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Wouverman. He died at Arnemuiden in 1671.
The following are his most important works :



Berlin.
Hague.



Gallery.
Museum.



Lille. Museum.

Paris. Louvre.

Rotterdam. Ufa sen m.
Vienna. Gallery.



The Court of a Palace.
The Hall of the Biuuenhof

at the Hague.
The Interior of a Castle.
Players at Ball.
A Musical Party.
A building with columns.



DE' FASOLI, LORENZO. See FASOLO.

DE' FERRARI. See DEI FERRARI.

DE FOUR, PIETER, called DE SALZEA, a native
of Lie'ge, who flourished at the end of the 16th
and beginning of the 17th centuries, was a scholar

25



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



of Lambert Lombardus. There were by him in the
cathedral at Liege two excellent altar-pieces dated
1578 and 1580, and in the church of St. Bartholo-
mew, a 'St. Michael,' and a 'Descent from the
Cross,' dated 1610.

DEFRANCE, LEONARD, born at Liege in 1735,
was a scholar of J. B. Coolers. He painted his-
torical pieces of large and small dimensions, also
landscapes, game, fruit, flowers, and architecture.
He was the first professor of design at the Academy
of Liege, established by the Prince Velbruck, and
afterwards filled the same post in the school of the
central department of Ourthe. He died at Lie>e
in 1805.

DE' FRANCESCHI. See DEI FRANCESCHI.

DE FREY, ANNA, a sister of Johannes De Frey,
executed a large number of drawings from paint-
ings by old masters, Buch as Jan Steen, Metsu,
and Mieris. She was instructed by her brother-in-
law, Jacobus Johannes Lauwers, and afterwards
became herself a teacher of drawing at Mannheim,
in which town she was married, and where she died
in 1808. She also painted in oil.

DE FREY, JOHANNES, an engraver and etcher of
distinction, was born at Amsterdam about 1760,
and was instructed in the art by Jacobus Johannes
Lauwers. Deprived by nature of the use of his right
hand, he had the courage to pursue the art with his
left, and by industrious application surmounted
every difficulty. He became distinguished in his
profession as an able designer, and for the bold-
ness of his graver. He engraved many prints
after Rembrandt, Flint, G. Dou, and other masters
of that school, which are held in estimation. He
settled in Paris in 1814, and died there in 1834.
Among his best plates are :

The Anatomical Demonstration of Tulp after Rem-
brandt. 1T98.

The Magistrates ; after the same. 1799.

The Ship-builder and his Wife ; after the same.

The Family of Tobias ; after the same.

Portrait of Rembrandt ; after the same.

Portrait of Rembrandt's Mother; after the same.

The Presentation in the Temple ; after the same.

Isaac blessing his son Jacob ; after' G. Flink, 1798.

The Family of G. Dou ; after G. Dou. 1798.

The Philosopher ; after BrekelenUamp. 1796.

The Hermit in a Cavern reading ; after the same.

Portrait of Admiral Marten Harpertz Tromp ; after
Lievens. 1801.

Portrait of G. A. Brederode ; after Saillie.

DE FROMANTIOU, HENDRIK, was a painter
who excelled in flowers, birds, and objects of still-
life. He was born at Nymegen in 1630, and was
living in 1680. In the Gallery at Salzthalen is a
beautiful flower-piece by him. It is also said that
he painted in the manner of Rembrandt ; and that
Wouverman gave him his daughter in marriage,
with a large dowry. This last circumstance, if
authentic, would be confirmatory of his artistic
talent ; but the fact may be doubted, as Wouver-
man never became rich by his profession, and
died of chagrin at finding his works so much
neglected.

DE GAST, MICHEL, a Flemish landscape painter,
was born at Antwerp in 1509, and became a mem-
ber of the Guild of St. Luke in 1558. He appears
to have passed the greater part of his life in Italy,
and most of his pictures represent the ruins of
ancient Rome and its environs. He died in 1564.

