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containing the ' Resurrection,' and the ' Marriage of
St. Catharine,' is in the Urfizi Gallery at Florence.
About 1464 Benozzo went to San Gimignano,
where he executed a large series of frescoes in
the church of Sant' Agostino, under the patronage
of Fra Domenico Strambi, called Parasimis.
His first production there was a painting of ' St.
Sebastian,' represented standing erect on a pillar,
with a long mantle held by angels so as apparently
to shield a crowd of people from the thunder-
bolts cast by the Eternal, whilst the Virgin
baring her breast, and the Saviour showing His
wounds, seem likewise to implore the Divine pity.
This subject was probably intended to commemor-
ate the delivery of the city from the plague in
1464. Beneath the above design is a 'Crucifixion,'
and four adoring saints, with twelve medallions
and a miniature likeness of Parasinus, the donor of
the frescoes. Gozzoli next decorated the choir of
the same church with a triple course of seventeen
scenes from the life of St. Augustine, and other
designs from the lives of Tobit, St. Sebastian, and
St. Bartolus, as well as figures of various saints
and martyrs. His assistant in this immense work
was Giusto d' Andrea. Having finished his com-
missions for Sant' Agostino, he in 1465 decorated
the space between the portals of the Collegiata
with the ' Martyrdom of St. Sebastian,' and figures
of Christ and the Virgin, in a glory of Seraphim
and Cherubim, with figures of different saints and
martyrs. In 1466 he painted two Madonnas, one
of which is in the Collegiata at San Gimignano, and
the other at Sant' Andrea near that town. In the
same year he painted a ' Marriage of St. Catharine '
for the church of San Francesco at Terni. By him
too is a fresco of the ' Crucifixion ' in the cloister of
the suppressed monastery of Monte Oliveto. He

remained at San Gimignano until 1467, when he
restored the frescoes of Lippo Memmi, in the
Palazzo del Podesta. Early in 1469 Benozzo com-
menced his largest and most important work, the
frescoes in the Campo Santo at Pisa. These con-
sisted of a series of twenty-four designs, three of
which are now obliterated, drawn from Bible
history, commencing with the curse of Ham, and
including the lives of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Esau,
Joseph, Moses, the fall of Jericho, the story of
David and Goliath, and the visit of the Queen of
Sheba to King Solomon. This enormous work
took Benozzo and his assistants, among whom was
Zanobi Macchiavelli, sixteen years to complete,
the last payment being made in May 1485.
During the execution of this work, the authorities
of the Campo Santo, in testimony of their appreci-
ation of Gozzoli's talents, presented, him in 1478
with a tomb therein, in order that he might rest in
the midst of the glorious achievements of his life.
Notwithstanding this immense undertaking, he
yet found time to decorate a chapel on the road to
Meleto, near Castelfiorentino, in 1484, with frescoes
of the ' Virgin and Child, with Saints,' over the
altar, and also the ' Death, Burial, and Ascension
of the Virgin,' and the ' Gift of the Miraculous
Girdle to St. Thomas.' In 1497 he valued the
frescoes of Alesso Baldovinetti in the Gianfigliazzi
Chapel in Santa Trinita at Florence. Benozzo
Gozzoli died in 1498. The following are some of
his extant paintings :
Berlin. Virgin and Child, Saints and


Castelfiorentino. Tab er- 1 g cenes from
nacolo Mia


^. j (frescoes).

r Madonna and Saints, Death
Castelflorentmo Madonna] o{ the vinrfn.and Assump-
(near). dellalorre.^ tionofthe Virgin (frescoes).

Florence. Riccardi Pal. Procession of the Magi

(fresco). 1459.

Uffiii. A Predella.

London. National Galltry. Virgin and Child enthroned,

with Angels and Saints.
Montefalco. S. Francesco. Scenes from the Life of St.

Francis (fresco). 1452.
Paris. Louvre. Apotheosis of St. Thomas

Perufia. Pinacoteca. Altar-piece and Predella.


