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as a memorial of his father. His paintings
consist chiefly of the interiors of churches and
other buildings, set out with historical scenes,
and in this line he is considered to have been
wholly unrivalled. The following are among his
best works :
Poussin uncovering the painting of the 'Communion

of St. Jerome.'
Jacques Stella painting the Madonna on the wall of

his Prison Cell 1810. (Leuchtenberg Gallery.)
The Choir of the Capuchin Monastery in the Piazza

Barbarini at Rome. (Buckingham Palace.)
Inner Court of the Carthusian Monastery at Rome.
Communion of the first Christians in the Roman Cata-
combs.

The Alchymist. (Stafford House.)
Beatrice Ceuci on her way to Execution.
View of the Choir of St.Scolastica at Subiaco. (Avignon.)
The Painter Sodoma brought into the Hospital. 1815.
(Louvre.) . .

Interior of the Lower Basilica of St. Francis at Assisi.

1823. (The same.)
Ransoming of Christian Slaves in Algiers. 1831. (The

same.)

GRANGER, DAVID, an engraver, practised in
London in the early part of the 17th century.
There is by him a ' St. George,' after Raphael.

GRANGER, JEAN PERRIN, a French historical
painter, was born in Paris in 1779, and died in the
same city in 1840. He was educated under Allais
and Regnault, and in David's school, and he exe-
cuted pictures from ancient mythology and from
Greek and Roman history, as well as several of a
sacred character. His 'Adoration of the Kings,'
in Notre-Dame de Lorette at Paris, partakes of the
style of Paolo Veronese. In the Bordeaux Museum
is a picture of ' Ganymede ' ; in the Dijon Museum
one of 'Homer and Glaucus' ; and in the Leipsic
Museum, ' Apollo and Cyparissus.'

GRANGES, D. DES. Hardly anything is known
of this artist, save the facts that he was a Catholic
and fled to this country, and was acquainted with
Inigo Jones. He was probably a pupil of Peter
Oliver, and copied more than one of his works.
He painted a great many miniatures, which are
generally signed D. D. <?., and dated. Some of
his finest works are at Welbeck and in Montagu
House, and there is a portrait by him set in a
famous jewel in the Waddesdon Collection at the
British Museum. Most writers, including the
Keeper of the Waddesdon Collection, spell the
name of this artist incorrectly as De Grange ; but
on a miniature at Ham House his full signature
spelt as we give it can be seen. Des Granges also
painted in oil, and one portrait by him is at
Mottisfont Abbey. It represents a lady, and is
signed and dated 1661. G. C. W.

GRAND, GIORGIO DEL. See GANDINI.
GRANT, Sir FRANCIS, a portrait painter, was born
at Kilgraston in Perthshire in 1810. He was the
fourth son of Francis Grant of Kilgraston, anc
was educated at Harrow, with the intention that he
should study for the bar, but he preferred the pur
suit of art, and adopted it as a profession. He firs
exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1834, and among
his early works were hunting meets, of wliicl
his liking for field sports rendered him a faithfu
delineator. He subsequently devoted himself t(
full-length portraits, and became the fashionable



portrait painter of the day, most of the celebrities

f his time sitting to him. He was elected an

Associate of the Royal Academy in 1842, and an

Academician in 1851. On the death of Sir Charles

Sastlake in 1866, and after the refusal of the office

y Maclise and Sir Edwin Landseer he was chosen

..resident of the Academy, and knighted, honours

vhich he owed more to his urbanity and social

>osition than to his art. He died, after several

.ears' suffering, in 1878, at Melton Mowbray,

vhere he was buried, his family declining the

lonour of a grave in St. Paul's Cathedral. The

'ollowing is a list of some of his chief works :

The Breakfast at Melton. 1834.

Count D'Orsay. 1836.

The Meeting of H.M. Staghounds at Ascot Heath. 1837.

(Earl of Chesterfield)

The Melton Hunt. 1839. (Duke of Wellington.)
Equestrian Portrait of Queen Victoria. 1840. (Army

and Navy Club.)
Shooting Party at Ranton Abbey. 1841. (Earl of

Lickfield.)

