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grandfather who took him to Lyons, and eventu-
ally to Paris, where he studied in the Academy.
His first picture, ' A Father explaining the Bible to
his Children,' obtained a great success, and it was
for some time doubted whether he was really
the painter. His subsequent productions dis-
pelled these doubts, and in 1755, his picture of
'L'Aveugle trompe' procured his acceptance by the
Academy, on the nomination of Pigalle, the sculptor.

278



He then passed a short time in Italy, and his
sojourn there affected his style for a time, but did
not leave any permanent traces. On his return he
continued to exhibit at the Academy, without ful-
filling the required academic conditions, and he was
at length, after repeated warning, excluded from
the Salon of 1767. It was not till after he had pro-
duced his 'Severus reproaching Caracalla' (now in
the Louvre) in 1769, that he was admitted into the
Academy, and then not in the highest class as a
painter of history, but in the ranks of the genre
painters. At this rebuff Greuze withdrew in
dudgeon, and did not exhibit again until after the
Revolution. But it was then too late : the classic
school reigned supreme, and, moreover, age had
begun to tell on his art. Troubles fell thickly upon
him in his latter years : the competence he had
saved was dissipated by failures, and his nature
was not such as to attract friends. He died in indi-
gence in Paris on the 21st of March, 1805. Greuze
has with justice been styled the painter of the bour-
geoisie : his happiest efforts are taken from the
daily life of the middle classes, e. g. ' The Father's
Curse,' ' The Broken Pitcher,' ' The Village Bride,'
'The Sleeping Girl,' &c. Charming as his works
are, they often suggest doubts as to his sincerity,
and give rise to an impression that he, equally
with his contemporaries, was influenced by the
pursuit of mere prettiness. Still, however, to give
him his due, Greuze merits some recognition of his
efforts after a more natural style than the false and
sickly sentiment of the sham pastorals with which
the Bouchers and the Fragonards were inundating
French art.

An account of Greuze and of his works is to be
found in MM. de Goncourt's 'Art du XVIlInu
siecle.' The following paintings by him are to be
found in the chief European collections :



Air.

Berlin.
Cambridge.



Museum. Triumph of Galatea,
Study of a Child.
Little Girl with music-book.



Dresden.



Gallery.



Edinburgh. Nat. Gall.



Glasgow.

Goth'a.
London.



Gallerv.
National Gall.



Leipsic.
Lille.
Madrid.
Moutpellier.



Munich.
Nar bonne.



Gallery.

mlliam ) B B

Museum. )

Beggar Girl.

A Father explaining the Bible

to his Children.
Interior of Cottage with

Peasant's family.
Girl with dead canary.

Boy with lesson-book.
Two studies of Girls.

Gallery. A Child's Head.
" The Sulky Boy.

The Emperor Caracalla.
Girl's head draped with a

scarf.

Head of a Girl.

Girl with an apple.

Girl with a lamb.

Wallace Collection. Girl with doves.

The Listening Girl.

Portrait of Sophie Arnould.

Votive offering to Cupid.

The Broken Mirror.

Innocence.

Espieglerie.

Girl with a gauze scarf.
Study of a Woman.
Psyche crowning Love.
Old Woman with crutch.
The Morning Prayer.
Twelfth Cake. 1774
The young Mathematician.
The Paralytic.
The Idle Child. 1755.
Sii studies of Girls.
Portrait of a young Girl.
Study of a young Girl's head.



Museum.
Jlluseum.
Gallery.
Museum.



Gallery.
Museum.



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J. B. GREUZE




Mansell, photo\ [ Wallace Gallery

INNOCENCE



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



l-,mi< '- ifusewn. Study of an old Woman's

head.
Paris. Louvre. Severus reproaching Caracalla.

1769.

The Village Marriage. 1761.

The Father's Curse.

The Son punished.

The Broken Pitcher.

Two studies of young Girls.

Rome. Academy of) Contemp i ation .

Of. J^UrCe. )

Petersburg. Hermitage. The Paralytic.

Study of a young Girl.

Rotterdam. Museum. Young Woman and Child.

Vienna. Academy. Five studies of heads.

PORTRAITS.

Angers. Museum. Madame de Porcin.