Pisa Campo Santo. Subjects from the Old Testa-

ment (frescoes). 1469-1485.
Academy. Virgin and Child.with Saints.
The Conception.

Study for the fresco in the
Campo Santo of the Queen
of Sheba.
Rome, lateran Museum. The Virgin giving her girdle

to St. Thomas.
SanGimignano.S. Agostino. Life of St. Augustine -(fres-

coes). 1405 and 1467.
St. Sebastian preserving the
town of San Gimignano
from the Plague in 1464.
Colleqiata. Virgin surrounded by Saints.

Martyrdom of St. Sebastian.


Vienna. Gallery. VirgiuandChild.withSaints.

GRAAF, HANS, (or GRAF,) born at Vienna in
1680, was a scholar of Van Alen, and painted fairs
and market-places, horses, and other animals.
was also a good landscape painter. He died at
Vienna in 1734. A 'Tower of Babel' by him is
in the Landauer Bniderhaus at Nuremberg.

GRAAF, JOSUA, (or GRAVE,) a painter of land-
scapes and views of cities, fortified places, &c.,


lived at the end of the 17th century, and was an
officer in the service of Holland. In the Caesel
Gallery are two landscapes by this artist.


GRAAT, BAREND, (or GBAET,) a Dutch painter,
was born at Amsterdam in 1628. Whilst very
young he was placed under the care of his uncle, a
reputable painter of landscapes and animals, under
whom he made rapid progress. The pictures of
Pieter De Laer, called Bamboccio, were then in the
highest estimation, and he applied himself to study
and imitate the style of that master, in which he
was so successful, that some of his pictures were
mistaken for those of Bamboccio. The success he
met with in that branch of the art disposed him to
attempt historical painting, in which he was not un-
successful. To perfect himself in the design of the
figure, he established a kind of school or academy
in his house, where his contemporary artists and
himself occupied themselves in drawing from life.
The Dutch biographers speak highly of his talents
in historical painting, and particularly commend a
picture he painted for the Council-chamber at
Amsterdam, representing 'Time discovering Truth.'
Another admired picture by him was ' David and
Bathsheba.' A ' Home Scene,' in the Queen's col-
lection at Buckingham Palace, is also much praised.
He also painted portraits with great success, and
produced some admired pen-and-ink and pencil
drawings, as well as etchings upon copper. He
died at Amsterdam in 1709.

GRAAUW, HENDRIK, a Dutch historical painter,
was born at Hoorn, in North Holland, in 1627.
He was successively the scholar of Pieter De
Grebber and of Jacob van Kampen the younger,
and on leaving those masters, he was employed by
Prince Maurice of Nassau to paint four frescoes
in the cupola of the Palace in the Wood, which
established his reputation as one of the most
promising artists of his time. Ambitious of im-
provement, and elated with the description he had
heard of the wonders of Italy, he resolved to visit
that country, and in 1648 he embarked for Leghorn,
and made the best of his way to Rome. For three
years he was assiduously employed in designing ;
and he returned to Holland with an ample store of
materials for his future studies. On establishing
himself at Amsterdam, he was loaded with com-
missions. He painted for the family of Bronck-
horst a series of historical and fabulous subjects,
of which two, the 'Triumph of Julius Csesar,' and
the 'Education of Bacchus,' were particularly
admired. He resided chiefly at Amsterdam and
Utrecht, and died at Alkmaar in 1682.

GRACE, Mrs., a portrait painter and copyist,
whose maiden name was Hodgkiss, was born early
in the 18th century. She was self-taught, and
exhibited at the Society of Artists from 1762 to
1769, but in the latter year she retired with a
competence to Homerton, where she died about



GRADO, FRANCESCO DE, an engraver, who resided
chiefly at Naples, flourished about 1690. He en-
graved the plates of the ' Illustrious Personages '
published at Naples in 1693, and executed part of
the portraits for Bellori's ' Vite de' Pittori, Scultori,
et Architetti moderni,' 1672.





