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in the style of the old painters of the Netherlands,
and he also etched, in the manner of his master, a
plate of ' The Interior of a Forest.' He died at
Lyons in 1853.

GROEGER, FEIEDRICH CARL, a portrait painter
and lithographer, was born at Ploen, in Holstein, in
1766. He was a self-taught artist, and settled
down to work in Hamburg, where he died in 1838.
In the Dresden Gallery is his own portrait.

GROENENDAEL, CAHILLE, a Belgian historical
and portrait painter, was born at Lierre in 1785,
and after studying at the Antwerp Academy and in
Paris he returned to his own country in 1814 an
accomplished artist, and died at Antwerp in 1834.
His portraits are considered his best works. Those
of M. and Mme. van Donick are in the Antwerp

GROENEWEGEN, GSBIUT, a painter and etcher,
was born at Rotterdam in 1754, and studied under
Muys. He became noted for his pictures of ships
and marine views, and died at Rotterdam in 1826.
His _ works are rare, but eighteen plates of Dutch
marine views, etched in Bakhuisen's manner, are
known to be by him, as also twelve of Dutch

GROGAN, NATHANIEL, an Irish landscape

painter, born at Cork about the middle of the 18th
century, was originally a wood turner, and also
served in the army during the American war. On
his return to Cork he taught drawing, and en-
deavoured to gain a living by art. He engraved
a set of views in the south of Ireland, and died
at Cork about 1807. His best known works are
'An Irish Fair,' and 'An Irish Wake.'

GROGNARD, ALEXIS, a French portrait painter,
was born at Lyons in 1765, and died in the same
city in 1840. He was a pupil of Vien, and director
of the school of Fine-Arts at Lyons.

scape painter and etcher, born in Paris in 1837,
studied under Boyer and Pasini,. and became skil-
ful in the delineation of southern landscapes.
He died in Paris in 1880. Among his paintings

A Morning on the Banks of the Sedelle.

The Banks of the Garden.

The Beach at St. Malo.

The Plain of Samois, near Fontainehleau.

He also etched ' Recollections of Beuzeval.'

military painter, born at Seignelay (Yonne), June
11, 1848. At first devoted his talent to decorative
art, but subsequently entered the studio of Bonnat
and exhibited in the Salons sundry genre pictures,
including ' La Partie de Picquet ' (1875), 'Valet qui
Prend ' (1877), and others. It was only in 1882
that Grolleron took up military painting with such
remarkable success that he remained true to it all
his life. The picture by which he first attracted
attention was the ' Combat dans une usine sous les
murs de Paris,' 1870, and this gained him a
Mention Honorable. We may also note his
' Episode de la Bataille de Loigny,' exhibited in
1886, which obtained for the artist a medal of the
third class. Another of his pictures, and one of
the best of them, was 'Janville,' 1870, exhibited
in 1888; his ' Sergent Tanvireau,' exhibited in
1891, won a medal of the second class. His death
occurred in Paris on October 28, 1901.

GRONIGIUS, GERHARD, was a Dutch engravei
of the middle of the 16th century, whom Strutt
mentions as having etched ten plates, emblematical
of the 'Life of Man,' from ten to a hundred years.
The drawing is incorrect, and the outline hard ;
but they are not devoid of merit.


GRONLAND, THEUDE, a painter of landscapes
and still-life, was born at Altona in 1817. He went
to the Academy in Copenhagen in 1833, and then
resided three years in Italy, three years in England,
and twenty-five years in Paris. From 1868 he
lived at Berlin, where he collected many students
around him, and died in 1876.

GRONSVELT, JOHAN, a Dutch engraver, was
born at the Hague about the year 1650. He
etched several views and landscapes, after Berchem,
Van Goyen, Lingelbach, and others ; and engraved
some historical subjects and portraits. The follow-
ing are his principal prints:

Dorothy, Countess of Suuderland ; after I'an Dyck.
A Girl with a Cat ; after Abraham Bloemaert.
A Man sleeping on a Barrel ; after Brouwer,
The Adoration of the Magi ; after Paolo Veronese.
Christ before Pilate ; after A. Schiavone.
A set of six Landscapes ; after Berchem.
A set of four Landscapes ; after the same.
A set of twelve Oriental and Italian Harbours ; after J.