DE GEEST, WTBBAND, called 'De Friesche
Adelaar ' (The Frisian Eagle), was born, probably at
Antwerp, about the year 1591. He travelled to Italy

26



when young, and resided there several years,
chiefly at Rome, where he made drawings from the
principal statues and pictures ; and on his return
to Holland painted historical subjects with con-
siderable skill. He died at Antwerp in 1643. The
plates in the book entitled ' Cabinet des Statues,'
published at Amsterdam in 1702, are from the
designs of his grandson, who bore the same names.

DE GELDEK, ARENT, or AART, a Dutch painter,
was born at Dordrecht in 1645. After studying
for some time in his native town, under Samuel
van Hoogstraeten, he went to Amsterdam, where
he entered the school of Rembrandt, and became
one of the ablest imitators of the style of that
master. Like him he painted portraits and his-
torical subjects, in which he exhibits the same
uncouth choice of forms, with the same fascinating
charm of colour ; the same eccentricities and de-
fects, with his admirable conduct of light and
shade, and the richness and spirit of his brush.
In his historical pictures, he also equally set at
nought propriety of costume, and elevation of
sentiment. His works still captivate by their
surprising effects. He painted from nature all
the accompanying objects in his pictures, and
his painting-room, crowded with armour, old
draperies, flags, and sabres, resembled rather the
interior of a broker's shop than the studio of an
artist. He was most successful in his portraits,
some of which are not unworthy of Rembrandt,
and have been frequently attributed to that master.
He died at Amsterdam in 1727. Among his por-
traits is that of ' Peter the Great of Russia/ while
his principal historical works are ' Simeon in the
Temple,' ' Pilate binding Christ,' and ' Judah and
Tamar."

DE GEMPT,B.,a Dutch animal painter, who died
by his own hand in 1879. Amongst his works are
' A Congress of Dogs,' and ' The Miser's Death-bed.'

DE GHENDT, EMMANUEL JEAN NEPOMUCENE,
a French engraver, was born at St. Nicholas in
Flanders in 1738. He was a pupil of J. Aliamet,
and has engraved several plates in a neat, pleasing
style. He executed many oi the prints and vignettes
for the ' Voyage d'ltalie ' of the Abbs' de Saint-
Non. He died in Paris in 1815. We have also,
among others, the following prints by him :

L' Amour Asiatique ; after Ch. Eisen.

Les Moissonneurs dans les Champs ; after the same.

La pleme Moisson ; after Isaac Moucheron,

A View of the Fountain of Arethusa at Syracuse ; after

Chatelet.
The Four Times of the Day ; after Baudouin.

DE GHEYN, JAKOB, (or DE GHEIN,) ' the elder,'
a Flemish designer and engraver, was born at
Antwerp in 1565. He was instructed in drawing
by his father, who was a glass-painter, and learned
engraving under Hendrik Goltzius. He imitated
the style of that master, and his plates evince a
great command of the graver. They are executed
in a bold, free style, and his drawing is correct, and
not without taste. He died at Antwerp, or else-
where, about 1625. He engraved a great number of
plates, both from his own designs and after other
masters, and his prints are highly esteemed. He
generally used the cipher Tjp The following are
his principal works : JJM"

PORTRAITS.

Tycho Brahe, the Astronomer.
Abraham Gokevius, antiquary, of Amsterdam.
Hugo Grotius.
Philip de Marnix, the disciple of Calvin.



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Cosmo de' Medici.

Sigismondo Malatesta ; circular.

Ivan IV. Vasilevich, Czar of Muscovy ; circular.

SUBJECTS AFTER HIS OWN DESIGNS.
Vanity ; represented as a Woman at her toilet.
The Penitent Magdalen ; a small oval.
Mars and Venus ; two small medallions.
A Gipsy telling a Girl her fortune.
The Statue of the Laocoon.
A Lion, in a landscape ; very scarce.
A set of ten plates, called the Masks ; very scarce.
The Twelve Roman Emperors ; circular ; fine.

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS AUTHORS.

The Life and Passion of Christ ; fourteen plates ; en-
graved by J. De Gheyn and Z. Dolendo, after C. van
Mander.

The Twelve Tribes of Israel ; twelve plates ; after the
same.

The Four Evangelists ; after HenArik Goltdui.

The Confusion of Tongues at the building of the Tower
of Babel ; after C. van Mander.

The Adoration of the Trinity ; after the same.

