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thirty for ' The Chimes' (1894), and thirty for ' The
Haunted Man' (1895); his last work being ten
designs for the Gadshill edition of ' Great Expecta-
tions.' Scenes from Dickens' novels figured largely
as subjects for his water-colour drawings : these
include 'Nell and her Grandfather at the Races,'
' Captain Cuttle and Florence Dombey,' ' Barnaby
Rudge and the Rioters,' 'Mr. Mantalini and the
Brokers,' and ' The Pickwick Club.' He also painted
in oil-colours, and exhibited several pictures at the
Royal Academy. He died at Hampstead in 1898.

H,C.S.

GREEN, JAMES, a portrait painter, was bom at
Leytonstone in 1771. He at first practised in
water-colours, and belonged to the Associated
Society of Water-Colour Artists, but afterwards
exhibited at the British Institution, where he
obtained a prize of 60 in 1808. His later wiorks
appeared at the Royal Academy. He died at Bath
in 1834. There are portraits by him in the National
Portrait Gallery of Thomas Stothard, the painter,
and Sir John Ross, the Arctic navigator.

GREEN, JOHN, an engraver who worked in the
18th century, was a native of Hales Owen. He was
brother to Benjamin Green, and a pupil of James
Basire. Some of the plates in Borlase's ' Natural
History of Cornwall,' and on the Oxford Almanacks
are by him. He died about 1757. Among other
portraits, the following are by him :

Thomas Rowney, M.P.

Thomas Shaw, D.D., Master of St. Edmund Hall, Oxford.

'William Derham, D.D., Canon of 'Windsor.

GREEN, JOSHUA, was a water-colour painter, by
whom there is a drawing of ' Ullswater Head ' in
the South Kensington Museum. The dates of
his birth and death are unknown.

GREEN, MARY, a miniature painter, born in



VALENTINE GREEN




After Keynolds, 1780]

MARY ISABELLA, DUCHESS OF RUTLAND



VALENTINE GREEN




After Reynolds, 1779]

LADY BETTY DELME AND HER CHILDREN



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



1776, was the second daughter of William Byrne,
the landscape engraver, and wife of James Green|
the portrait painter, whom she married in 1805.'
She studied under Arlaud, and exhibited at the
Royal Academy from 1795 to 1834. She died in
1845. _ There are good portraits by her of Queen
Adelaide and Lady Alicia Peel.

GREEN, NATHANIEL EVERETT, landscape and
subject painter, received his early training at the
Royal Academy. He was a Fellow of the Royal
Astronomical Society, and well known for the
excellence of his planetary observations and draw-
ings, particularly those of Mars, made at Madeira
in 1877. He was the second president of the
British Astronomical Association. Since 1854 he
was a frequent exhibitor in Trafalgar Square,
Suffolk Street, and with the New Water-Colour
Society. His death occurred at St. Albans No-
vember 11, 1899.

GREEN, VALENTINE, a mezzotint engraver, was
born at Hales Owen, near Birmingham, in 1739.
He was intended by his father for the profession
of the law, for which purpose he was placed
under a respectable practitioner at Evesham, in
Worcestershire, with whom he passed two years ;
but having a taste for drawing, he abandoned his
office, and, without his father's concurrence, became
a pupil to an obscure line-engraver at Worcester.
His progress in that branch of engraving not suc-
ceeding to his wishes, he came to London in 1765,
and turned his attention to scraping in mezzotint,
in which, without the aid of an instructor, he arrived
at a perfection which has seldom been equalled.
Green participates with MacArdell andEarlominthe
merit of having been the first artists who gave con-
sequence and variety to the particular mode of en-
graving to which they devoted themselves ; and
it is worthy of remark, that Green's celebrated
prints of ' Hannibal ' and ' Regulus,' after the pic-
tures by West in the Royal Collection, were the
first plates of equal magnitude and importance
that had appeared. These were succeeded by
several others of similar consideration, which will
ever rank among the ablest and most energetic
efforts of mezzotint. This indefatigable artist, by
his unremitting exertions during a period of up-
wards of forty years, produced nearly four hundred
plates, engraved from the works of the most
celebrated painters, ancient and modern. In 1789
he obtained a patent from the Duke of Bavaria,
giving him the exclusive privilege of engraving
and publishing prints from the pictures in the
Diisseldorf Gallery ; and in the year 1795, he
had published twenty-two prints from that col-
lection. The enterprise promised to remunerate
him amply for so spirited an undertaking, but un-
fortunately, during the siege of that city by the
French in 1798, the castle and gallery were laid in
ruins, and a very valuable property belonging to
him was destroyed. Other speculations, flattering
in their outset, were lost to him by the overwhelm-
ing eruption of the French Revolution, of which
Green thus became one of the innumerable victims.
In 1767 he was elected a member of the Incorpor-
ated Society of Artists of Great Britain ; and in
1775 one of the six Associate Engravers of the
Royal Academy. On the foundation of the British
Institution he was appointed keeper ; and his
zealous exertions to promote the purposes of that
institution contributed greatly to its success.
Valentine Green died in London in 1813. The
following are among his most important works :
T 2