Besa^on. Museum. Count Alexandre Strogonof.

Paul Strogonof.

Head of a Girl.

Cherbourg. Museum. Baron Denou.

'Hampton Court. Palace. Madame de Pompadour.

Louis XVI.

London. South Kensington. The Artist's Mother.
Lyons. Museum. His own Portrait.

Marseilles. Museum. Unknown Man.

Nantes. Museum. M. de St. Morys.

n Count de St. Morys as a Child.

Paris. Louvre. His own Portrait.

His own Portrait. (Sketch.)
Etienne Jeaurat, the painter.
Armand Gensonne.
Fabre d'Eglantine.

Troves. Museum. Eugene de Baculard d'Arnaud.

1776.

Versailles. Gallery. Napoleon I. as Consul.

FonteneUe. 1793.

See ' Greuze,' Bell's Miniature Series, 1902.

GREVEDON, PIERRE Louis, known as HENRI, a
portrait painter and lithographer, was born in Paris
in 1782, and died there in 1860. He was instructed
under Regnault, and at first painted historical
pieces and scenes from popular life, but before long
he devoted himself wholly to lithography, in which
he produced portraits and fancy heads.

GREVEN, ANTON, a portrait and genre painter,
was born at Cologne in 1810, and after studying at
Diisseldorf betook himself to Munich, where he
was exciting high hopes of future distinction, when
he died at Cologne in 1838. Among his best
paintings are :

Monks drinking.

The Coffee Quaffers.

The Knight and his Lady Love ; (from Uhland).

GREVILLE, Lady LOUISA AUGUSTA, the eldest
daughter of Francis, first Earl of Warwick, was
oorn in 1743, and married in 1770 to William
Churchill, Esq. She etched after Salvator Rosa,
Annibale Carracci, and others, and the Society of
Arts awarded her gold medals in 1758, 1759, and
1760, for various drawings.

GRIBEL1N, SIMON, a French engraver, was born
at Blois in 1661. He was instructed in engraving
in Paris, and came to England in 1680 ; but it was
above twenty years before he was noticed. The
first work that raised his reputation was a plate
he copied from Gerard Edelinck's fine print of
' Alexander entering the Tent of Darius,' after Le
Brun. This was followed in 1707 by a set of the
Cartoons of Raphael at Hampton Court, which
had some success, being the first complete set that
had appeared ; but the plates were on too small
a scale for the grandeur of the subjects, and the
contracted powers of Gribelin, both in execution
and drawing, were wholly inadequate to express



the sublimity of Raphael. He afterwards pub-
lished several plates after pictures in the Royal
Collection ; but his prints give no idea of the style
of the masters after whom they are engraved.
He also produced some portraits, and a variety of
other subjects. He died in London in 1733. The
following are his principal prints :

PORTRAITS.

William III. ; after Fowler.

Queen Mary II. ; after the same.

William, Duke of Gloucester ; after Kneller.

Queen Anne.

Frederick, Prince of Wales.

George Granville, Lord Lansdowne.

James Butler, Duke of Ormonde ; after Dahl. 1713.

Thomas Herbert, Earl of Pembroke.

The Duke of Schomberg.

The Earl of Shaf tesbury ; after Clostermann ; prefixed to

the ' Characteristics.'
Sir William Dawes, Archbishop of York ; after the same.

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS.

The Cartoons ; seven small plates ; after Raphael. On
the title is the portrait of Queen Anne, and the repre-
sentation of the room at Hampton Court in which
the paintings then hung.

The Apotheosis of James I. ; after the ceiling at White-
hall by Rubens ; in three plates.

Hercules between Virtue and Vice ; after P. Matheis.

The Adoration of the Shepherds ; after Palma.

Esther before Ahasuerus ; after Tintoretto.

Apollo and the Muses ; after the same.

The Birth of Jupiter ; after Giulio Romano.

GRIDEL, JOSEPH fistlLE, French painter ; mem-
ber of the Society of French Artists ; born Oct. 16,
1839 ; a frequent exhibitor at the Salon ; a pupil of
Feyen-Perrin. Gridel excelled in depicting hunt-
ing scenes in Lorraine, his canvases showing rare
energy of treatment and conception. He first
exhibited at the Salon in 1865, where his work was
always welcome. He was quite an authority on
sport, and wrote several books which had hunting
as their theme. His death occurred in Paris on
Jan. 15, 1902.