GRAF, HANS, (or GRAVE,) was a wood-engraver
from Amsterdam, who worked at Frankfort-on-the-
Main, where in 1553 he executed a view of that
city for the widow of the painter Konrad Faber,
and also engraved on wood a plan of the same,
which Faber himself had designed. He likewise
worked on Sebastian Miinster'e ' Cosmographia.'

GRAF, URS, who has also been known by the
GOAR, was a wood-engraver, who at early periods
in his life was a goldsmith, painter, and engraver
on copper. He was born at Solothurn between
1485 and 1490, and after working with a goldsmith
at Zurich, he in 1515 took part in the Swiss war in
Lombardy, and again in 1522, being taken prisoner
in the following year. He died at Basle between
1529 and 1535. He appears to have been a wild
and reckless character, but he managed to execute
327 woodcuts, chiefly book illustrations, many of
which are marked with one or other of the annexed

monograms :

- VG.W

The earliest of

these was a set of twenty-five woodcuts for the
' Passion of our Saviour,' printed at Strassburg by
Johann Knoblauch in 1506. They are neatly cut, but
very incorrectly drawn. He has written the names
of the different figures over their heads, as was not
unusual at the time. Single plates of his are, 'The
Monk crowned by two Bishops,' ' Death lying in
wait,' 'The Satyr Family,' and 'The Raising of
Lazarus.' He also produced a few copper-plixtes
and etchings, as well as nielli. The Basle Art Col-
lection, and the Albertina at Vienna, possess many
of his pencil-drawings.

GRAFF, ANTON, a portrait-painter, was born at
Winterthur in Switzerland in 1736, and died at
Dresden in 1813. He studied under Johann Ulrich
Schellenberg in his native town, but soon went to
Augsburg, and thence, on the invitation of the
court, to Dresden, where he was appointed court-
painter in 1766. He was often summoned to Berlin,
Leipsic, and other places, where he painted many
of his more celebrated contemporaries, as Lessing,
Herder, Moses Mendelssohn, Schiller, Gluck, Weisse,
and Frederick William II. The following also are
by him :
Berlin. Gallery. Two Portraits of Johann Joachim

Brunswick. Hfuseum. Portrait of Friedrich Albrecht,

Prince of Anhalt-Beruburg.
Dresden. Gallery. His own Portrait.

Portrait of Frederick Augustus,

King of Saxony.

Portraits of Karl Hommeyer and

his wife.

Portraits of Christian Voight and

his daughter.

Portrait of Johann Jakob Mesmer.

Gotha. Gallery. Portrait of Eckhoff.

Leipsic. Museum. Portrait of Frau Gabain.

Munich. Gallery. His own Portrait.

GRAFF, JOHANN ANDREAS, a painter and en-
graver, born at Nuremberg in 1637, was instructed
in art under Haberlin and the flower painter
Marrel, in Frankfort, after which he studied for
two years in Vienna and four years in Rome. In
1664 he returned to Nuremberg, where he married
the artist Maria Sibylla Merian. Twenty years
later he removed to Frankfort, but returned to
Nuremberg, where he died in 1701. He designed
and engraved numerous landscapes, plans, and
figure subjects, among which are :


Interiors of the churches of St. Lawrence and St.

Sebald at Nuremberg.
The Romerberg at Frankfort.
John Maurice, Prince of Nassau-Orange. 1658.
The Emperor Leopold and the Seven Electors ; after



GRAFF, KARL ANTON, a landscape painter, the
son of Anton Graff, was born at Dresden in 1774,
and was first instructed there under Professor
Zingg, but he afterwards devoted six years to
travelling in Switzerland and Italy. He died in
1832. His best works were mountain landscapes
from Bavaria and Switzerland.



GRAFFICO, CAMILLO, was a native of Friuli,
who flourished about the year 1588. He engraved
several plates of devotional subjects, among which
is one representing the ' Holy Family,' after Ber-
nardino Passari. He worked entirely with the
graver, in a style resembling that of Cornells Cort,
but very inferior to it.