Six Dutch Landscapes ; after Verboom.
Cows ; after A . van de Velde.

GROOMBRIDGE, WILLIAM, & water - colour
painter, practised in the latter part of the 18th
century. He painted landscapes and moonlight
scenes with cattle and figures.


GROPIUS, KARL WILHELM, a decorative painter,
was born at Brunswick in 1793, but went when
young to Berlin and painted for the exhibitions
of his father, after -which he travelled through
Germany and Switzerland, and made himself
acquainted in Paris with the arrangement of
Daguerre's diorama. Next he travelled in Italy
and Greece, and made numerous landscape and
architectural sketches. After his return he opened,
in 1827, a diorama in Berlin in connection with a
permanent exhibition of paintings. He was at the
same period appointed court theatrical painter, in
which office he produced some superior decorations
from the designs of Schinkel. He was considered
the first wit in Berlin, where he died in 1870.

GROS, ANTOINE JEAN, Baron, a French historical
and portrait painter, was born in Paris, March 16th,
1771. His early surroundings were artistic, for
his father, Jean Antoine Gros, was a miniature
painter, and his mother drew in crayons. In such
an atmosphere, it is not surprising that his in-
clination to art was soon developed. In 1785 he
commenced to study seriously by becoming a pupil
of David, and in 1792 he competed unsuccessfully
for the ' prix de Rome." His desire to visit Italy
was not, however, to be frustrated. Notwithstand-
ing the death of his father, and the want of means,
he resolutely overcame all obstacles, and, having
obtained a passport through David, arrived at
Geneva in 1793. He devoted himself assiduously
to study, and was fortunate in obtaining good in-
troductions. He at length, in 1801, attracted the
notice of Bonaparte, then in command of the French
army in Italy, by his picture of ' Bonaparte at the
Battle of Arcola.' From him he received an hono-
rary staff appointment, and he was also employed
in the collection of works of art for the adornment
of the French galleries. Compelled to quit Milan
by the reverses to the French arms, he took refuge
in Genoa, and in the siege of that city he under-
went severe hardships. On his return to Paris in
1801, he commenced the series of works on which
his fame rests : ' Bonaparte visiting the Plague-
stricken at Jaffa ' ( 1804) ; ' The Battle of Aboukir '
(1806) ; ' Napoleon at Eylau ' (1808) ; ' The Battle
of the Pyramids ' (1810) ; ' Francis I. and Charles
V. at St. Denis' (1812). On the Restoration,
(J roa e ver faithful to the traditions of the Classic
School, and to his master David took over the
atelier of the latter, and was much occupied in
instruction : more than four hundred pupils passed
through his studio. He also endeavoured to obtain
the recall of his master from banishment, and had
a medal struck in his honour, which he took to
Brussels and presented to him. Gros did not, how-
ever, lack under the Bourbons the patronage he had
received under the Empire. For several years he
was much occupied with the pictures in the dome
of the Pantheon, and honours and offices were
freely bestowed 1 on him, culminating in the
title of Baron. But, though official approval of
his works was not wanting, his art was violently
and incessantly criticized by partisans of the

Romantic School. These criticisms reached such
a point on the appearance of his ' Hercules and
Diomedes' in 1835, and, aggravated by the state
of his health, had such an effect on him, that
be committed suicide on June 26th in that year.
His body was found in the Seine, near Meudon,
and was buried in Pere-la-Chaise, Paul Delaroche
and others pronouncing funeral orations over his
grave. Although Gros was in one sense always a
strict adherent to the canons of classicism, yet he
was one of the first of David's pupils to abandon
classic and mythologic scenes. It has been aptly
remarked that he painted classic forms underneath
modern costume. His style is bold and full of
movement, and his colouring, though not unfre-
quently exaggerated, is a great improvement on
the coldness of the founders of the Classic School.
The following are some of Gros's principal works :

Besan^on. Museum. Girl bathing. 1791.