POETRAITS AFTER SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS.

Sir Joshua Reynolds ; after the picture by himself at the

Rot/al Academy. 1780.
The 'Duke of Bedford, Lords Henry and William

Kussell, and Miss Vernon. 1778.
Lord Dalkeith, afterwards Duke of Buccleuch. 1773
Maria Isabella, Duchess of Rutland.
Emily Mary, Countess of Salisbury. 1787.
Anne, Viscountess Townshend. 1780.
The Ladies Waldegrave. 1784.
Lady Louisa Manners. 1769.
Lady Elizabeth Cavendish. 1781.
Louisa, Countess of Aylesford. 1783.
Lady Elizabeth Delme. 1779.
Lady Talbot. 1782.
Lady Caroline Howard. 1782
Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire. 1780.
Lady Jane Halliday. 1779.
Jane, Countess of Harrington, with her two Sons. 1780.

PORTRAITS AFTER OTHER MASTERS.

Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria ; after P. Satom.

Sir Thomas Wharton ; after Van Dyck ; for the Hough-
ton Gallery.

Henry, Earl of Dan by ; after the same; for the same.

George, Marquis of Huntly ; after the strme ; for the
same.

Richard Cumberland ; after Romney. 1771.

Mrs. Yates, as the Tragic Muse ; after the same. 1772.

William Powell and Robert Bensley in the characters
of King John and Hubert ; after Mortimer.

John Hamilton Mortimer, painter ; after the same.

Garrick and Mrs. Pritchard, in Macbeth ; after Zo/any.

HISTORICAL SUBJECTS AFTER WEST.

The Stoning of Stephen. 1776.

The Raising of Lazarus.

Christ calling to him the little Children.

Peter denying Christ.

Jacob blessing the Sons of Joseph. 1768.

Daniel interpreting Belshazzar's Dream. 1777.

Nathan and David. 1784.

St. Peter and St. John going to the Sepulchre.

The Three Maries at the Sepulchre.

Alexander and his Physician.

Kegulus leaving Rome to return to Carthage.

Hannibal vowing eternal hatred to the Romans.

Mark Antony's Oration on the Death of Caesar.

Agrippina weeping over the Urn of Germanicus.

The Death of Epaminondas.

The Death of the Chevalier Bayard.

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS.

The Annunciation ; after F. JBarocci.

The Nativity ; after the same.

The Virgin and Infant ; after Domenichino.

St. John with the Lamb ; after Murillo.

The Assumption of the Virgin ; after the same.

The Entombment of Christ ; after L. Carracci.

Time clipping the Wings of Love ; after Van Dyck.

Venus and Cupid ; after Agostino Carracci.

The Descent from the Cross ; after Rubeiis.

The Visitation ; after the same.

The Presentation in the Temple ; .after the same.

The Sulky Boy ; after R. Morton Paye.

The Disaster of the Milk-pail ; after the same.

The Child of Sorrow ; after the 'same.

