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from about the year 18'22, and in 1827 he produced
' The Burning of the "Kent," East Indiaman,' and
'The Return of the Fishermen,' two of his best
pictures. Gudin's works are remarkable for vigor-
ous, but, too generally, exaggerated, treatment. He
painted between the years 1838 and 1848 a series
of ninety marine subjects for the Galleries at Ver-
sailles, where many of them still are. They record
the achievements of the French navy in Algeria,
whither Gudin was sent by Louis Philippe. Early
in life he travelled in the East, in Russia, and in
Germany, but he spent much of the latter part of
his life in Scotland. He also practised the arts of
etching and lithography. He died at Boulogne
near Paris, in 1880. Among his best works are:

The Hurricane of the 7th of January, 1831, in the Road-
stead of Algiers. 1835.

Coast Scene. (Brussels Gallery.)

Breton Coast. 1845. (Berlin National Gallery.)

A Smuggler's Felucca. 1845. (The same.)

The Ship in Distress.

Shipwreck on the Coast of Genoa. (Leipsic Museum.)

View of Havre. (Avignon Museum.)

Explosion of the Emperor's Fort at Algiers.

View of Constantinople, taken from Pera.

The Boarding of the English galeot ' Hazard ' by the
' Courier.'

Devotion of Captain Desse. (Bordeaux Ulusmm.)

GUDMDNDSSON, SIGDRD, an Icelandic painter,
born at the farm of Helluland in 1833, entered
the Copenhagen Academy in 1849, and on his return
to Iceland in 1858, produced almost a revolution
in the manners and costumes of the island. He
died at Reykjavik in 1874,

GUK, JDLIEN MICHEL, a French landscape and
historical painter, born in St. Domingo in 1789,
was a pupil of David and of Lacour. The Bor-
deaux Museum possesses the ' Death of Patroclus,'
and there are other works by this artist at Ver-
sailles, Compiegne, and Kheirns. He died in Paris
in 1843.

GUELARD, B., a French painter and etcher, is
mentioned by Basan as the engraver of several
plates after Oudry, J. F. van Bloemen, &c. He
lived in Paris about 1730.

French landscape painter and lithographer, was
born at Nancy in 1821. He was a pupil of Paul
Delaroche and of Dieudonne' Pierre of Nancy, in
which ,city he died in 1866.

GUERARD, HENRI CHARLES, a French painter

and engraver. In early life he made a great num-
ber of experiments in colour-printing from engrav-
ings, with more or less success. He threw in his
lot with the Societe 1 Nationale des Beaux Arts at its
formation in 1891, and exhibited annually at the
New Salon. He became an officer of the Academy,
and was a Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. He
died towards the middle of 1897, in the fifty-second
year of his age.


GDERARDS, N., a French engraver, who flour-
ished about the year 1700, executed the plates for
a work entitled ' Les Edifices antiques de Rome,'
published at Paris in 1682, after the designs of A.
Des Godets, who engraved the frontispiece. He
also engraved the frontispiece to a book of orna-
ments, published by Pierre Bourdon in 1703 ; and
a small plate of ' Soldiers marching,' in imitation
of Callot.


GUERIN, CHRISTOPHE, a draughtsman and en-
graver, born at Strassburg in 1758, was a pupil of
Jeulain and P. Muller. He became conservator
of the Museum, and a Professor of the School of
Design at Strassburg. He died in 1831. His chief
works are :

Cupid disarmed ; after Correggio.
The Dance of the Muses ; after Giulio Romano.
The Angel leading Tobit ; after Raphael.
Two Landscapes ; after De 'Loittherbourg.