GRAFFIONE, GIOVANNI, a Florentine painter;
born 1455 ; pupil of Baldovinetti. He painted a
'God in Glory' over the door of the hospital of
Santa Maria deglilnnocenti in Florence. Died 1527.

GRAHAM, G., an English engraver, worked in
the latter half of the 18th century. He produced
some of the illustrations for Campbell's ' Pleasures
of Hope ' in 1799, and also some of Rowlandson's
works. He engraved chiefly in the dotted manner,
but the following mezzotint plates are also by him :

John, Earl of Bute ; after Ramsay.
Mrs. Collier; after Sir Joshua Reynolds.
Van Tromp ; after Rembrandt.
Poverty ; after Rising.

GRAHAM, JOHN, an English historical painter,
was born about 1706. He studied in Paris, London,
and Italy, and finally settled at the Hague, where
he was still living in 1776.

GRAHAM, JOHN, a Scottish historical painter,
born in 1754, was at first apprenticed to a coach-
painter in Edinburgh, but coming to London he
entered the schools of the Royal Academy, where
he exhibited from 1780 to 1797. In 1798 he was
appointed master of the Trustees' Academy in
Edinburgh, where he had amongst his pupils
Wilkie, Allan, Burnett, and Watson Gordon. He
died at Edinburgh in 1817. His chief works are :

Daniel in the Lions' Den. 1780.

Una. 1783.

Ceres in search of Proserpine. 1786.

The Escape of Mary, Queen of Scots, from Lochleven.
1788. (Stationers' Hall, London.)

Portrait of Alderman Boydell. (Stationers' Hall, London.)

The Funeral of General Fraser at Saratoga.

Queen Mary, the morning before her Execution. 1792.

King David instructing Solomon. 1797.

The Disobedient Prophet. (National Gallery of Scot-

GRAHAM-GILBERT, JOHN, a Scottish portrait
painter, the son of a West India merchant named
Graham, was born at Glasgow in 1794. When
about twenty-four years of age he came to London,
and having entered the schools of the Royal
Academy, he gained in 1821 the gold medal for
painting, afterwards proceeding to Italy to study
the old masters, especially those of the Venetian
school. The collection of pictures which he
formed was bequeathed by his widow, who died
in 1877, to the city of Glasgow, and forms fl
most valuable feature of the Corporation Galleries.

After having been in Italy two years he returned
to London, but in 1827 he went to Edinburgh,
and was elected a member of the Royal Scottish
Academy in 1830. Soon after this he married
and settled in Glasgow, at the same time adding
his wife's name, Gilbert, to his own. He was an
occasional contributor to the Royal Academy in
London from 1844 to 1864, having also exhibited
a few pictures there after his return from Italy.
He died at Yorkhill, near Glasgow, in 1866. He
executed many fancy studies of young girls,
especially Italian, and other subjects, besides many
portraits ; his drawing was good and natural, and
his colouring rich in tone, his portraits especially
recalling the Venetian richness of painting. Among
his subject pictures may be mentioned ' Females
at a Fountain' (Royal Academy. 1846), 'A Roman
Girl ' (Royal Academy, 1864), and a portrait of
Charles Lawson, Provost of Edinburgh, exhibited
at the Royal Scottish Academy in 1866, the year of
his death. In the National Portrait Gallery is a por-
trait of Sir Walter Scott by him, and in the National
Gallery of Scotland are:

Sir John Watson Gordon, P.E.S.A.
John Gibson, K.A., sculptor.
An Italian Nobleman.
The Bandit's Bride.

an engraver on metal and wood, who lived at Leipsic
about 1620, working chiefly for booksellers.

GRAMBS, JOHANN VALENTIN, a portrait painter,
born at Frankfort-on-the-Main in 1630, was a fol-
lower of the style of Van Dyck. His works were
much admired, and amongst them was the por-
trait of the Empress Eleonora Magdalena, third
consort of Leopold I., which was engraved by

GRAMMARSEO, PIETRO, a native of Montf errat,
in Piedmont, flourished about 1523, in which year
he painted an altar-piece, which is in the conven-
tual church of Casale.