Bordeaux. Museum. Embarkation of the Duchess of

Angouleme. 1816.

Nantes. Museum. Combat of Nazareth. 1801.

Paris. Louvre. Bonaparte visiting the Plague-

stricken at Jaffa. 1804.
Napoleon at Eylau. 1808.

Francis I. and Charles V. at

St. Denis. 1812.
Toulouse. Museum. Hercules and Diomedes. 1835.

Venus and Cupid. 1832.

Versailles. Gallery. The Battle of the Pyramids.


Interview of Napoleon and

Francis II. after Austerlitz.
The Capitulation of Madrid.

Louis XVIII. quitting the

Tuileries in 1815. 1816.

Tl.e Battle of Aboukir. 1806.

Trianon. Apotheosis of St. Germain.


Besan^on. Museum. Madame Dufresne.

Grenoble. Museum. Dr. Clot-Bey.

Marseilles. Museum. Madame Favrega 1798.
Montpellier. Museum. Eleven Miniatures.
Nancy. Museum. Marshal Duroc.

Paris. Ticomtede Louis XVIII. (This head iraj

Peyronnet. copied for all the official por-
Toulouse. Museum. Madame Gros.

His own Portrait.

Versailles Gallery. Duke de Bellune.

Eugene Beauharnais.
Equestrian Portrait of Jerome
Bonaparte, King of West-
phalia. 1808.
,, Marshal Duroc.

Count Daru.

General Count Fournier-Sarlo-

vese. 1812.
His own Portrait.

Equestrian Portrait of Charles
X. 1826. O.J.D.

GROSE, FRANCIS, a topographical draughtsman,
was born in 1731 at Richmond, in Surrey, where
his father was a jeweller. He was of independent
means, and devoted to antiquarian pursuits, on
which he published several learned works. He
occasionally exhibited tinted drawings of ruins,
&c., at the Royal Academy. In one of his visits
to Scotland, he became 'The chiel amang ye taking
notes ' of Burns. He died at Dublin in 1,91.

GROSNIER, Mile., a French lady, is mentioned
by Basan as the engraver of several plates ; but
they are wholly unknown.
GROTEFEND, ADOLPH, a miniature painter,


was born at Klausthal in Hanover, in 1812. He
for a time studied law at Gottingen University,
but his love for art caused him in 1836 to proceed
to Munich to fit himself for a portrait painter. In
this line he was becoming conspicuously success-
ful, when ill-health drove him in 1846 to Italy, and
he died at Florence in the following year.

GROTH, , a German painter, flourished in
England in the reign of George II. He painted
in water-colours and enamel, but was not very

DEGRODX,) a Belgian genre and historical painter,
was born at Commines in France in 1826, and
studied at the Brussels Academy under Navez. He
at first produced pictures from popular life, but
afterwards took to historical subjects, in which he
was less successful, and he finally returned to his
former department. He decorated the market-
place of Ypres. His death occurred at Brussels
in 1870. Among his paintings are :

Ash "Wednesday.

Grace before Meals. (Srussels Gallery.)

The Doctor's Visit.

The Death of Charles V.

The Citizens of Calais before Edward III.

GROZER, JOSEPH, a mezzotint engraver, was born
about 1755, and probably died before 1799. He
practised in London, and amongst his works are :

Shepherds with a Lamb ; after Sir J. Reynolds. 1784.

Master Braddyll ; after the same. 1786.

Mrs. Mackenzie of Seaforth ; after the same. 1787.

Innocence ; after the same. 1788.

"William, Earl Fitzwilliam ; after the same. 1786.

Lady St. Asaph and Child ; after the same. 1792.

Miss Johnson, dancing ; after the same. 1792.

James, Earl of Cardigan ; after Romney. 1792.