GUERIN, FRANCOIS, a French historical and
genre painter, was a native of Paris. He exhibited
first at the Academy of St. Luke in 1751, and be-
came an Academician in 1761, his reception work
being ' A Market.' He continued to exhibit at the
Salon until 1783, but in 1791 he was residing in
Strassburg, where he died, but in what year is not

tophe Guerin, was born at Kehl in 1790. He was
a pupil of Regnault, and in 1817 received the gold
medal for his ' Death of Polynices.' He painted a
' Burial of Christ ' for the church of St. Francis of
Assisi in Paris, and he succeeded his father as con-
servator of the Museum, and Professor of the School
of Design at Strassburg. He died at Hornbach in
Bavaria in 1846.

GUERIN, JEAN, a miniature and water-colour
painter, bom at Strassburg in 1760, was a brother
of Christophe Guerin. He went to Paris, where
he became a pupil of Regnault, and soon gained
a reputation, as well as the protection of Queen
Marie Antoinette, whose cause he espoused so
warmly as to cause him to be banished from Paris.
He returned to that city at the beginning of the
Consulate, and devoted himself to miniature paint-
ing. He died at Obernay in 1836.

GUlJRIN, JEAN BAPTISTE, the second son of
Christophe Guerin, was born at Strassburg in
1798. He was a pupil of his father and of Reg-
nault, and practised in his native city, but the year
of his death is not recorded.

portrait and historical painter, born at Toulon in
1783, was the son of a blacksmith, which trade
he at first followed, but showing a disposition for
art he went to Paris, where he entered the studio
of Vincent, and supported himself with the greatest
difficulty, till he gained a reputation by his picture
of ' Cain after the death of Abel.' He died in Paris
in 1855. Among his other works are :


The Dead Christ in the Lap of the Virgin. 1817.

Anchises and Venus. 1822.

Adam and Eve driven out of Paradise. 1827.

Christ crucified. 1834.

Ulysses fighting with Neptune. 1824.

Anne of Austria, Kegent of France, with her two sons,

Louis XIV. and the Duke of Orleans.
Portrait of Louis XVIII., full-length.
Portrait of Charles X., full-length.

His son and pupil, FELIX PIERRE ANTOINE
GUERIN, who was born in Paris in 1825, painted
portraits, and died in Paris in 1865.

landscape painter, born at Marseilles in 1805, was
a pupil of Paulin Guerin. He exhibited at the
Salon from 1824 to 1844, and died in Paris in

historical painter, was born in Paris on the 13th
March, 1774. In his early years he showed but little
inclination to art, and it was owing to his parents
that he entered the studio of Brenet. His progress,
however, was small, until he became the pupil of
Regnault. With this master he found his vocation,
and at the competition of 1797 he obtained one of
the three prizes. The disturbed state of Europe did
not at once permit of his pursuing his studies at
Rome, and while waiting at Paris he produced his
'Return of Marcus Sextus,' which, on being ex-
hibited in 1799, was crowned by his brother artists.
On arriving at Rome, his weak health soon com-
pelled him to remove to Naples, where he remained
about a year. On his return to Paris, he resumed his
Btudies with such success that in 1803, while still a
pupil, he received the cross of the Legion of Honour.
He was received into the Institute on the return of
the Bourbons in 1815, and in 1816 was appointed
director of the French School at Rome, but his
health did not allow him to accept the appoint-
ment. At the next vacancy he was again offered
the post, which he accepted, though the state of
his health allowed him only to attend to the
duties of his office, and prevented his applying
himself to any of his own works during his stay in
Rome. On his return to Paris in 1829, he was cre-
ated a Baron, and he devoted himself for the next
two or three years to his own art. Contrary to
the advice of his physicians and friends, he accom-
panied Horace Vernet to Rome, where he died on
the 16th July, 1833, and was buried in the church
of the Trinita dei Monti. Guerin' s art reached its
highest point in the 'Marcus Sextus.' In his
later works he lost the -vigour which characterized
his earlier productions, and affected a spurious
energy, which has not without reason been
called theatrical. This may in some degree have
arisen from his custom of sketching the actors at
the Theatre Francais. The following is a list ox
Gudrin's chief works:

Angers. Museum.