Marchioness of Waterford. 1844.
Queen Victoria. 1846. (Christ's Hospital, London.)
Albert, Prince Consort. 1846. (The same.)
Sidney Herbert, afterwards Lord Herbert of Lea. 1847.
Sir Richard Button's Hounds. 1848.
Viscount Hardinge. 1849. (National Portrait Gallery.)
Lord John Russell. 1854.

Lord Macaulay. 1854. (National Portrait Gallery.)
Sir Edwin Landseer. 1855. (The same.)
Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of Beaconsfield. 1852.
General Sir Hope Grant. 1862.
A Jewish Rabbi. (National Gallery of Scotland.)
Edward, fourteenth Earl of Derby.
Viscount Palmerston.
John Gibson Lockhart.
Lord Chancellor Truro.

Lord Chancellor Campbell. (National Portrait Gallery.)
George Moberley, Bishop of Salisbury. .
GRANT, WILLIAM JAMES, an historical painter,
was born at Hackney in 1829. At about the age
of sixteen he entered the schools of the Royal
Academy, and within two or three years exhibited
his first work, ' Rabbits,' and was from that time a
frequent exhibitor, sending in 1852 ' Samson and
Delilah ; ' in 1858, ' The Last Trial of Madame
Palissy;' in 1860, 'The Morning of the Duel;'
and in 1861, 'The Last Relics of Lady Jane Grey.'
He was a promising artist, but died in 1866, at the
early age of thirty-seven.

GRANTHOMME, JACQUES, a German engraver,
born at Heidelberg, flourished about the year 1600.
Little more is known of him than that he was edu-
cated in France in the school of Thomas De Leeuw
and Rabel, and that being expelled as a Huguenot,
he settled at Frankfort, where, as well as at Heidel-
berg he worked as an engraver, in the style ot
Sadeler and Cornelis Cort. Some writers speak of
three artists of this name, and attribute to them the
plates of Jean de Gourmont and Jan Georg van Vhet.
Granthomme is known to have executed eighty-two
plates, of which the best are his portraits. He worked
entirely with the graver, and usually marked ma
plates with one of these ciphers : rf
The following are his principal /p or
prints : */

Portrait of Henry III.
Louis XIII.
Charles IX.

James I., King of Great Britain.
Pope Sixtus V.

Frederick IV., Count Palatine of the Rhine.
Henry of Bourbon, Prince of Cond6.
Thirteen Portraits of the Doctors and Reformers ot the
Church ; or, as they are often styled, the Heresiarchs ;
after a painter whose initials are P. II.
The Narrative of the Good Samaritan ; four plates

271



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



The Marriage of Henry IV. and Catharine de' Medici.

The Infant Dauphin strangling a Serpent. 1601.

Adam and Eve.

Venus and Adonis ; four plates.

Laocoon.

The Murder of the Innocents.

The Apostles ; twelve small prints ; after his aim
designs.

The Rape of Helen ; copied from the print hy Marc-
Antonio, after Raphael.

GRANVILLE, , -was an English engraver,
who flourished about the year 1760. He executed
landscapes, among which are some plates from the
pictures of Thomas Smith of Derby.

GRANVILLE, MART, (Mrs. DELANT,) an Eng-
lish portrait painter and copyist, who was a great
favourite with George III., was born in 1700.
She was first married to a Mr. Pendarves, and
secondly to Dr. Delany, Dean of Down. She died
in 1788. There is a very good portrait of the
Duchess of Qiieensberry by her.

GRASDORP, WILLEM, a painter of fruit and
flowers, who resided at Amsterdam, was a scholar
of Ernst Stuven in 1710. His pictures are held in
great estimation, and are to be found in some of
the finest private collections in Holland. There is
a picture by him in the Brunswick Gallery, and
another in the Hermitage at St. Petersburg.

GRASHOF, OTTO, ail historical, genre, portrait,
and animal painter, was born at Prenzlau in 1812.
He was educated at Diisseldorf under Schadow, and
afterwards resided some years in Russia, Mexico,
and La Plata, but finally settled in 1845 at Cologne,
where he died in 1876. He had been blind from
1861. Some of his best known works are:

The Battle of Schumla. 1848.

Russian Bears in a Forest.

The Guardian Angel. 1845.

Bussian Pilgrims.

Portrait of Franz Liszt.

Christ and the Samaritan Woman. 1846.

Wolves by a dead Horse. 1847.