GREEN, WILLIAM, an engraver, was born at
Manchester in 1761. He originally practised as a
surveyor, and then came to London to study en-
graving ; but he afterwards settled in the Lake
district, and drew and engraved many views of
its scenery. He died at Auibleside in 1823. There
is by him in the South Kensington Museum a
water-colour drawing of ' Raven Crag, Thirlrnere.'

GREENAWAY, KATE, artist, was born at
1, Cavendish Street, Boston, March 17, 1846.
She was daughter of John Greenaway, wood-
engraver and draughtsman, whose chief work is to
be found in the 'Illustrated London News.' At

275



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



twelve she was a prize-winner at the South Ken-
sington Art School (Islington branch), and later
won several medals, including the "National."
She attended life classes at " Heatherley's " and
the newly-opened Slade School. Amongst her
fellow-students and friends were Elizabeth Thomp-
son (Lady Butler) and Helen Paterson (Mrs.
Allingham). Beyond designing Christmas cards
and valentines she did not appear before the
public until 1868, when she first exhibited at the
Dudley Gallery. Here six little drawings on wood
attracted the attention of Rev. W. J. Loftie, who
had them written up to and published in the
' People's Magazine.' She was now beginning to
recognize the possibilities which lay in a revival of
our grandmothers' gowns. These she made up
with her own hands, and with them costumed her
little models and lay figures. It was largely due
to this thoroughness in the beginning that she
achieved her ultimate success. In 1870 she ex-
hibited for the first time in Suffolk Street. In 1871
she illustrated Madame d'Aulnoy's ' Fairy Tales'
for Messrs. Cronheim. In 1872 she designed some
covers for yellow-back novels. In 1873 she began
work on ' Little Folks' (Cassell), and was employed
by Marcus Ward to design Christmas cards, which
proved an immense success. The same year she
exhibited and sold her picture ' A Fern Gatherer '
at the Royal Manchester Institution. In 1874 she
illustrated 'Topo,' a youthful performance of Miss
Blood's (Lady Colin Campbell), for Marcus Ward,
and the same year published with that firm 'The
Quiver of Love,' a volume of Valentine's. In 1877
she sold her first Academy picture, ' Missing,' and
was working for the 'Graphic' and 'Illustrated
London News.' Of greatest importance, however,
at this time was the beginning of her long business
connection with Mr. Edmund Evans, the well-
known colour-printer, and the turning-point in
her career was his production of 'Under the
Window,' of which both illustrations and letterpress
were hers. Of this 70,000 copies were sold. This
was followed, amongst others, by the ' Birthday
Book,' ' Mother Goose,' ' A Day in a Child's Life '
(1881), 'Little Ann' (1883), 'The Language of
Flowers,' the ' Painting Book ' and ' Mavor's Spell-
ing Book' (1884-5), ' Marigold Garden' and 'An
Apple Pie ' (1886), ' The Queen of the Pirate Isle '
and ' The Pied Piper of Hamelin' (1887), the' Book
of Games' (1888),' King Pepito' (1889), the 'April
Baby's Book of Tunes ' (1 901 ), and a series of ' Al-
manacks.' An idea of the success of the Green-
away-Evans partnership may be gathered from
the fact that in this space of ten years the number
of copies of her works printed reached a grand
total of 714,000. She early attracted the attention
of Frederick Locker (afterwards Locker-Lampson),
Stacy Marks and Ruskin. For the latter's opinion
of her works reference should be made to ' Fors
Clavigera' and ' The Art of England.' With him
she carried on a voluminous correspondence for
over seventeen years. In 1880 she was invited to
exhibit at the Grosvenor Gallery. Up to this year
she had sold her drawings out and out, but from
henceforth she retained the copyrights as a pro-
tection against imitators and pirates. In 1881
the Crown Princess of Germany (the Empress
Frederick) and Princess Christian sought her
acquaintanceship and received her at Buckingham
Palace and Cumberland Lodge. In 1883 she
had made enough money (four of her books
alone having brought her in 8000), to build
276