The Judgment of Midas ; after the same.

The Prodigal Sou ; in two sheets ; after the same.

The Crucifixion ; after Crispin van den Uroeck.

The Assembly of the Gods ; after the same. 1589.

The Empire of Neptune ; after W. Telrho. 1587.

Twelve plates of Soldiers of the Guard of Rudolph
II. ; after H. Goltzius.

The Annunciation ; after A. Bloemaert.

A Repose in Egypt ; after the same.

Christ preaching to the Jews ; after the same.

The Miracle of the Loaves ; after the same.

Daniel in the Lions' Den ; after T. Bernard.

Diana and Action ; after the same.

Polyphemus, with Acis and Galatea ; after C. van
Haarlem.

A small Landscape ; an etching ; after J. Brueghel.

DE GHEYN, JAKOB, (or DE GHEIN,) 'the
younger,' son of the elder Jakob De Gheyn, was
born at Antwerp about the year 1595. He is sup-
posed to have studied in Italy, under A. Tempesta,
from the resemblance in their style. In conjunc-
tion with Cornelis Boel, he executed eight plates
for ' Les Exploits de Charles-Quint pendant la
Guerre d'ltalie,' from designs by Tempesta.

DE GHEYN, WILLEM, (or DE GHEIN,) a Flemish
engraver, probably related to Jakob De Gheyn,
was born at Antwerp, and worked in the middle of
the 17th century in Holland and in Paris. Jointly
with Jeremiah Falck, he engraved the Four Seasons,
represented by French ladies, attired in the cos-
tume of the time of Louis XII. We have also by
him the following plates :

The Visitation ; after Guido Eeni.
Louis XIV., when a boy, on horseback.
Bernard, Duke of Weimar, on horseback.

DEGL' AVANZI. See DEGLI AVANZI.

DE GLEN, JAN, was a printer and wood-en-
graver, who was born in the middle of the 16th
century. He cut the blocks for the portraits of the
Popes in the ' Vitse Romanorum Pontificum ' of
his brother J. B. De Glen, which was printed in
1597 ; and also prepared,' from his own designs, the
cuts to a work published at Liege in 1601, entitled
' Des Habits, Mceurs, Ceremonies et Fayone de
faire anciennes etmodernes,' and to ' Les Merveilles
de la Ville de Rome ' (Liege, 1631), and ' Europa,
eive Primariarum Europae Provinciarum Ritibus,
Caeremoniis etVestibus.' He was still living in 1631.

DEGLER, FRANZ, an Austrian historical and
portrait painter, was born at Klausen in tne Tyrol
in 1705. Among his works may be mentioned the
portraits of the Emperor Charles VII. and his



Empress, and of other high personages who were
at Frankfort-on-the-Main at the time of their coro-
nation, and the ten pictures of the Passion painted
for the Capuchin church in that city, where he
died in 1736.

DEGLER, JOHANN, an Austrian painter, was
born at Lazfons in the Tyrol about the year 1800.
He was a pupil of Denifle, and had already given
evidence of the possession of great talent when he
died at Brixen in 1829. In the Ferdinandeum at
Innsbruok there are by him two pictures, and a
chalk drawing of the ' Raising of Lazarus.'

DEGLI AFFLITTI, NUNZIO. See FERRAJCOLI.

DEGLI AMBROSI, MARCO, commonly called
MELOZZO DA FORLI, was born at Forli in 1438. He
is said to have been first instructed by Ansovino of
Forli, who assisted Mantegna in several works, but
he afterwards adopted much of the style of Piero
della Francesca and Giovanni Santi of Urbino.
Such was his desire of learning the best principles
of the art, that, though of a noble and affluent
family, he submitted to the menial duties of a
domestic servant and colour-grinder to some of
the principal painters of his time. To this vener-
able artist is attributed the first invention of fore-
shortening, which was afterwards carried to such
perfection by Correggio. In the study of per-
spective, considerable progress had been made by
Piero della Francesca, since its alleged invention
by Paolo Uccello, the Florentine ; but the merit of
first painting figures in perspective, on vaults and
ceilings, by which the illusion is rendered com-
pletely effective, was reserved for Melozzo. He
was patronized by the Count Girolamo Riario, with
whom he visited Rome in 1472, and painted the
tribune of SS. Apostoli with the 'Ascension' in
fresco, the perspective of which was of surprising
effect. In 1711, when the chapel was taken down
and rebuilt, the greater part of this painting dis-
appeared, but the figure of Christ is still preserved
in the Quirinal. Melozzo was a member of the
Academy of St. Luke at Rome. He died at Forli
in 1494. Other paintings by him are :

London. Nat. Gall. Two Allegorical Figures : Rhetoric,

and Music.

