St. Thomas receiving the Girdle ' ; the
last-named is now in the Museum of St. John
Lateran at Rome. By 1452 he had completed the


Hanfitdngl photo\













Alinari photo]

[1'yesco in the Paliizzo l\'u*at-Jt, I'.


Alinari photo\

\Fresco in the Palazzo Riccardi, Florence



frescoes in the hexagonal choir of the monastery
of San Francesco at Montefalco. These decorations
consist of a triple course of twelve scenes from the
life of St. Francis, five medallions of illustrious
Dominicans, and portraits of Petrarch, Dante, and
Giotto, besides numerous figures of saints and
angels. Benozzo also decorated the chapel of St.
Jerome, in the same church, with a fresco of the
' Madonna and Child ' that simulated an altar-
piece, the ' Crucifixion,' the four Evangelists,
scenes from the life of St. Sebastian, and various
figures of saints and angels. In the year 1453, and
for at least a part of 1454, he was at Viterbo, where
in the church of Sta. Rosa he painted a series of
frescoes, now perished, illustrating the life of that
saint. After finishing this work heprobablyreturned
to Umbria ; at any rate he executed, in 1456, for
a church at Perugia, a ' Virgin and Child, between
SS. Peter, John the Baptist, Jerome, and Paul,'
with a predella representing the ' Resurrection,'
with SS. Thomas, Laurence, Sebastian, and
Bernard, which is now in the Academy at Perugia.
Soon afterwards he returned to Florence, where he
was employed to decorate the walls of the chapel
in the palace of the Medici, now the Riccardi
Palace. He there painted an immense fresco
which covers the walls of the body of the chapel ;
it represents the Magi, with a long train of
attendant knights, pages, servants, hunters, and
followers of every description, wending their way
through a splendid landscape towards Bethlehem.
The sanctuary of the chapel is decorated with
various groups of angels, who are represented as
being in a beautiful garden typifying the heavenly
Eden. The altar-piece is lost, but the predella,

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