Lady Charlotte Legge ; after the same. 1799.

The Duke and Duchess of York ; after Singleton. 1797.

Robert, Lord Hobart ; after Sir Thomas Lawrence. 1796.

painter and author, was born at Gunzenhausen, in
Anspach, in 1755. He originally intended to be-
come a Jesuit, but afterwards devoted himself to
miniature painting. He subsequently went to Italy,
and was appointed a professor in the Academy at
Florence. He published in 1789, ' An Artistic
Tour to Rome,' and in 1810, ' The Painting of the
Greeks.' He died about 1815.

GRUND, NORBERT, a German painter of land-
scapes, cattle, fairs, battles, c., born at Prague
in 1714, was the son of a painter, and studied at
the Vienna Academy under Ferg. He was of a
vagrant nature, and in his latter years his careless-
ness and improvidence reduced him to want. He
died at Prague in 1767. In the Dresden Gallery are
two pictures, ' Country Dances,' and ' A Gathering
at a Table in a Garden.'

GRUNDY, THOMAS LEEMING, a line-engraver,
was born at Bolton in 1808. He was at first
apprenticed to a writing engraver, and then came
to London, where he was employed on the Annuals
then in fashion. He afterwards worked for Doo
and Goodall, and died in London in 1841.

engraver, born at Dresden in 1801, and a pupil of
Klinger and Fuhrich. He commenced life as a
scene-painter, but afterwards studied engraving
under Ephraim Gottlieb Kriiger in Dresden, and
from 1826 to 1836 in Milan, under Longhi and
Anderloni. He resided in Rome from 1837 to
1841, when he came to England, and remained
here until 1856, in which year he was made


director of the Cabinet of Engravings at Dresden.
He spent considerable time in Spain, and engraved
the works of Velazquez in the Prado, and also
those of Raphael in the same Gallery. Later on he
produced a tine set of plates from the celebrated
cartoons of Raphael which belong to the English
Crown ; but being troubled for a while with a serious
affection of the eyes, was compelled to relinquish
engraving, and devoted himself to fresco work and
decorative painting. He was commissioned in
1 846 to decorate the garden pavilion in Buckingham
Palace, and of his work there a clever account was
written by Mrs. Jameson, who highly praised his
productions. Later on he was enabled by an
operation to recover the use of his eyes, and again
took up with engraving, and was at work upon
the paintings of Raphael till his death at Dresden
in 1882. He engraved many separate plates, espe-
cially after the works of Raphael and Overbeck, by
which he gained much reputation. Among his
chief works are:

Portrait of Giulio de' Medici (?) ; after Safhael. 1835.

The Vision of a Knight ; after the same.

La Fornariua ; after the same.

Christ's Agony in the Garden ; after the same. 1849.

The Ansidei Madonna; after the same. 1856.

The Conversion of Saul ; after the same. 1864. (Arundel


Christ, the Good Shepherd ; after Overbeck.
Hagar in the "Wilderness ; after the same.
Moses defending the Daughters of Jethro ; after the same.

GRUNEWALD, E., was an engraver of Darm-
stadt, who studied under Frommel, and produced
some praiseworthy landscape plates about 1825.

GRUNEWALD, HANS, was the brother of Mat-
thaus Griinewald, but nothing authentic is known
of him. A portrait of Maximilian I., in the Vienna
Gallery, is ascribed to him.

GRUNEWALD, MATTHAUS, who was born pro-
bably in Frankfort, settled in Aschaffenburg, where
he was employed by the Archbishop Albrecht of
Mayence. He seems to have died about the year
1530, and to have been, after Durer and Hol-
bein, the greatest German painter of the period,
though but little of his life is known. His most
important work is an altar-piece of six panels,
which was executed for the church of SS. Maurice
and Mary Magdalene at Halle, but afterwards trans-
ferred to the church of SS. Peter and Alexander at
Aschaffenburg. It is now in the Munich Gallery.
The centre picture represents the ' Conversion of
St. Maurice by St. Erasmus,' and the wings con-
tain the figures of St. Lazarus, St. Mary Magdalene,
St. Martha, St. Chrysostom, and St. Valentinian.
There is another work in the church of Our
Lady at Halle, of which the centre picture, repre-
senting the ' Virgin in Glory,' the inner sides, and
perhaps the outer sides, are assigned to Griinewald.
A ' Rosary ' in the chapel of St. Anthony in the
cathedral of Bamberg, and the wings of altar-pieces
at Heilsbronn in Franconia, and at Annaberg in
Saxony, are also assigned to this master.