Paris. Louvre. Fourteen Portraits, painted for the
Duke of Urbino. (Ascribed also to
Justus van Ghent.)

Rome. Harberini Fourteen Portraits belonging to the
Palace. same series as those in the Louvre.
Vatican. Sixtus IV. giving the custody of the

Vatican Library to Platina.

DEGLI ANTONJ, ANTONELLO. See ANTONIO.

DEGLI AVANZI, JACOPO, a Bolognese painter
of the later years of the 14th century, is chiefly
known by a ' Crucifixion,' in the Colonna Gallery
at Rome. There are three pictures in the Bologna
Gallery also by this master. He painted, in con-
junction with artists of no great importance, fres-
coes in the church of the Madonna di Mezzarata,
near Bologna, which Malvasia says were praised
by Michelangelo and the Carrncci ; they have,
however, been whitewashed and afterwards re-
stored, and only fragments of them remain.
Vasari says they were completed in 1404.

DEGLI AVANZI, SIMONE. See BOLOGNA.

DEGLI INNOCENTI, BATTISTA. See NALDINI.

DEGLI STEFANI, TOMMASO. Dominici, in his
' Lives of the Neapolitan Painters,' attempts to
prove that the art was practised at Naples by this
master before the time of Cimabue, and that it
had, at that early period, reached a more improved

27



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



state at Naples than it had at Florence. Whatever
may be allowed for the partiality with which the
Italian writers speak of their particular country-
men, Dominici appears to have established the
authenticity of his statement. This venerable
artist was born at Naples in 1231. He grounded
himself upon the remains of Grecian art which
had been preserved in the temples and public
edifices at Naples, and had painted several pictures
for the churches of S;xn Francesco and Santa Maria
delle Grazie previous to the year 1260, at which
time he was employed by the Archbishop of Naples
to ornament the chapel of his palace. Several
other works by him are particularly described by
Dominici. He died in 1310. He had a brother,
PIETRO DEGLI SxEFANi, who also was a painter, but
was more celebrated as a sculptor.

DE GRAEF,TlMOTHEUS, was a Dutch landscape
painter, who flourished at the close of the 17th
century. The dates of his birth and death are not
recorded ; but Jacob Appel, of Amsterdam, was
his pupil. The Sale Catalogues of Hoet ami
Terwesten mention many of his pictures, par-
ticularly landscapes and views in the vicinity of
Amsterdam.

DE GREBBER, FRANS PIETERSZ, was born at
Haarlem in 1579 ; he was a scholar of Roland
Savery, and obtained honourable mention as an
artist. He also made copies of his master's works
and those of Velvet Brueghel. He died in 1649.

DE GREBBER. PIETER FRANSZ, a Dutch painter,
was born at Haarlem in 1600. He was the son of
Frans Pietersz De Grebber, who instructed him in
the elements of design ; but he afterwards became
a scholar of Hendrik Goltzius. He died after
1665. He chiefly painted easel pictures, of which
there are many in the collections in Holland. The
Museum at Haarlem has, amongst others, 'Tht-
Emperor Barbarossa ' and ' The Patriarch of Haar-
lem,' which are quite in Rubens's style ; also
' Jacob's Sons bringing to him Joseph's Coat.' The
Dresden Gallery also contains examples of his art.
He has also left several engravings, and an etching
in Rembrandt's style of ' Christ and the Woman of
Samaria.' He had a sister, MARIA DE GREBBER,
who excelled in painting perspective and archi-
tectural views.

DE GROOS, GERHARD and GEORG, probably two
brothers, were working together as engravers at
Prague about the year 1647. They produced a
large number of portraits and pictures of Saints.