Compiegue. Palace,
Hamptou Court. Pal.
Paris. Louvre.

Death of Priam. (Sketch.)
St. Louis. (Sketch.)

Museum. Portrait of Charles X.
Museum. Pyrrhus and Andromache. (A
small replica of the Louvre
St. Genevieve.
Portrait of Louis XVIII.
The Return of Marcus Sextus.


Offering to .ffisculapius. 1802.
Hippolytus and Phaedra. 1802.
Pyrrhus and Andromache. 1810.
jineas and Dido. 1813.
Clytemnestra. 1817.

Rennes. Museum. Ulysses.

Valenciennes. Mus. Death of Marshal Lannes.

Versailles. Gallery. The Revolt of Cairo. O.JD.

a native of Fossombrone, in the Roman state,
flourished about the year 1650. It is not said
under whom he studied, but he painted historical
pictures in the style of Caravaggio and Guercino.
Lanzi mentions several of his works in very
favourable terms, particularly a picture in the
Filippini at Fano, of ' St. Charles contemplating
the Mysteries of the Passion,' with two laterals,
representing subjects from the life of that saint.
There are many of his paintings in his native
town, and a ' St. Sebastian cured by St. Irene '
particularly is attributed to him. He had the
peculiar taste to introduce into each of his pictures
the portrait of one of his lady-loves.
GUERNIER, RENE, was probably a native of
France. According to Florent Le Comte he ex-
celled in engraving ornaments and grotesque

GUEROULT, GUILLAUMK, is mentioned by
Strutt as the engraver of a set of woodcuts for a
Bible, published at Paris in 1564, and dedicated to
Catharine de' Medici.
GUERRA, GIOSEFFO, (or QUERRA,) a painter of
Venice, was one of the best scholars of Solimena.
He painted numerous large historical pictures for
churches and monasteries in the kingdom of Naples,
but having resorted to the trick of copying paint-
ings disentombed at Herculaneum, and selling them
as originals, he was detected and compelled to flee
to Rome, where he died in 1761.

GUERRA, GIOVANNI, a painter, engraver, and
architect, was born at Modena in 1544, and went in
his eighteenth year to Rome, where he painted, in
conjunction with Cesare Nebbia, a large part of
the pictures commissioned by Pope Sixtus V. He
then for some time devoted himself to trade, and
when he had thereby lost all his means he returned
to art, and brought out a series of forty-eight
plates entitled ' Varie Acconciature di Teste usate
da nobilissime Dame in diverse Citta di Italia.
He also prepared the model for the Scala Santa in
Rome, and the designs for several churches in
Modena, as well as a great number of drawings
from subjects in the Old and New Testaments,
and from Greek and Roman history, in readiness for
raving. He died at Rome in 1618.
GUERRINI, GIACOMO, was born at Cremona in
1718, and while quite young painted ' The ]
heading of St. John the Baptist' for the Oratory
of St. Jerome in his native city. He afterwards
executed for the church of Sant' Agostino, The
Meeting of St. Joachim and St. Anna and The
Presentation in the Temple.' Some of the churches
in Milan also possess paintings by him.

in 1793. T



GUEST DOUGLAS, an English historical am
portrait painter, practised in the early part of t
19th century. He studied in the schools of the
Royal Academy, and in 1805 gained the gold medal
for his ' Bearing the dead body of Patroclue , to the
Camp, Achilles* Grief.' He occasionally exhibited
at the Academy from 1803 to 1817, and again in
1834 and 1838. He painted the 'Transfiguration,



an _ altar-piece for the church of St. Thomas,
Salisbury, and in 1829 published a work on the
decline of historical painting.

GUEVARA, FELIPE DE, was an amateur painter,
who acquired the friendship of Titian when he ac-
companied the Emperor Charles V. to Bologna to
receive the imperial crown from Clement VII. He
distinguished himself as a cavalry officer in the
expedition to Tunis in 1535, and was the author
of 'Commentaries on Painting,' published in 1788
He died at Madrid in 1563.