GRIEF, ANTON, (GRIF, GRIFIR, or GRYEF,) a
Flemish painter of wooded landscapes with dead
game, dogs, and accessories of the chase, was born
at Antwerp in 1670. His pictures are small, but
painted with spirit and well coloured, though some-
what too sombre. He lived at Brussels, and died
there in 1715, but there are no particulars of him
recorded, though from his style it is conjectured
that he was a pupil of Frans Snyders. There
seem to have been two painters of the same name,
but whether father and son is unknown. Among
his works are :

Dijon. Museum. Game.

Lille. Museum. Vegetables and Fruit.

Paris. Louvre. Landscape, with dead Game.

Petersburg. Hermitage. Trophies of the Chase.

Poultry-yard.

GRIEGO, EL. See SERAFIN ; and THEOTOCOPULI.

GRIEN1NGER. See REINHAKT, HANS.

GRIEVE, JOHN HENDERSON, a scene-painter, was
born in 1770, and died in 1845.

GRIEVE, WILLIAM, a scene-painter, was born in
London in 1800. He was the son of J. H. Grieve,
and as a boy began scene-painting at Drury Lane
Theatre, where, and at Covent Garden, he made
his reputation, notably by the scenery for 'Masa-
niello ' and ' Robert le Diable.' He died in London
in 1844.

GRIF, ANTON. See GRIEF.

GRIFFIER, JAN, called OLD GRIFFIER, was born

279



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



at Amsterdam in 1645, and first placed under a
flower-painter ; but his taste leading him to land-
scape, he became a scholar of Roeland Roghman,
whose works were then highly esteemed. He pre-
ferred, however, the brighter and more agreeable
style of Ruisdael and Lingelbach, and he studied
their pictures more than those of his master. In
a short time he became a very pleasing painter of
landscapes and views of the Rhine, in which he
particularly excelled.

Jan Griffier came to England soon after the fire
of London, and his pictures being much admired,
he met with great encouragement. His favourite
subjects were views of the Thames ; and in order
that he might study nature more intimately, he
purchased a yacht, embarked his family and his
pencils, and passed his whole time on the river
between Windsor and Gravesend. After staying
here many years, he sailed in his own yacht for
Rotterdam, but was shipwrecked, and lost the pro-
duce of his industry in England. Nothing daunted,
he built a new yacht, and sailed from port to port,
studying with earnestness. He returned to Eng-
land in 1687, found a liberal patron in the Duke of
Beaufort, and died in London in 1718. His best
known works are :

Amsterdam. Museum. A River Scene.

Augsburg. Gallery. River and Mountain Views.

Bordeaux. Museum. Two Rhine Views.

Brunswick. Gallery. Two Winter Scenes.
Cambridge.



Dogs and Game.

Dresden. Gallery. Fifteen Landscapes.

Gotha. Gallery. Winter Landscape.

Hampton Court. Palace. Ruins.

View of Windsor Castle.

Paris. Louvre. Two Views on the Rbine.

Petersburg. Hermitage. Landscape.

GRIFFIER, JOHN, a landscape painter, the son
of ' Old Griffier,' was born in the latter part of the
17th century. He practised in London, and ex-
celled in his copies of Claude's works. He died
in London about 1750. The only two pictures of
this artist, at present known to be extant, are in
the Marquis of Bute's Collection. They are both
imaginary river scenes, and one is dated 1743.

GRIFFIER, ROBERT, the son of Jan Griffier,
was born in London in 1688, and instructed by his
father. His pictures, like the early works of the
latter, represent views on the Rhine, with boats and
figures, very neatly painted, and agreeably coloured.
He resided for many years in Amsterdam, but late
in life he returned to England, and died here in
1750. There is a 'Landscape' by him in the
Hermitage at St. Petersburg.