1571, was a disciple of Domenico Perugino.
Several of his works are in the public edifices
at Rome. In the church of Santa Maria in Traste-
vere there is a picture of the ' Virgin and Infant
in the clouds, with Angels, and St. Hyacinth below ; '
and in San Giacomo degl' Incurabili is a fine picture
of the ' Nativity,' with the ' Adoration of the Shep-
herds.' His talents raised him to the presidency
of the Academy of St. Luke, but of this distinction
he was deprived, on account of a nefarious attempt
to dispose of a picture by Raphael belonging to
the Academy, and to substitute for it a copy
which he had made. He did not long survive this
disgrace, and died at Rome in 1626.

GRAN, DANIEL, an historical painter, born at
Vienna, or Miihren, in 1694, studied under Ferg
and Wemle at Vienna, and afterwards under Ricci
at Venice, and Solimena at Naples. Upon his
return from Italy he executed a great number of
large ceiling frescoes, mostly of an allegorical
character, in the imperial palace, and in various
castles, churches, and cloisters. He also produced
(several oil paintings, of which the Vienna Gallery
possesses a 'Holy Family,' and the Karlskirche
a ' St. Elizabeth,' and left some good pen-and-ink
drawings. He died at St. Polten in 1757.

GRANACCI, FRANCESCO, a Florentine painter,
was born at Florence in 1477. He was a fellow-
pupil with Michelangelo in the studio of Ghirlan-
daio, and was much attached to the former, whose

J ' 269


style he at first greatly imitated. Granacci was
one of the artists who went to Rome to assist
Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel, but when the
master, finding he could not manage to get on
with his assistants, shut both the door of the chapel
and that of his own house against them, Granacci
was justly incensed. He is said to have evinced his
acquirement of the principles of Michelangelo in
his picture of ' St. Zenobius and St. Francis, with
the Virgin and Infant in the Clouds ;' but still more
in his 'Assumption,' formerly in San Pier Mag-
giore, and now in the Rucellai palace, in which the
figure of St. Thomas is entirely in the style of that
master. He died at Florence in 1543. Not many
pictures by this artist remain, but his principal
works are :

Berlin. Gallery. Portrait of a Girl.

Virgin and Child enthroned.

The Trinity.

Florence. Academy. Virgin and Saints.

Three pictures, representing
the Life and Martyrdom of
St. Apollonius.

Pitti Pal. Holy Family.

Munich. Gallery. St. Jerome.

St. Apollonia.

St. John the Baptist.

The Magdalen.

Petersburg. Hemitaye. The Nativity.



GRANDI, ERCOLE DI GIDLIO. commonly called
ERCOLE DA FERRARA, whose works have been con-
fused with those of Ercole di Roberto, was a native
of Ferrara. He was in the service of the Duke of
Ferrara from 1492 till 1499, and died in 1531.
He was a disciple of Lorenzo Costa, and was
the author of ' St. Sebastian, with other Saints
and Patrons,' in San Paolo, Ferrara; of an 'Ador-
ation of the Kings,' in the Ferrara Gallery ; of
a ' St. George and the Dragon,' in the Corsini
Gallery, Rome ; and also of ' The Conversion
of St. Paul,' and a 'Madonna and Child with
Saints,' in the National Gallery, London. Other
pictures by him are in private collections in Italy.

with his brother as a painter and gold-beater in
Ferrara in 1479. He was in the paid service of
the Duke of Ferrara, and was frequently employed
in painting chests. He built a triumphal car;
decorated the garden lodge of the Duchess ; and
in 1494 painted the likeness of Hercules I. for
Isabella of Mantua. He was a disciple and imi-
tator of Mantegna, and executed, amongst other
works, the decorations (since destroyed) of the
Garganelli chapel in San Pietro, Bologna, finished
about 1483, and much admired by Michelangelo.
He also, it is said, finished a view of Naples in
1490-93. He died in 1495. The following works
also are ascribed to him :
Bergamo. Gallery. St. John the Evangelist.