DE GROOT, JAN, a painter and engraver in
mezzotint, was born at Flushing in 1650. He
was first instructed by Adriaan Verdoel. and after
1666 by Adriaan van Ostade. The date of his
death is not recorded. Some of his plates are
marked J. G. fee. or /. G. inc. The best of those
in mezzotint are :

Portrait of Desiderius Erasmus ; after Holbein.
Portrait of Abraham van der Eyk ; after Van der F.uk.
Boy singing, with a cup of wine ; after fan Dyck.

DE HAAN, DAVID, was born at Rotterdam in
1602. He studied in Italy, and became a good
historical painter, excelling especially in battle-
pieces. He also painted game with great truth-
fulness to nature. He died at Rome in 1659.

DE HAAS, WILLIAM FREDERICK, who was born
at Rotterdam in 1830, studied in the Academy of
his native city, and at the Hague under Johannes
Bosboom. He went in 1854 to New York, where he
became known as a painter of coast scenery. He

28



died at Fayal in 1880. The following are some of
his best works :

Sunrise on the Susquehanna. 1867.

Fishing Boats off Mount Desert. 18T4.

Midsummer Noon, Bideford Beach, Coast of Maine.

1875.
Narragansett Pier. 1877.

DE HAEN, ABRAHAM, a Dutch painter, born at
Amsterdam in 1710, was a disciple of Cornells
Pronk. He painted portraits and architectural
subjects, and a picture of ' Game ' by him is in
the Gallery at Christiania. He died in 1750.

DE HANGEST, EGBERT MARINUS FREDERIK, (or
D'HANGEST,) an amateur painter, was born at
Utrecht in 1746. While studying the law he took
lessons in painting of Verstegh. After finishing
his legal studies, he set out on his travels as an
artist, painting landscapes in the manner of Zaft-
leven ; views on the Rhine, and rocky scenery ;
landscapes, with lakes and rivers ; and sunsets and
moonlights, in which he was very successful. His
pencilling is vigorous and free, and his pictures
would not discredit a professional artist. He died
in 1810.

DE HEEM, CORNELIS, the son and scholar of
Jan Davidsz De Heem, was born at Utrecht in
1630. Like his father he painted still-life, but
his productions are inferior. He died at the
Hague after 1692.

DE HEEM, DAVID, who was born at Utrecht in
1570, was an excellent painter of fruit, flowers,
plate, crystal vessels, and other objects of still-life.
There is a ' Group of Flowers ' by him in the
Museum at Brussels. He died at Utrecht in 1632.

DE HEEM, DAVID DAVIDSZ, a son and pupil of
David De Heeui, was a fruit painter of Utrecht in
the 17th century. A picture by him, dated 1668, is
in the gallery of that city, and one dated 1649 is
at Amsterdam.

DE HEEM, JAN, a supposed nephew of David
De Heem, is stated to have been born at Amsterdam
in 1603. He studied under his uncle and followed
his manner exactly. There is a picture of still-life
ascribed to him in the Museum at Amsterdam.
His death is set down in 1650. There is, however,
some confusion between this artist and Jan Davidsz
De Heem, to whom the catalogues of Berlin,
Brunswick, Munich, and Vienna assign the pictures
marked J. De Heem.

DE HEEM, JAN DAVIDSZ, was born at Utrecht
after 1600. He was the son of David De Heem,
the flower painter, by whom he was instructed.
His pictures bear date from 1640 to 1669, and repre-
sent fruit, flowers, vases and ornaments of gold and
silver, musical instruments, and similar objects of
still-life. He was a perfect master of chiaroscuro.
Heparticularly excelled in imitating the transparent
clearness of glass and crystal, which he was fond
of introducing into his pictures. His paintings
were so superior to those of every artist that had
preceded him, in similar subjects, that they were
anxiously sought after by the most distinguished
persons of his time, and were purchased at large
prices. They are still held in high estimation.
Being obliged to leave Utrecht during the troubles
which took place in Holland in 1671, he took
refuge at Antwerp, where he died in 1674.