GRIFFITH, MOSES, a draughtsman, born in Car-
marthenshire in 1749, was the servant of Pennant,
the antiquary, for whom he drew and engraved
illustrations for some of his works. In 1801 he
published on his own account some etchings of
Welsh scenery. He was living in 1809. There is
a 'Landscape' by him, in water-colours, in the
South Kensington Museum.

GRIFIR, ANTON. See GRIEF.

GRIFOL, FRANCISCO, was a Valencian painter of
religious daubs for the people. In the course of
his practice he learned to paint landscapes, marine
views, and fruit pieces of some merit, but in spite
of this success, he came to poverty, and died in the
public hospital at Valencia in 1766.

GRIGNION, CHARLES, an English portrait and
historical painter, was born in London in 1754.

280



He studied under Cipriani, and in the schools of
the Royal Academy, where he obtained the gold
medal in 1776 for his ' Judgment of Hercules.'
In 1782 he went to Rome with the Academy
studentship, and thenceforth chiefly resided in
Italy. There he painted ' The Death of Captain
Cook,' and a portrait of Lord Nelson. He pur-
chased several fine pictures in Italy, notably the
Altieri Claudes, which were sent to London. He
exhibited at the Royal Academy between 1770 and
1784, and died at Leghorn in 1804.

GKIGNION, REYNOLDS, an English engraver of
the 18th century, executed the plates for Basker-
ville's edition of Addison, Pennant's ' Scotch Tour,'
&c. He died at Chelsea in 1787.

GRIGNON, CHARLES, probably a relative of
Jacques Grignon, \vas born in London, of foreign
parentage, in 1716. He was one of the committee
appointed in 1755 to arrange for the establishment
of the Royal Academy. He engraved several
plates in a masterly style ; some of which were
executed in conjunction with his contemporaries.
Among his earliest works were several of the plates
for the celebrated anatomical work of Albinus,
published by Knapton in 1757. He engraved also
some of the plates of the 'Antique Statues,' after
the designs of Dalton, as well as the tapestries
of the Vatican, published in 1753. There are some
good examples of his art in the illustrations to
' Bell's British Poets,' especially those after Stoth-
ard. He died at Kentish Town, near London, in
1810. The following prints are also by him :

A View taken from the Star and Garter at Richmond ;

after Heckel.
Two perspective Views of the Foundling Hospital ; after

ralie.
The Election ; four plates ; after Hogarth ; engraved

conjointly with Le Cave and Aveline.
Garrick, in the character of Richard III. . engraved in

conjunction with Hogarth. 1745.
Phryne and the Philosopher Zenocrates; after Salvator

Rosa.

GRIGNON, JACQUES, a French engraver, flour-
ished about the year 1680. The best of his works
are portraits, some of which possess great merit.
They are executed entirely with the graver, in a
neat, clear style. In his plates of historical sub-
jects he is less successful, as his drawing is very
incorrect, and his management of the lights and
shadows heavy and without effect, particularly in
his plates after Poussin and the Carracci. He
engraved some of the plates for a work entitled ' Les
Tableaux de la Penitence,' after the designs of
Chauveau. The f ollowing portraits are also by him :

Francesco Maria Rhima ; an ecclesiastic.

Pierre Barbereau, Doctor in Theology; after Ph. de
Champaigns.

Jacques Cosur, Seigneur de St. Fargeau.

Jean Bureau, Mayor of Bordeaux.

GRIGOLETTI, MICHELANGELO, was born at
Rorai Grande di Pordenone in 1801, and was
educated at the Academy at Venice, of which he,
in 1839, became a professor. In 1824 he first
came out with historical paintings of his own,
and a church picture by him in Sant' Antonio at
Trieste excited much attention. In 1837 he exe-
cuted a like work for the new cathedral at Erlau,
and in 1846 an altar-piece for that at Gran in
Hungary. He died at Vienna in 1870. Among
his works, in addition to some portraits, may be
mentioned :
Erlau. Cathedral. The Archangel Michael.

Holy Family.



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Gran. Cathedral. Ascension of the Virgin.

Treviso. Sig. Guyana. An Odalisque.

Trieste. S. Antonio. St. Anne with the Virgin and

Child.

Herr Caal. The Prodigal Son.

Siy. Sartorio. Francesca da Rimini.
Vienna. Gallery. Francesco Foscari committing his

Son to Prison.