herself a fine house and studio at 39, Frognal,
Hampstead. This, which was designed by Mr.
Norman Shaw and finished in 1885, she inhabited
till her death. In 1883 she began the series of
Almanacks (mentioned above), which were con-
tinued (1896 excepted) until 1897. Her designs
were now being freely copied on glass, crockery,
linen fabrics, wall-papers, stationery, tiles, choco-
late-boxes and pottery, both at home and abroad.
In 1885 she did some extra illustrations for the
old ballad, 'Dame Wiggins of Lea,' which was
published with extra verses and an introduction
by Ruskin. In 1889 she was elected a member of
the Royal Institute of Painters in Water-Colours,
to the exhibitions of which body she became a
frequent contributor of genre subjects and portraits.
In 1891, 1894 and 1898 she held exhibitions of her
pictures at the Fine Art Society (Bond Street), and
sold several thousand pounds' worth of pictures.
It was, too, in the early nineties that she made the
acquaintance of Mr. M. H. Spielmann, her future
biographer. During her later years she designed
several charming bookplates, and finally in 1899,
at the age of fifty-three, she set herself to master
the technicalities of portrait-painting in oils. But
her health was now failing, and, after two years of
suffering, she died on November 7, 1901.

Technically Kate Greenaway was not a great
artist, but she influenced greatly the art of the
nineteenth century. In a limited sense she was
the founder of a school, but she will be chiefly
remembered for the revolution which she accom-
plished in the dress of the children of two con-
tinents. Her name has passed not only into the
English language but into the French, where
" greenawisme " has gone to stay. G. S. L.

GREENBURY, , a portrait painter, employed
by Charles I. as a copyist, is mentioned by Sir
Theodore de Mayerne, and by Walpole. He died
about 1670. There is in New College, Oxford, a
portrait of Arthur Lake, Bishop of Bath and Wells,
by him, dated 1626.

GREENHILL, JOHN, a portrait painter, was
born at Salisbury in 1649. He was one of the
ablest scholars of Sir Peter Lely, and before he was
twenty copied Van Dyck's picture of ' Thomas
Killigrew and his Dog,' now in the collection of
the Duke of Devonshire, so well that it was mis-
taken for the original. His heads in crayons were
much admired ; and he appears to have been more
employed in that way than in oil. He would pro-
bably have reached a high position in the art, had
he not fallen a victim, in the prime of life, to an
intemperate and dissolute course of life. He died
in London in 1676. There are in the National Por-
trait Gallery portraits by him of Charles II., and of
Anthony, first Earl of Shaf tesbury. He also etched
a portrait of his brother, Henry Greenhill, the
mathematician.

GREENWOOD, JOHN, a painter and mezzotint
engraver, was born at Boston, in Massachusetts, in
1729. In 1752 he migrated to Surinam, and thence
to Holland, arriving in England in 1763. Here
he exhibited engravings at the Incorporated Society
of Artists from 1764 to 1776, when he became an
auctioneer. He died at Margate in 1792. Amongst
the plates he engraved are:

The Curious Maid ; after a picture by himself.
Amelia Hone ; after Hone.
John Wesley ; after the same.
George Whitefield ; after the same.
An Old Man ; after JCeckhout.



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



GREENWOOD, THOMAS, the son of John Green-
wood, the painter and engraver, was for many
years at the close of the 18th century, chief scene-
painter at Drury Lane Theatre. He died in 1797.

GREFF, HIERONYMUS, a German engraver, was
a native of Frankfort, who flourished early in the
16th century. He is supposed to have been a pupil
of Albrecht Diirer ; but this conjecture probably
arose from his having copied some of the designs
of that artist with great exactness ; among which
are the woodcuts of the ' Apocalypse,' copied in 1502
in the game size as the originals. He is sometimes
called ' Hieronymus of Frankfort,' and he usually



marked his prints with the monogram



GREGORI, CARLO, an Italian engraver, was born
at Florence in 1719. He learned engraving from
Johann Jakob Frey at Rome, and among his prin-
cipal plates are those after the paintings by Ber-
nardino Barbatelli, called Poccetti, in the chapel
of St. Philip Neri at Florence. He engraved also
several plates for the ' Museo Fiorentino," as well
as many after the pictures in the collection of
the Marquis Gerini, and some portraits. He died
at Florence in 1759. The following plates are by
him:

PORTRAITS.