GRUSS, JOHANN, an historical painter, born early
in the 19th century, was a native of Bohemia.
Among his works are a ' Virgin and Child,' a
1 Sleeping Jesus,' and ' St. Aloysius.' He died at
Vienna in 1872.

GRUTZNER, EDUARD, born at Great Carlowitz
in Silesia in 1846, was the son of a peasant. He
was destined for the church, but Hirschberg, an
architect of Munich, induced him in 1864 to repair
to that citv. where his first work was a ceiling


in a private house. He showed great humour in
his pictures, ' The Cloister Cellar,' ' Wine Tasting,'
' Sleepless Nights,' and especially in his represent-
ation of Falstaff and other characters in the ' Merry
Wives of Windsor.' He died in 1878.


GRYPMOED, GEERLIG, born at Zwolle in 1760,
learned the art of drawing from A. D. Prudhomme.
He afterwards went to Amsterdam, where he
studied under H. Meyer and Troost van Groenen-
doele, who employed him largely in painting cur-
tains. He also painted landscapes. He died in 1788.

of Johann Andreas Graff and Maria Sibylla Merian,
was born at Nuremberg in 1678. She painted
flowers and insects, and was acquainted with
Hebrew. She married the portrait and still-life
painter Gsell, and accompanied him to St. Peters-
burg, where they both worked for the Academy of
Sciences, and where she died in 1745.


GUALDO, MATTEO DA, a painter of the Umbrian
school, was born at Gualdo Tadini, but the dates
of his birth and death are alike unknown. A
genuine fresco by him is at Santa Maria della
Circa, near Sigillo ; it represents a ' Madonna and
Child,' with a dog in the arms of the latter, also a
1 Lady of Mercy.' In SS. Antonio e Jacopo of Assisi,
are some frescoes by him, although now very
much damaged; they include a 'Madonna,' dated
1468. These works are executed somewhat in
the style of Benozzo Gozzoli.


GUARANA, JACOPO, (or incorrectly VARANA,)
was a painter of the Venetian school, who was
born at Verona in 1727, and became a pupil of
Sebastiano Ricci, G. B. Tiepolo, and especially
of Carlo Cignani. The Academy of Copenhagen
offered him the position of first painter, and
the Empress of Russia also invited him to her
court from her admiration of the work he painted
for her ; but he could not be induced to leave
his own country. He died at Venice in 1808,
having been a member of the Academies of Venice,
Florence, and Bologna. The following are among
his paintings, the first two being in oil, the others
in fresco :

The Sacrifice of Iphigenia. (Painted for the Empress of

The Heart of Jesus. (San Paolo, Venice?)

The Virtues. (Patriarch's Palace, Venice.)

St. Mark. (Doae's Palace, Venice.)

Apotheosis of St. Martin. (San Martina, Venice.)

The Dome of San Vitale, Ravenna.

He also etched several plates, and supplied the
designs for the engravings in the work entitled
' Oracoli della Religione pagana,' published at
Venice in 1792. His son, VINCENZO GUARANA, who
was born at Venice in 1750, and died there in
1815, painted in the style of his father, but did
not equal him.

GUARDI, FRANCESCO, a Venetian painter, was
born at Venice in 1712, and died there in 1793.
He was a scholar of Canaletto, and excelled in
architectural views of Venice, but his works are
less accurate in perspective and details than are
those of his master. The following pictures by
him are in the chief European galleries :

Bergamo. Academy. Three Views in Venice.