St. Wapitz of Novgorod.

Fight of a Tscherkessan and a Russian.

Till Eulenspiegel.

Scene from ' Nathan the Wise.'

GRASSI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, lived at Ddine in
the 16th century, and practised there both as an
architect and painter. His first known painting
there was the altar-piece of the church of San
Cristoforo, executed in 1547. In 1554 he painted
on the front of the Casa Sabbatini frescoes repre-
senting the Medusa, and Jove and Vulcan. In
1556 he painted the organ in the cathedral with
designs representing the ' Annunciation,' the ' Na-
tivity,' the ' Marriage at Cana,' and ' Christ healing
the Sick ; ' and in 1569 he executed the decorations of
the castle of Ddine, which are now nearly ruined.
He died after 1578. Two paintings of his are :

Buia. Church. Martyrdom of St. Lawrence. 1558.

Gemona. Church. Organ Shutters. 1577.

GRASSI, JOSEPH, an historical and portrait
painter, born at Udine in 1756, was made professor
at the Dresden Academy in 1800, and in 1817
director of the Royal Saxon Pensioners at Rome.
He died at Dresden in 1838. His portraits are much
esteemed, and he was particularly successful with
those of females. The Dresden Gallery possesses
two of his paintings, ' St. John the Baptist,' and
'St. Peter.'

GRATELLA. See FILIPPI, SEBASTIANO.

GRATELOUP, JEAN BAPTISTE, a French en-
graver, was born at Dax in Gascony in 1735, and

272



died in the same town in 1817. He executed por-
traits in the manner of Savart and Ficquet, among
which are :

Rousseau ; after J. A ved.

Adrienne Lecouvreur; after C. A. Coy pel.

Montesquieu ; after Dassier.

Descartes ; after F. Hois.

Dryden ; after Kneller.

Bossuet (two portraits) ; after Eigaud.

Fe'nelon ; after Vivien.

GRATI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, was born at Bo-
logna in 1681, and was a scholar of Giovanni
Gioseffo dal Sole. There are several of his pictures
in the churches at Bolonga, of which the most
esteemed are ' The Virgin and Child, with St.
Francis, St. Joseph, and St. Gaetano, with a glory
of Angels,' in Santa Maria Incoronata ; and ' St
Anne teaching the Virgin to read,' in San Giacomo
Maggiore. He died in 1758.

GRATIANI, BARTOLOSIMEO, the son of Gnido
Gratiani, settled in Perugia in 1319, and painted
for the church of Montelebate.

GRATIANI, GUIDO, superseded Diotisalvi in
1287, 1290, and 1298 as painter of the books of
the Biccherna. He is mentioned as the painter of a
banner, and he executed in 1295 a ' Majesty, be-
tween St. Peter and St. Paul,' in the Public Palace
of Siena, and gilded three hundred letters for an
image of the Virgin. In 1302 he executed the
portraits of twelve forgers for the front of the
Tribunal of Justice.

GRATIANI, MINO, a brother of Bartolommeo,
painted in 1289 a ' Virgin and Saints ' for the Hall
of the Great Council in the old Public Palace of
Siena, and in 1303 a ' St. Christopher.' In 1298
he produced the portraits of several false witnesses.
Hia name is not found in the public records after
1329.

GRATTON, GEORGE, an Irish genre painter, flour-
ished at the beginning of the 19th century, and in
1807 was awarded 100 guineas by the Dublin
Society for his ' Beggar Woman and Child.' He
afterwards removed to London, and exhibited at
the Royal Academy in 1812, 'The Guard Room,'
'The Gathering,' and 'Noon Tide." No trace of
him exists after this date. There is a water-colour
view of ' Christ Church, Dublin,' by him, in the
South Kensington Museum.

GRAVE, ALDE. See ALDEGREVEB.

GRAVE, HANS. See GRAF.

GRAVE, JAN EVERT, a designer and engraver,
was born at Amsterdam in 1759, and died there in
1805. He was a scholar of Jakob Cats and Jan
Punts, and chiefly executed landscapes and views
of towns.

GRAVE, JOSUA. See GRAAF.