Francesco Maria, Grand-Duke of Tuscany ; after Cam-

piglia.
Eltr>uora Vincentiua o! Gonzaga, his consort ; after the

same.
Sebastiano Bombelli ; after a picture by himself.

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS.

The Image of the Virgin ; after a design by Fratta.

Saint Catharine ; after Bartolozzi.

Fourteen plates of the Life of St. Philip Neri; after

Bernardino Barbatelli.
The Three Maries at the Sepulchre ; after Raphael.

GREGORI, FERDINANDO,the son of Carlo Gregori,
was -born at Florence in 1743. After receiving
some instruction in engraving from his father, he
went to Paris, where he became a pupil of J. G.
Wille, and afterwards returned to Florence, where
he died about 1804. He engraved several plates,
of which the following are the principal :

Portrait of Carlo Gregori ; after his own design.

La Madonna della Sedia ; after Raphael.

The Holy Family under a Palm Tree, surrounded by
Angels ; after C. Maratti.

Venus sleeping ; after Guirlo.

St. Sebastian bound to a Tree ; after the same.

Venus, with Cupid mounted on a' Dolphin ; after Casa-
nova.

Two Groups of Sculpture ; after Cellini.

The Holy Family ; after Andrea del Sarto.

The Stoning of Stephen ; after L. Cardi.

The Death of St. Louis Gonzaga ; after Cipriani.

GREGORIO, Fra, a Polish miniature painter of
the 17th century, worked in Rome for the house of
Barberini, and afterwards in London for Charles I.
and his Queen in 1640. He was also a carver in ivory.

GREGORIO, MARCO DI, who was born at Resina
in 1829, studied in the Art School at Naples. In
1868 he went to Egypt, where he remained for
three years, made several studies, and painted a
drop scene for the theatre at Cairo. He died at
Resina in 1876.

GREGORIO DI CECCO. See CECCO.

GREGORIUS, ALBERTUS JAKOB FRANS, a por-
trait painter, and director of the Academy at Bruges,
was born in that city in 1774, and after 1802 was a
scholar of David at Paris. He painted, amongst



others, the portraits of Napoleon, Louis XVIII,
Charles X., and Louis Philippe. He returned to
Bruges in 1835, and died there in 1853.

GREIG, GEORGE M.,a water-colour painter, was
an artist better known in Scotland than in England,
who confined himself almost entirely to painting
picturesque interiors and old buildings. He ex-
hibited some sketches of the interior of Holyrood
Palace at the Royal Academy in 1865, and died at
Edinburgh in 1867.

GREIN, KASPAR ARNOLD, was born at Briihl,
near Cologne, in 1764. He was instructed under
J. M. Metz, in Cologne, where from 1794 he lived
as a teacher of drawing, and died in 1835. He
was especially successful as a flower-painter, but
was clever also in portraits, landscapes, still-life,
and historical subjects. The Wallraf-Richartz
Museum at Cologne contains one of his pictures.

GREISCHER, M., a German engraver mentioned
by Basan, is said to have engraved several plates
after various masters, which are signed with the



annexed monogram :



One of them is a



print of ' The Virgin and Infant Christ, with St.
John,' after F. Barocci.

GRENIER DE SAINT-MARTIN, FRANCOIS, who
was born in Paris in 1793, studied in David's school,
and devoted himself to historical subjects. Later
in life he painted genre and fancy subjects, many
of which are well known from engravings and
lithographs. He died in Paris in 1867. Amongst
his pictures may be mentioned :

The Marriage Project.

The Sailor with his Boy.

The Strolling Players with the Stolen Child.

The Recovered Child.

The Old Vagabond ; (from Beranger).

The Poacher fallen asleep on the Watch.

The Little Wood Thieves.

Prudence. (Compiegne.)

GRENVILLE, JONES, an Irish engraver, was
born at Dublin in 1723. He chiefly executed
landscapes, among which are two after Poussin.

GRESLY, GABRIEL, a French genre painter, was
born at L'Isle-sur-les-Doubs about 1710, and died
at Besan(jon in 1756. There are examples of hia
art in the Museums of Dijon and Besan9on.