GUEVARA, JOAN NINO DE, born at Madrid in
1632, was the son of a captain of the guards of the
Viceroy of Aragon, under whose patronage he was
placed as a disciple of Miguel Manrique, a Fleming,
who had been educated in the school of Rubens.
He afterwards studied at Madrid, under Alonso
Cano, and became a very reputable artist, adopting
a style that partook of the character of both his
mabters, uniting with the grandeur and correctness
of Alonso Cano the splendid and brilliant colouring
of the head of the Flemish School. His principal
works are at Malaga, Granada, and Cordova. In
the church of La Caridad at Malaga, is a fine pic-
ture of 'The Triumph of the Cross'; and in the
cathedral, ' The Ascension of Christ,' and ' The
Assumption of the Virgin.' At Cordova, in the
cloister of the Augustines, there are some pictures
of the life of the founder of the order, and several
portraits, which are compared by Palomino to those
of Van Dyck. He died at Malaga in 1698.

GUGLIELMI, GBEGORIO, a painter born at Rome
in 1714, was a pupil of Conca ; but he was little
known in his native city on account of his having
gone when young to Vienna, Dresden, and St.
Petersburg. He executed a few frescoes in the
hospital of Santo Spirito at Rome, but others that
gained more attention in the cities named above, as
well as at Augsburg and in the castle of Schon-
brunn. His works in oil were feebler. He died
at St. Petersburg in 1773.

GUIBAL, NICOLAS, a painter and architect, born
at Luneville in 1725, was the son of Barthelemy
Guibal, a sculptor. He worked at first at sculp-
ture under his father, but afterwards abandoned it
for painting, and studied under Claude Charles at
Nancy, but came in 1741 to Paris, and then studied
under Natoire. In 1745 he was made a pensioner
of the Academy, and won the second prize. In
1749 he proceeded to Stuttgart, and in 1752 Duke
Charles Eugene sent him to Rome with a com-
mission to execute for him four paintings. He
there improved himself under Rafael Mengs, so
that on his return in 1755 he was appointed by
the duke first court painter and architect, professor
of painting, and director of the picture gallery.
He was made an Academician in 1784, on the com-
pletion of his ' Aurora ' en the ceiling of the gallery
of Apollo in the Louvre, and died at Stuttgart in
the same year. His best work is the ceiling
above the marble staircase in the Palace at Stutt-
gart. Other paintings by him are in the bath-
house at Schwetzingen, in the former dining-hall
of the Academy (now the king's private library),
in the halls at Hohenheim and Monrepos, in the
Ordenskapelle of Ludwigsburg Castle, and in the
churches of Gmund, Zwiefalten, and Solothurn.
Guibal wrote the 'Eloge de Mengs' (1780), and
'Eloge de Nicolas Poussin' (1783).

marine painter, born at Marseilles about 1830, was
4 pupil of Isabey and Durand-Brager He died

in his native city in 1877. Amongst his works
are :

Souvenir of Villafranca. 1866.

The Fisherman's Return. 1869.

Sunrise at the Martigues. 1870.

The Marriage of Camacho.

GUIDI, RAFFAELLO, an Italian engraver, was
born at Florence in 1540, and died probably about
1613. His plates are executed entirely with the
graver, which lie handled in a masterly manner,
and from his style it would appear that he was
instructed by Cornelis Cort or Agostino Carracci.
Ths following are his principal prints :

David playing on the Harp ; after Giuseppe Cesari.

Dsedalus and Icarus ; after the same.

The Crucifixion ; after Christoph Schwartz.

The Entombment of Christ ; after F. Baroeci.

-35neas carrying his father Anchises ; after the same.

Jupiter; after Polidoro da Caravaggio.

Vulcan ; after the same.