DE HEERE, LUCAS, a Flemish historical and
portrait painter, who was born at Ghent in 1534,
was the son of Jan De Heere, a sculptor and
architect, and of Anna De Smytere, an excellent
painter of miniatures. He studied for some time



LUCAS DE HEERE




MARV TUDOR



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



under his parents, and afterwards under Frans
Floris at Antwerp. On leaving the studio of the
latter he went to France, and was employed at
Fontainebleau by the Queen-Mother, Catharine
de' Medici, in making designs for tapestries for
the royal residences. The time of his first visit
to England is uncertain, but he must have been
here in 1554, when he painted the fine portrait of
Queen Mary which is in the collection of the
Society of Antiquaries. On his return to Ghent
he painted, among other portraits, that of a wealthy
young Protestant lady, named Eleonora Carboniers,
the daughter of the burgomaster of Vere, in Zealand.
Her beauty and learning captivated the painter,
but it was only after great perseverance that he
won her as his wife. To her he addressed many
amorous verses, for Lucas De Heere was a poet as
well as a painter, and these he published in 1565,
under the title, ' Den Hof en de Boomgaerd der
Poesien.' His marriage led to a change in his
religion, and when the Duke of Alva arrived in the
Netherlands in 1567, and Ghent was occupied by
a Spanish garrison, the adherents of the new
faith had to flee from their homes. De Heere fled
to England, and appears to have remained here
until 1577, when the edict known as the Pacifica-
tion of Ghent enabled him to return to his native
city. During this second visit he painted, in
1569, the remarkable allegorical portrait of Queen
Elizabeth, with Juno, Venus, and Pallas apparently
fleeing before her, which is now at Hampton
Court. Other fine examples of his art which exist
in England are the portraits of Lord Darnley and
his brother, Charles Stuart, dated 1563, also at
Hampton Court, and the small full-length portrait
of Queen Elizabeth, in the possession of the Duke
of Portland, one of his most charming works.
His abilities as an historical painter are best repre-
sented by a ' Crucifixion,' painted by him in 1565
for the church of the village of Saint-Paul, in the
Pays de Waes. This altar-piece fully justifies the
renown which his portraits have gained for him in
England. Besides his paintings in oil, he com-
pleted, in 1576, a large collection of water-colour
drawings of costumes, which he entitled ' Theatre
de tous les Peuples et Nations de la Terre.' This
valuable work is now among the archives of Ghent.
He also translated into Flemish verse the Psalms
of David, and wrote, or at least began to write, the
lives of the Flemish painters, in rhyme. Lucas
De Heere died in 1584 in Paris, where he had
taken refuge after the assassination of William
the Taciturn. R.E.G.

DE HEUR, CORNELIS JOSEPH, (or D'HEUB,) a
Flemish painter of historical subjects and interiors,
was born at Antwerp in 1707. He studied success-
ively under Gaspard van Opstal the younger, J. J.
Hermans the elder, and Peeter Snyers. In 1730,
he went to Paris, and on his return to Antwerp
became one of the directors of the Academy. He
died in 1762 at Antwerp, where there are in the
Museum several works by him in grisaille.

DE HEUSC'H, ABEAHAM, was bom at Utrecht
in 1650, and was probably related to Jakob and
Willem De Heusch. He excelled in painting plants,
insects, and reptiles ; which he designed and exe-
cuted with surprising patience and labour. His
pictures of that description are not inferior, in
the delicate polish of their finishing, to the highly-
wrought productions of Gerard Dou or Miens.
There are a few etchings of landscapes by Abraham
De Heusch, from his own designs.



DE HEUSCH, JAKOB, called AFFDEDCK, the
nephew of Willem De Heusch, was born at Utrecht
in 1657. He was instructed in art by his uncle,
and acquired his surname from his faithful imita-
tion of his uncle's style. Having made consider-
able progress, he was recommended to visit Italy,
where he passed several years. He met with very
flattering encouragement at Rome, his pictures
being much admired. He particularly attached
himself to the study of the works of Salvator
Rosa, whose picturesque style he imitated with
considerable success. His pictures represent the
most select views in the environs of Rome, en-
riched with groups of charming figures, correctly
drawn and vigorously touched. We have a few



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