GRESSE, JOHN ALEXANDER, born in London of
Swiss parentage in 1741, was first instructed by
Gerard Scotin, the engraver, but afterwards studied
for some years under Cipriani, as well as under
Zuccarelli. He was one of the first students who
attended the Duke of Richmond's gallery, and in a
short time afterwards he entered the Academy in St.
Martin's Lane. Though possessed of considerable
talents, he was not sufficiently assiduous to distin-
guish himself in the higher branches of painting ;
and as he inherited a small fortune at the death_of
his father, he relinquished the more arduous exercise
of the profession, and became a drawing-master,
in which pursuit he acquired great reputation and
extensive employment, and in 1777 was appointed
drawing-master to the princesses. In the early
part of his life he etched the figures, &c., for
Kennedy's 'Description of the Antiquities and
Curiosities in Wilton House,' 1769, in which he
had the advantage of being assisted by Bartolozzi.
There are also four other etchings by this artist,
a ' View of Framlingham Castle, Suffolk ; ' a ' Cot-
tage ; ' a ' St. Jerome ; ' and a ' Satyr sleeping,' after
Nicolas Poussin. Grease died in London in 1794.



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



On account of his corpulency he was known among
his comrades by the name of ' Jack Grease." In
the South Kensington Museum is a water-colour
drawing by him of ' Llangollen Bridge."

GREUT, JOSEPH, noticed by Strutt as the en-
graver of a portrait of Hieronymus Bartholomeus,
is supposed to have been a German, and to have
worked chiefly for booksellers.

GREUTER, JOHANN FBIEDRICH, the son of
Matthaus Greuter, was born at Rome about the
year 1600, and was instructed by his father, whom
he surpassed. He died in 1660. He engraved the
plates for the ' Flora' of P. Ferrari, as well as the
following prints :

Portrait of Giovanni Battista Marino ; after S. Vouet.
Hercules in the Garden of the Hesperides ; after Pietro

da Cortona.
Marc' Antonio Oolonna carried in triumph by Sea Gods ;

after the same.

The Forge of Vulcan ; after Lanfranco.
The Hesperides arriving in the Port of Naples, with

their Fruit borne by Tritons ; after the same.
Apollo and the Muses; after A. Camassei.
The Virgin and Infant, with St. Francis kneeling ; after

his own design.

The Death of St. Cecilia; after Domenichino.
The Growth of Christianity ; after Romanelli.
Battle-piece ; after A . Tempesta.

GREUTER, MATTHAUS, a German engraver, was
born at Strassburg about the year 1564. After
receiving some instruction in his native city, he
travelled to Italy, by way of Lyons and Avignon,
in both of which cities he was for some time em-
ployed. He resided chiefly at Rome, where he
engraved several plates, executed in a neat style,
though his design is generally incorrect. He died
in 1638. Some of his plates are wrought entirely
with the graver ; others are etched, and finished
with the graver, in a slighter style. He signed his
prints sometimes with his name at length, and



The



sometimes with the monogram Mjl

following are his principal works:

Pope Sixtus V.

Cardinal Serafino Olivaro Razalio.

The Virgin seated, with the Infant Jesus and St. John ;
after F. Harocci.

St. Mary Magdalen seated, holding a Book, and leaning
her hand on a Skull ; after Luigi Gaetano. 1584.

Venus standing on a Globe, with Figures emblematical
of Virtue and Vice ; after his own design. 1587.

The Fall of Phaeton ; after W. Dietterlin. 1588.

The Burning of Troy: after Lanfranco.

The grand Cavalcade of the Emperor Charles V. ; en-
graved conjointly with Lucas forstfrman.

A set of small plates of Insects ; etched in a style like
that of Gai/wood.

View of Stra'ssburg in 1587 ; after D. Speckle.

~H

GREDZE, JEAN BAPTISTE, a French genre and
portrait painter, was born at Tournus, near Macon,
in Burgundy, on the 21st August, 1725, and from
his eighth year amused himself with drawing,
although his father at first opposed his inclinations.
His earliest regular instruction in art was due
to a Lyonnese painter, Grandon his maternal



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