Parts of the predella
Dresden. Gallery. Betrayal of


Procession to


of an altar-piece
by Lorenzo Costa,

formerly in San
Giovanni in Jfonte,
> Bologna.
Liverpool. Royal Inst. Pieta. (Part of the predella of the

same altar-piece.)
London. Fat. Gall. The Last Supper.

The Israelites gathering Manna.

Milan. Brera Gall. An altar-piece (ascribed to Stefano).
Rome. J'utican. Miracles of St. Hyacinth.

A full account of the Grandis is given in Crowe

and Cavalcaselle's ' History of Painting in North
Italy,' 1871 ; i. 530-534.

historical painter, born at Elbeuf in 1780, was a
pupil of David, but he adopted a style differing
considerably from that of his master. He mostly
painted idylls and mythological scenes. The date
of his death is not known.

GRANDJEAN, JEAN, was born at Amsterdam
in 1752, and after instruction under Jacobus
Verstegen and Jurriaan Andriessen, as well as at
the Academy of his native'city, where he obtained
three prizes, proceeded first to Diisseldorf, and
then in 1779 to Italy. He painted landscapes,
portraits, and historical subjects, and has also left
one etching of a ' Bacchanal.' He died at Rome
in 1781.

real name was GERARD, a French designer and
lithographer, was born at Nancy in 1803. He first
studied miniature painting under his father, and
then under Mansion and Hippolyte Lecomte, but
abandoning this branch of art, he devoted himself
to the then newly-discovered invention of litho-
graphy. He soon obtained a large practice, and
illustrated a great number of periodicals and books.
His later years were clouded with domestic misfor-
tune, and he died in a lunatic asylum at Vanves,
near Paris, in 1847. Besides the journals and
books which he illustrated, the following are a few
of the works he published on his own account:

Le Dimanche d'un bon Bourgeois.

Les Metamorphoses du Jour. 1828.

Les Animaux peints par eux-memes. 1841.

Les petites Miseres de la Vie humaine. 1842.

Un autre Monde. 1843.

Cent Proverbes. 1844.

Les Fleurs animees. 1846.

GRANELLO, NiccoL6, who was probably the
step-son of Giovanni Battista Castello, called II
Bergamasco, flourished in the 16th century. He
especially excelled in battle-pieces, which he
executed in conjunction with other artists, as
Tabaron and Cambiaso, and among which are
the ' Battle of St. Quentin,' in the Escorial, and
the ' Battle of Higueruela,' after a painting by
Dello, in the Alcazar at Segovia. He was the
half-brother and instructor of Fabrizio Castello,
and died at Madrid in 1593.

tectural and historical painter, was born at Aix in
1775. His father, who was a mason, apprenticed
him to an Italian painter who chanced to stop at
Aix while upon a tour, and after having leamt the
rudiments of art from him, he entered the school
of the landscape painter Constantin, and afterwards
the atelier of David at Paris. He there won a
prize with the picture of ' The Court of a Monas-
tery,' and then proceeded in 1802 to Rome, where
he passed many years of his life. On returning to
Paris for the first time in 1819, he brought with
him a copy of his ' Choir of the Capuchin Monas-
tery,' which met with such extraordinary admir-
ation that he was compelled to execute fifteen or
sixteen variations of it. Louis XVIII. gave him the
decoration of the Legion of Honour in the same
year, and afterwards the order of St. Michael ; while
in 1826 he became conservator of the paintings in
the Louvre, in 1830 a member of the Institute,
and in 1833 an officer of the Legion of Honour.
After the revolution of 1848 he returned to Aix,
where he died in 1849. He bequeathed to the


town his property, and presented his pictures as
the foundation of a museum; at the same time
setting apart a yearly allowance of 1500 francs
for the education in art of a youth of that town,
and a further sum of money for establishing in
the hospital for incurables two beds for masons

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