GRAVELOT, HENRI, whose original name was
D'ANVILLE, a French designer and engraver, was
born in Paris in 1699. He was the brother of
the geographer D'Anville, but he assumed the
name of Gravelot on coming to England, whither
he was invited in 1733, by Claude Du Bosc, to assist
him in the plates for the 'Religious Ceremonies,'
which he published in English, copied from Picart.
Gravelot returned to France in 1745, but was
soon in England again, and after a highly suc-
cessful course here, he finally settled in Paris in
1754, where he died in 1773. He was an excel-
lent draughtsman, and made designs for ornaments,
and drawings of ancient buildings, monuments,
&c., with great taste. He etched several plates for
books ; among which were those for Sir Thomas



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Hanmer's edition of Shakespeare, some of which
were from his own designs, and others after Francis
Hayman. He also engraved the plates for Theo-
bald's Shakespeare, from his own designs. He is
also well known as one of the earliest caricaturists.
His best plate is a view of Kirkstall Abbey.

GRAVELOT, HDBERT FRANgois BOURGUIGNON.
See BOURGUIGNON-GRAVELOT.

GRAVES, ROBERT, a line-engraver, was born in
London in 1798. At an early age he manifested
a strong predilection for art, and studied in the
life-school held in Ship Yard, Temple Bar, until
1812, in which year he became a pupil of John
Romney, the engraver. Afterwards he made for
collectors many copies in pen-and-ink of rare por-
traits by Hollar, Van de Passe, and others ; but at
length he devoted himself entirely to engraving.
In 1836 he was by an unanimous vote elected an
Associate Engraver of the Royal Academy, on
which occasion he presented as his diploma work
the portrait of Lord Byron, after Thomas Phillips.
This and the 'Highland Whiskey-Still,' after Sir
Edwin Landseer, are his two most successful en-
gravings. Besides a great number of portraits and
book-illustrations, he engraved several plates after
Wilkie, Landseer, and Mulready, for the Author's
Edition of tht ' Waverley Novels,' and others for
the 'Literary Souvenir,' 'Iris,' 'Amulet,' 'Keep-
Bake Francais,' and ' Forget-Me-Not.' He died in
London in 1873. His plates generally are charac-
terised more by their refinement and delicacy, and
in these qualities they can scarcely be surpassed,
than by any remarkable vigour of line. The
following are his most important works:

The Enthusiast ; after T. Lane. 1831.

Mathematical Abstraction ; after the same. 1833.

The Musical Bore ; after R. W. Buss. 1834.

The Eomauce ; after the same.

The Venetian Girl ; after J. Wood. 1836.

Lord Byron ; after Thmias Phillips. 1836.

The Abbotsford Family ; after Sir David Willtie. 1837.

The Examination of Shakespeare before Sir Thomas

Lucy on a charge of deer-stealing ; after Sir George

Haney. 1839.

A Castaway ; after the same. 1841.
The Highland Whiskey-Still after Sir Edwin Landseer.

1842.
The First Beading of the Bible in the crypt of Old St

Paul's ; after Sir George Harvey. 1846.
Lord Nelson ; half-length ; after Abbott. 1847.
The Baron's Charger ; after J. F. Herring. 1850.
The Highland Cradle ; after Sir Edtcin Landseer. 1850.
Haidee, a Greek Girl ; after Sir Charles Eastlake. 1850.
The Princess Amelia ; after Sir Thomas Lawrence. 1855.
The Princess Victoria Gouramma of Coorg ; after

Winterhalter. 1857.
Cromwell resolving to refuse the Crown ; after C. Lucy.

1858.

The Sisters ; after Sir Charles Eastlake. 1859.
The Princesses Mary, Sophia, and Amelia, daughters of

George III. ; after J. S. Copley. 1860.
The Slide ; after Webster. 1861.
The Origin of the Harp ; after Maclise. 1862.
The Good Shepherd ; after Hurillo. 1863.
The Immaculate Conception ; after the same. 1865.
Paolo and Franceses da Rimini ; after Sir John Noel

Paton. 1866.
Hon. Mrs. Graham; full-length; after Gainsliormigh.

1866.

The Blue Boy (Master Burrell) ; after the same. 1868.
Mrs. Lloyd, afterwards Mrs. Peter Beckford ; full-
length ; after Sir Joshua Reynolds. 1868.
Mrs. Siddons ; half-length ; after Gainsborough. 1869.
ViaDolorosa; after Raphael (?). 1869.
Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire ; full-length ; after

Gainsborough. 1870.
Lady Bowater; full-length; after the same. 1872.