The Madonna seated, distributing Rose Garlands to

various Ecclesiastical Orders.

GUIDI, TOMMASO, commonly called MASACCIO,
the son of the notary Ser Giovanni di Simone
Guidi, was born at Castel San Giovanni di Val-
darno, in 1401, and is thought by some to
have studied under Masolino. That he was pre-
cocious in the display of his talent, is shown by
the fact that about 1417 he went to Rome, where
he received a commission from Cardinal San
Clemente to decorate a chapel that still bears
his name. Masaccio painted there a ' Crucifixion,'
and different scenes drawn from the lives of St.
Catharine and St. Clement. When at Rome he
painted several pictures, amongst others one which
represented ' Pope Martin V. with the Emperor
Sigismund and the Virgin, between four Saints,'
which was, in after years, much admired by
Michelangelo. In 1421 he was received into the
Guild of the Speziali at Florence, and twice
painted the portrait of Giovanni di Bicci de'
Medici, who returned to power in Florence in
1420. In the interval extending from 1423 to
1428, he adorned the Brancacci Chapel in the
Carmine with frescoes, twelve in number, which
represent scenes drawn from the Bible, and from
the life of St. Peter ; these prove his great skill as
an artist, and also that he had really studied the
sister arts of architecture and sculpture. He died
at Rome about 1428, at the early age of twenty-
six. Masaccio' s paintings are all far in advance
of his time, and foreshadow the rules which after-
wards guided art in the 16th century. Of his
other paintings and frescoes, not previously men-
tioned, there remain at the Carmine a portion of
a design in the cloisters, representing part of a
procession, that has recently been recovered from
beneath the whitewash. The galleries of Berlin,
Munich, and Modena possess paintings attributed
to him, and the National Gallery has a portrait
considered to be that of Masaccio himself.

GUIDO, ASCANIO, an Italian engraver, flourished
about the year 1567. There is a print by him of
the ' Last Judgment,' after Michelangelo, rather
smaller than the plate engraved by Martino Rota,
and not much inferior to it in merit. It is dated
1567, two years previous to that by Rota.





di Savona,' was born at Savona in 1654. His




Alinari photo\ [Carmine Church, l-'iorentc






/ '/ r


Brogi photo}


Gallery, Florence


father, Giovanni Antonio Guidobono, who was
majolica painter to the court of Savoy, taught him
his own art. He then became a priest, (whence
his sobriquet,) but his love of art caused him to
relinquish that office. Having seen some pictures
by Benedetto Castiglione, he copied them with BO
much exactness, that it was difficult to distinguish
the reproductions from the originals. He after-
wards visited Parma and Venice, studying the works
of the best masters, and on settling at Genoa, he
was much employed in that city. He particularly
excelled in painting animals, flowers, and fruit ;
and he was no despicable designer of the figure,
as he has shown in some fabulous subjects in the
Palazzo Centurioni. Some of his best pictures are
in the Palazzo Brignole Sale ; among them that of
' Lot and his Daughters.' He died at Turin in



GHESE,'was born at Lucca in 1569, and went when
young, in the pontificate of Gregory XIII., to
Rome, where he improved the instruction already
received by studying the great works of art in
that city. He was employed by Sixtus V. in
several fresco works in the library of the Vatican,
in the Scala Santa, and in the Palace of San Gio-
vanni in Laterano. He distinguished himself as a
sculptor as well as a painter ; and for some produc-
tions in that art was honoured by Paul V. with the
permission to take the name of ' Borghese,' and was
made a knight of the order of Christ. He was also
an architect, and in fact he boasted of the know-
ledge of fourteen arts ; but in spite of all these
he was reduced to great misery, and died in 1629
from a fall while attempting the additional art of
flying. There are several of his works in the
public edifices at Rome. In San Girolamo degli
Schiavoni, is a picture of ' St. Matthew ' ; and in the
cupola of Santa Maria de' Monti, the ' Assumption
of the Virgin.'