GRILLANDAIO. See BIGOBDI.

GRIMALDI, ALESSANDRO, the son and scholar of
Giovanni Francesco Grimaldi, flourished in the
latter half of the 17th century, and painted land-
scapes in the style of his father, but did not equal
him in execution. He appears to have etched a
good many of his father's figures. There is an
etching by him entitled ' An Allegory upon Re-
ligion,' which is in the style of Pietro Santi Bartoli ;
and another of the ' Brazen Serpent," after his own
design.

GRIMALDI, GIOVANNI FRANCESCO, called IL
BOLOGNESE, was born at Bologna in 1606, and
studied under the Carracci, in whose academy he
became a skilful designer of the figure ; though his
inclination led him later on to landscape painting,
in which he endeavoured to rival Annibale Carracci
and Titian. He next went to Rome, where he soon
rose to distinction, and was taken under the pro-
tection of Innocent X., who employed him in the
Vatican, and in his gallery at Monte Cavallo.
These commissions were executed so satisfactorily,
that Prince Pamfili, nephew to the Pope, engaged
him to decorate his villa of Bel Respiro, which he
embellished with some admirable landscapes with
figures, in the style of the Carracci. His reputa-
tion reached Paris, whither in 1648 he was invited
by Cardinal Mazarin, and where Louis XIV. em-
ployed him in the palace of the Louvre, and
rewarded him with his accustomed munificence.
On his return to Rome, after the death of his pro-
tector, Innocent X., he was equally patronized by
his successors, Alexander VII. and Clement IX.,
and was one of the most successful artists of his
time. He was twice appointed president of the
Academy of St. Luke. His death occurred at Rome
in 1680. Many of his pictures are in the Colonna
Palace at Rome and the Vienna Gallery, and the
following also are preserved :

Darmstadt. Gallery. Baptism of Christ.

Edinburgh. Nat. Gall. Landscape.

Paris. Bibl. Nat. Landscapes.

Louvre. Landscapes.

The Washerwomen.

Rome. Quirinal. Scenes from the Old Testament.

Boryhese Pal. Series of Landscapes.

Grimaldi also left a number of etchings, among
which the following may be named :

A set of.four small Landscapes.

A grand Landscape, with Buildings, and in the fore-
ground Figures at play; Gio. Fran. Grimaldi Bolo-
ynese inti. et fee.

A grand Landscape, with Buildings and Fishermen ;
signed as above.

A Landscape, with the Baptism of Christ.

A Landscape, with Ruins aud Figures.

A mountainous Landscape, with Figures.

Two upright Landscapes; after Annilale Carracci.

A set of four Landscapes; after the same.

GRIMALDI, WILLIAM, an English miniature
painter, born in Middlesex in 1751, studied under
Worlidge, and afterwards at Paris. He first ex-
hibited at the Free Society of Artists, and then
at the Royal Academy. He practised successively
at several country towns, and in Paris from 1777 to
1785. He then settled in London, and became



miniature painter to several members of the Royal
Family. He died in London in 1830

GRIMANI. See JACOBSZ, HUBERT

GRIMBALDSON, WALTER, a landscape painter
of no repute, practised early in the 18th century.

GRIMM, LUDWIG EMIL, a painter and etcher
was born at Hanau in 1790. He was the younger
brother of Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, and was
educated under Karl Hess at Munich, as well as at
the Academy in that city. In 1840 he published
a hundred of his own etchings, comprising land-
scapes, historical and genre subjects, portraits, and
heads, under the title of ' The Story-teller' ('Die
Mahrchenzahlerin '), and in 1854 another thirty as
a supplement. He died in 1863 at Cassel. Among
his other etchings are :

Portraits of Luther and Melanchthon ; after L Cranach

The Brothers Grimm. 1823.

Gipsy Life.

Children's Games in Electoral Hesse.

Entertainment of Artists at Munich. 1812.