{Left unfinished : completed by James Stephenson.)

VOL. II. T



GRAY, , an English engraver of little celebrity,
executed a set of views for a work published about
1727, entitled 'Thirty different Drafts of Guinea,'
by William Smith, Surveyor to the Royal African
Company of England. There is a frontispiece to
the work, representing an Elephant, which is etched
in the style of Hollar, very superior to the plates
by Gray.

GRAY, HENRY PETERS, an American artist, a
pupil of the renowned Huntingdon, and born in
New York in 1819. After learning the elements
of his profession in his native city he set out for
Italy, and studied in Venice and Rome for two
years. He then returned to the United States,
remaining in New York till 1846, and producing
there some of his best-known works, especially
' Cupid begging his Arrow." Again he went to
Europe and again he returned to his native city,
and there he became a member of the National
Academy, rising in 1869 to the office of President,
in which he succeeded his old master Huntingdon.
He continued to hold this position till 1871, when
once again the attractions of Europe were too
strong to be overcome, and he left for Florence,
where he passed the remainder of his life, dying
in 1877. Amongst his better-known works are :
' The Pride of the Village," The Apple of Discord,'
' Wages of War,' which is in the Metropolitan
Museum in New York, ' Just Fifteen ' and ' The
Flower of Fiesole,' which belong to Mr. M. 0.
Roberts, 'The Model from Cadore,' and 'The
Pride of the Rialto.' Most of his works are the
result of his long sojourn in Italy, but on one
occasion certainly, in ' The Birth of our Flag,' he
treats of events in the history of the United States.
GRAY, PAUL, an Irish draughtsman on wood,
was born at Dublin in 1842, and there passed his
earlier years ; but when about twenty-one years
of age he came to London. He showed some skill
as a painter, but having to support his mother he
was driven to become awood-engraver. He designed
the illustrations to Charles Kingsley's ' Hereward,'
and he also contributed many of the cartoons to
'Fun.' He, however, suffered from bad health,
and died at the early age of twenty-four, in 1866.

GRAZIA, LEONARDO, known as LEONARDO DA
PISTOJA, was a native of Pistoja, and a scholar of
Giovanni Francesco Penni, a distinguished disciple
of Raphael. His family name appears to have
been Grazia, from an inscription on a picture of the
' Annunciation,' by him, in the chapel of the sacristy
of the cathedral of Lucca. He painted historical
subjects and portraits, but particularly excelled in
the latter. His works are to be found chiefly at
Rome, Naples, and Lucca. According to Zani he
flourished from 1516 to 1540 ; but there is a doubt
whether there were not two painters of the same
name who lived about the same time.
GRAZIADEI. See PESCIA.
GRAZIANI, EHCOLE, a Bolognese painter, was
born at Bologna in 1688. He was brought up
in the school of Donate Creti, whose style he
improved by a grander character of design, a
more harmonious colouring, and a greater freedom
of hand. His powers approximate to those of
Marc Antonio Franceschini and others that issued
from the school of Cignani. He was an artist of
unusual assiduity, and painted a prodigious number
of pictures for the public edifices at Bologna and
Piacenza. The churches at Bologna abound with
his works, of which the most esteemed is his cele-
brated picture of ' St. Peter consecrating St. Apol-

273



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



linaris amidst an assemblage of the primitive
Christians.' Cardinal Lambertini, Archbishop of
Bologna, on becoming Pope, as Benedict XIV.,
commissioned Graziani to paint a replica of this
picture for the church of Sant' Apollinare at Rome,
where is also his ' Baptisn, of Christ.' In San Bar-
tolommeo di Reno, at Bologna, are two admired
pictures by him of the 'Marriage of St. Catharine,'
and ' St. Anne teaching the Virgin to read.' In the
church of La Purita is the ' Ascension ; ' and in the
Madonna delle Rondini is the ' Annunciation,' one
of his most celebrated works. He died in 1765.

GRAZIANI, PIETKO, was a painter of battles,
who flourished at Naples in the 18th century.