Berlin. Gallery. View on the Grand Canal


Berlin. Gallery. Two Views of San Michele,


., View on the Lagoons.

Srussels. Gallery. Interior of San Marco at Venice.

Cambridge. Fit:mlliam ) . . ,

Museum. $ Vlews m Venice -
The Island of Anconetta.

Dublin. Nat. Gallery. The Doge's State Barge.
Glasgow. Gallery. Grand Canal and Church of

San Giorgio, Venice.

Piazzetta of San Marco.

London. Jfat. Gallery. View of the Church, Campa-
nile, and Piazza of San
Marco, at Venice.

View in Venice.

Bridyewater House. View on the Grand Canal
., Seven Views of Venice.

South Kensington \ Church on the Grand Caual,

Museum. ) Venice.

Modena. Gallery. The Grand Canal, Venice.

The Fondaco del Tedeschi.

Nantes. Museum. Two Views of Venice.

Paris. Louvre. View of Venice.

, Church of La Salute.

, ., The Fete of Shrove Tuesday.

, The Fete of Corpus Domini.

, Procession of the Doge to the

Church of San Zaccaria.

, The Hall of the Ducal Palace.

, ., View of Venice.

Venice. Correr Jfus. The Island of San Giorgio.
Verona. Museum. Two Views of Venice.


GUARIENTI, PIETRO, a painter of Verona, was
born before 1700. He was a pupil of Crespi, but fol-
lowed the study of the great masters of the various
countries in which he travelled, seeking to acquire
the faculty of painting in every style. He settled
in Dresden, and died there before 1769.

GUARIENTO, a painter of Padua, was living
in the 14th century, and is known to have been
amongst the first artists employed to decorate the
Great Hall of Council at Venice in 1365. His work
there was a ' Paradise,' and incidents from the war
of Spoleto. These paintings were effaced to make
room for the successive designs of Gentile Bellini
and of Titian. In the Eremitani at Padua may
still be seen many frescoes by this artist represent-
ing the Life and Passion of Christ, the life of St.
Augustine, and several subjects from the Old
Testament. According to Brandolese, Guariento
flourished about 1360 at Padua, and was buried
there in the church of San Bernardino. He died
before 1378. There are preserved of his works :

Bassano. Pinacoteca. A Crucifixion, with the Virgin
and Saints.

Padua. Academy. Six portions of frescoes, with

subjects from the Old Testa-

GUARINO, FRANCESCO, who was born at Solofra,
near Naples, in 1612, was a pupil of Massimo
Stanzioni. He painted in the church of his native
town, and died at Gravina in 1651. In the Naples
Museum there is by him a picture of ' Susanna.'


GUBBIO, ODERIOI DA, was a miniature painter,
who is said to have been born at Gubbio, near Pe-
rugia, in 1240. No undoubted work by him is now
in existence, although some miniatures contained
in two Missals of the Virgin and of St. George, in
the Archivio de' Canonici di San Pietro, at Home,
are strongly supposed to be by him. He painted
at Gubbio in 1264, at Bologna in 1268, and in
Rome in 1295. According to Vasari, he made the
acquaintance of Giotto in Rome, and died there in



1299. He has been mentioned with much praise
by Dante, who calls him the ' Glory of Agobbio,'
and represents him as expiating in Purgatory the
pride with which his skill had inspired him.

was born at Leipsic in 1786, and was a member of
the Academy of Berlin, where he died in 1870.
The cuts in his ' Volkskalender,' issued from 1835
to 1869, are much admired, as is also his portrait
of the Saviour, after Lucas Cranach. He also
published some ' Plays and Poems,' a newspaper
called ' Der Gesellschafter,' and a volume entitled
' Occurrences.'



marine painter, was born in Paris in 1802. He
attended for some time the atelier of Girodet-
Trioson, but left it and enrolled himself in the
Romantic School, in company with Geiicault and
Delacroix. He restricted himself entirely to land-
scapes and marine subjects. His first success dated

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