GRIMM, SAMUEL HIERONYMUS, a water-colour
painter and draughtsman, born at Burgdorf, in the
canton of Berne, in 1734, was taught by his father,
a miniature painter. He settled in London about
1778, and was much employed in topographical
work, such as Burrell's ' Sussex,' the Society of
Antiquaries' ' Vetusta Monumenta.'&c. He made
a large number of pen-and-ink sketches, shaded
with indian-ink or bistre, or tinted with water-
colours, in the counties of Northumberland and
Durham, Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire, and the
environs of London, which are correct, although
somewhat stiff and weak. He occasionally ex-
hibited at the Royal Academy some subject pic-
tures, and also published caricatures. He died in
London in 1794. There are at the South Kensing-
ton Museum the following water-colour drawings
by him :

The North Foreland Lighthouse.

Mother Ludlam's Hole, near Farnham. 1781.

GRIMMER, ABEL, perhaps a son of Jakob
Grimmer, is known by two pictures: a ' Christ
at the house of Martha and Mary,' dated 1614, in
the Brussels Gallery, and a picture dated 1604 in
possession of Herr Van Lerius, Antwerp. Grimmer
entered the Guild of St. Luke in the latter city
in 1592.

GRIMMER, HANS, who studied under Matthaus
Griinewald, flourished at Mayence towards the close
of the 16th century. The portraits by him which
remain testify to his excellence as an artist. The
Vienna Gallery has one of Adam von Puechhaim,
painted in 1570, and in the chapel of St. Maurice at
Nuremberg there are two one of a man, and the
other of a woman. In the Stadel Institute at
Frankfort are two wings of a picture, of which
the centre is missing.

GRIMMER, JAKOB, was born at Antwerp in
1510, and was for some time a disciple of Matthys
Cock, but afterwards studied under Christian
Queborn. He was a reputable landscape painter,
and was received into the Academy at Antwerp
in 1546. He died in the same city in 1560. His
pictures are generally embellished with buildings
and ruins, in which he excelled. A ' Legend of
St. Eustace,' in the Brussels Gallery, is attributed
to him, and in the Ghent Museum there is an
Adulteress before Christ.'

GRIMOU, ALEXIS, (GRIMOTO, or GRIMOUD,)
born at Romont, in the canton of Fribourg,
Switzerland, about 1680, was the son of one of the

281



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Swiss guards at Versailles. He had no master,
but acquired his art by copying the works of Vai
Dyck and Rembrandt in a broker's shop. His
portraits and genre pictures were very popular
but the irregularity of his life and his eccentricities
prevented his attaining the eminence which he
might otherwise have done. He painted many
pictures of women playing and singing, and was
admitted to the Academy at Paris in 1705, but he
left it in disgust at the mediocre pictures of the
other associates, and took his picture to the
Academy of St. Luke, where he was admitted on
payment in 1709. He died in Paris in 1740. The
Louvre contains a portrait of himself, a ' Toper,
a 'Female Pilgrim,' and two portraits of young
soldiers. In the Kunsthalle in Carlsruhe there ar
two half-length portraits of women ; in the Stadel
Institute at Frankfort, the portrait of a young
man ; in the Avignon Museum, three portraits ot
ladies ; in the Dulwich Gallery, a portrait of a lady ;
in the Dresden Gallery, a ' Boy blowing a whistle ; '
and in the Bordeaux Museum, a ' Monk,' a ' Young
Pilgrim,' and an 'Instrument Player.'

GRLNGONNEUR, JACQUEHIN, a French minia-
ture painter, is known to have flourished from 1392
to 1420, and to have executed various games of
cards for Charles VI. The National Library at
Paris possesses seventeen cards belonging to one
of these games. The picture at Versailles of the
family of Jean Juvenal des Ursins, who died in
1431, is attributed to him.
GRISOLFI, GIOVANNI. See GHISOLFI.
GRISONI, GIUSEPPE, was born at Florence
about the year 1700, and was a scholar of Tom-
maso Redi. The rising merit of the disciple is
said to have occasioned so much jealousy and
uneasiness in the master, that it shortened his life.
He painted historical subjects and portraits ; but
particularly excelled in the latter, of which his
own portrait, in the Gallery at Florence, is a fine
specimen. He died in 1769.

GROBON, MICHEL, a French genre and landscape
painter and engraver, was born at Lyons in 1770,
and studied painting under Prud'hon, and engrav-
ing under J. J. de Boissieu. His works are much



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