GUIDUCCI, ANGELO, a landscape painter and
tcher, lived at Rome about 1750. He engraved
two portraits of Joseph II. of Austria, and others
after Van Dyck, as well as two plates representing

GUIGNET, JEAN ADBIEN, a French historical and
landscape painter, was born of French parentage, at
Annecy in Savoy in 1816. Against his father's
wishes he went to Paris, and studied under his
brother, Jean Baptiste Guignet, and under Blondel ;
but it was not until after some years of uphill work
that he succeeded in achieving a position. In
style he inclined considerably to that of Decamps.
He died in Paris in 1854. Amongst his works are :

Moses exposed on the Nile. 1840.

St. John the Baptist preaching. 1842.

Salvator Bosa amongst the Brigands. 1844.

Joseph explaining Pharaoh's Dream. 1845. (Rovtn

Xerxes bewailing his Army. 1846.

Don Quixote playing the Fool. 1848.

Travellers surprised by a Bear.

Hagar in the Desert.

Episode in the Retreat of the Ten Thousand.

The Defeat of Attila by Aetius.

Belshazzar's Feast.

GUIGNET, JEAN BAPTISTE, a French historical
and portrait painter, born at Autun in 1810, was
the brother of Jean Adrien Guignet, and studied
under Regnault. He died at Viriville in 1857.
Amongst hie portraits are .

General Pajol.

Gilbert Louis Duprez, the tenor.

James Pradier, the sculptor.

GUIGOU, V., a French engraver, flourished
about the year 1676. He engraved some bird's-
eye views of chateaux and other buildings in
France, which are executed in a neat but stiff
style. He also engraved several portraits for books.

GUILLAIN, SIMON, a French sculptor, who for
amusement practised etching, was born in Paris in
1581, and died in the same city in 1658. There
are the following prints by him :

A set of twenty plates of the Life of St. James ; after

Annibale Carracci.
Eighty plates of the Cries of Bologna; after Annibale

Carracci, engraved in conjunction with Alessandro

A Igardi.

GU1LLAUME, Le Frere, known as ' Le Prieur,'
and ' 11 Prete Gallo,' was a French painter, who
was born at Marseilles in 1475, and died at Arezzo
in 1537. Being implicated in some criminal affair,
he entered holy orders, and accompanied Frere
Claude to Rome, and there assisted him in his
works for Pope Julius II. He was afterwards
employed and protected by Cardinal Silvio Pas-
serini at Cortona, and he visited Florence, Caeti-
glione, Perugia, and Arezzo, establishing himself
in the last-mentioned town. He was one of the
best glass painters in his time, and worked equally
well in oil and fresco. Vasari was his pupil.

GUILLEBAULT, SIMON, a French historical
painter, was born at Le Mans in 1636. He chiefly
executed Scriptural subjects, among which was
'The Triumph of the Church,' painted for his
reception at the Academy in 1687. He died at Le
Mans in 1708.

GU1LLEMARD, SOPHIE, a pupil of Regnault,
was born in Paris in 1780, and from 1801 to 1819
exhibited at the Salon historical pictures, as well
aa some portraits and genre subjects ; amongst
them were ' Alcibiades and Glycerion,' and ' Joseph
and Potiphar's Wife.' The date of her death is
not recorded.

GUILLEMART, , was an obscure French
engraver, who was chiefly employed in engraving
portraits for the booksellers. Among others is
that of Setani, Abbe of St. Genevieve.

born in Paris in 1815, studied under Gros, and
became a painter of genre subjects. He died at
Boie-le-Roi, near Fontainebleau, in 1880. The
following are a few of his works :

Huntsman and Milk-woman. 1844.

The old Sailor. 1845.

Sunday Morning. 1864.

La Trilla ; souvenir of Upper Aragon. 1869.

Los Pordioseros ; souvenir of Upper Navarre. 1877.

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