GRAZZINI, GIOVANNI PAOLO, born at Ferrara
about the year 1570, passed the first and greater
part of his life as a goldsmith. He learned the
rudiments of design, as was at that time usual with
those of his profession, and being intimate with
Carlo Bononi, he was prompted by the celebrity
of his friend to make an essay of his own powers
in painting, though he had already passed the
prime of life. His first public performance, which
occupied him eight years, was a picture of 'St.
Eloy,' which Lanzi says was painted for the Scuola
degli Orefici. Barotti, in his description of the
works of art in Ferrara, places it in the church
of San Giuliano, and adds, that Carlo Bononi em-
bellished it with four angels at the corners, in
chiaroscuro, and that Scarzellino environed it with
nine small pictures of the principal actions of the
saint. Grazzini also painted several easel pic-
tures, which were much esteemed by his fellow-
citizens. He died in 1632.

GREBBER, See DE GEEEBER.

GRECCHI, MARC ANTONIO, was a native of
Siena, whose works are dated from 1590 to 1634.
There is a picture by him, mentioned by Lanzi,
in a church at Foligno, representing the ' Holy
Family." It is painted in a style resembling rather
the Bolognese taste of Tiarini, than that of any of
the Sienese painters.

GRECHE, DOMENICO DELLE. See THEOTOCOPULI.

GRECHETTO, IL. See CASTIGLIONE, GIOVANNI
BENEDETTO.

GRECO, IL. See THEOTOCOPULI.

GREE, PIETER JAN BALTHASAR DE, a Flemish
painter, born at Antwerp in 1751, was a pupil of
Geeraerts, from whom he acquired the taste for
painting bas-reliefs, and in this line he gained a
reputation. About 1786 he went to Ireland, and
settled in Dublin, where he died in 1789.

GREEN, AMOS, a flower and landscape painter,
who flourished in the latter half of the 18th century,
was the brother of Benjamin Green. ~" He waa.born
at Hales Owen, and died at York in 1807.

GREEN, BENJAMIN, a mezzotint engraver, born
at Hales Owen about 1736, was probably the elder
brother of Valentine Green. He was a member
of the Incorporated Society of Artists, with whom
he exhibited from 1765 to 1774, and he taught
drawing at Christ's Hospital. He died in London
about 1800. He engraved the plates in Morant's
' History and Antiquities of the County of Essex,'
1768, as well as the following prints :

The Horse before the Lion's Den ; after StiMs. 1763.

The Lion and the Stag ; after the same. 1770.

The Horse and the Lioness ; after the same. 1774.

Portrait of Lord Pigot; after the same.

Portrait of Miss Baldwin ; after Kettle.

GREEN, BENJAMIN ROBERT, a water-colour
painter, born in London in 1808. was the son of

274



James Green, the portrait painter. After having
been educated in the schools of the Royal Academy,
he became a member of the Institute of Painters
in Water-Colours. He taught much, and was for
many years Secretary of the Artists' Annuity Fund.
He died in London in 1876. There is a water-
colour drawing by him of the ' Interior of Stratford-
on-Avon Church ' in the South Kensington Museum.
GREEN, CHARLES, was born in 1840. He
studied at the Newman Street studios, and under
Mr. J. W. Whymper. His earliest work was in
black and white, many of his illustrations appear-
ing in 'Once a Week," 'London Society,' 'The
Churchman's Family Magazine,' ' Cassell's Maga-
zine ' and other periodicals, including the ' Illus-
trated London News ' and the ' Graphic,' to the
latter of which he was among the first contributors.
In 1864 he became an Associate of the Royal
Institute of Painters in Water-Colours, and a full
member in 1868. He took great interest in the
affairs of the society and was a regular contributor
to its exhibitions. His water-colour drawings,
which he exhibited for the first time in 1862,
were remarkable for their finished execution. In
early life he illustrated many books, including
Cumming's ' Life of Our Lord,' Watts' ' Divine
and Moral Songs,' and Thornbury's ' Legendary
Ballads.' His illustrations to Dickens are among
his best work. For the Household edition of the
' Old Curiosity Shop ' he executed thirty-two draw-
ings. His best known illustrations, however, were
produced in the last few years of his life ; they are
twenty-seven drawings for 'A Christmas Carol'
(1892), twenty-nine for ' A Battle of Life' (1893),



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