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etchings by him of landscapes, from his own
designs, executed in a neat but slight style. He
died at Amsterdam in 1701.

DE HEUSCH, WILLEM, was born at Utrecht
in 1638. In 1656, or 1659, he was in Italy as a
pupil of Jan Both, whose style ne copied. He
died at Utrecht in 1712. One of his landscapes
in the Louvre is very finely executed, but a better
specimen of his art is in the Belvedere at Vienna,
a 'Landscape at Sunset.' Landscapes from bis
brush are in the galleries of Stockholm, Copen-
hagen, Frankfort, Brunswick, Amsterdam, Rotter-
dam, and the Hague. He also engraved several
Landscapes, which have become very rare.

DEHNE, J. C., was a German engraver, who
flourished in the first half of the 18th century.
He engraved several portraits for the work entitled
' Icones Bibliopolarum et Typographorum,' pub-
lished at Nuremberg in 1726-42. We have also by
him a great number of plates, representing, in the
most ludicrous manner, the gods and heroes of

genre painter, was born in Paris in 1822. He
was a pupil of Leon Cogniet, and first attracted
notice by his picture of ' St. Cecilia ' at the Salon
of 1844. He travelled much in Spain and Northern
Africa, and from these countries derived many of
his subjects, which are painted with great truthful-
ness and richness of colour. He died in 1882.
Among his best works are :

Virginia found dead on the sea-shore. 1849.

A Spauish Bull-Fight. 1850. (Luxembourg Gallery.)

The Arrest of Charlotte Corday. 1868.

Othello. 1873.

A Moorish Story-Teller. 1877.

DE HOEY, JAN, (or DE HOOY,) a Dutch painter,
was born at Leyden in 1545. Van Mander says
that he was a grandson of Lucas van Leyden and
brother of Lucas Damissen, under whom he studied
painting. He travelled in Italy and France, and
made himself so acceptable at the court of Henry
IV. that he was appointed keeper of the royal
collections. He died at Fontainebleau in 1615.
LUCAS DE HOEY, or DAMISSEN, his brother, who was
born at Leyden in 1533, resided at Utrecht, and
died there in 1604. CLAUDE DE HOEY, or DOUE,
the son of Jan, who was also a painter, died in 1660.
He had the care of the pictures at Fontainebleau
from the time of his father's death until 1635,
when he resigned in favour of his nephew, Jean

DE HOND, (or DE HONDT). See Horn


DECOETEE, as he invariably signed his name,) a

member of a noble family of Brabant, was born at

Utrecht in 1636. He first studied under his father,



Gysbert D'Hondecoeter, and then with his uncle,
Jan Baptista Weenix, and became famous for his
pictures of birds of rare plumage, live fowl, game,
and similar subjects. In this branch of art he
stands unrivalled. He also painted a few marine
pieces, and engraved a few prints.

From 1659 to 1663 he is mentioned in the ' Pic-
tura' Society of the Hague. He then removed
(in what year is not known) to Amsterdam, where
he received the rights of citizenship in 1688, and
where he died in 1695. His works are frequently
met with in public galleries ; the following are
some of the principal :
Amsterdam. Museum. Dead Birds.

Animals and Plants.

The Philosophical Magpie.

The Menagerie.

The Floating Feather.

Berlin. Gall fry. Foreign Water-fowl in a Park.

Brunswick. Gallery. Animals of the Ark.
Brussels. Museum. Peacock and Poultry in a Park.

., Cock crowing.

Cassel. Gallery. Cocks fighting.


Dresden. Gallery. Hen and Chicken, and Bird of

A white Hen and Chicken.

A Concert of Birds.

Wild Fowl.

Florence. Pitti Pal. Poultry.
Frankfort. Stadel. Poultry.

Hague. Museum. The Crow stripped of his bor-

rowed feathers.

The Menagerie of William III.

at the Chateau of Loo.

Geese and Ducks.

Fowl and Ducks.

Liverpool. Institution. Poultry.
London. Jfat. Gall. Domestic Poultry.

Geese and Ducks.

Munich. Gallery. A Park with Poultry.

Paris. Louvre. Birds in a Park.

Petersburg. Hermitage. Fight between a Cock and a

Trophies of the Chase.

Venice. Academy. Poultry.
Vienna. Gallery. A Cock and two Hens.

Liechtenstein \ p ]t ^
Collection. J Foultr y-

DE HONT, H., (or DE HONDT,) is said to have
been a scholar of David Teniers. His pictures
represent similar scenes to those of that master,
and sometimes approach very closely to his manner.

DE HOOCH, PIETER, was born at Rotterdam,
probably in 1632. His style was formed from a
study of the works of Karel Fabritius and of
Rembrandt. He worked at Delft and at Haarlem,
where he died, it is said, in 1681. He painted
interiors and portraits ; and his works are dis-
tinguished for their brilliant effects of light, and
admirable colour. His name has been written in
a variety of ways De Hooche, Hoogh, Hooghe,
and Hooge. Out of Holland, De Hooch's paintings
are extremely scarce ; and even in that country
they are among the rarest art-treasures in the
public and private galleries. The following are
the principal :

Amsterdam. Museum. Portrait of Himself at the age

of 19.
The Buttery-hatch.

Six Coll. The Linen-Press.

Berlin. Gallery. A Dutch Interior.

Copenhagen. Gallery. Persons Playing and Dancing.

A Family Concert.

An Interior.


Frankfort. Stadel. A Lady at her Writing-table.

Hague. Ste cht } A Musical Party.

London. Nat. Gallery. The Courtyard of a Dutch

House. 1665.
An Interior; two gentlemen

conversing with a lady.
Courtyard of a Dutch House,

paved with bricks. 165S.
Apsley House. A Lady at her Toilet.

Ashburton Coll. A Woman and a Child walking

in a street of Utrecht.
Buckingham Pal. A Courtyard.
Three Gentleman and a Lady

Playing Cards. 1653.

An Interior.

Munich. Gallery. Dutch Interior ; a Woman


Paris. Louvre. Dutch Interior ; two Women

and a Child, with a meal pre-
pared on the table.

,, Dutch Interior ; Card Players.

Petersburg. Hermitaye. A Lady seated at a door.

Dutch Interior; a Lady play-

ing the lute and singing,
whilst a cavalier accompanies
her in the song.

The Lace-maker.

Vienna. Czernin Coll. A Painter in his Studio.

DE HOOGHE, ROMEYN, a Dutch designer and
engraver, born at the Hague about the year 1646,
was a nephew of Pieter De Hooch. Several of his
compositions show him to have been a man of
great genius and readiness of invention. Few
artists have handled the point with more spirit and
facility than Romeyn De Hooghe, and his small
figures and distances are executed with great deli-
cacy and neatness. His foregrounds and principal
figures are less happy, and there is a want of
harmony in the effect, and in the management of
the chiaroscuro. He founded a school of design at
Haarlem, where he died in 1708. The number of
his prints is very considerable, but the following
are the principal :

The Portrait of Michael Adriaensz De Ruyter, Admiral-
General of Holland ; very fine.
An Allegorical Subject, in honour of Leopold II.
Another, in honour of William, Prince of Orange.
The Marriage of William, Prince of Orange, with the

Princess Mary of England.

The Entry of the Prince of Orange into London.
The Coronation of William and Mary.
The Army of William III. in order of battle, on the

banks of the Boyue ; with medallions of King William

and Queen Mary.

The Siege of Vienna by the Turks. 1683.
The Triumphal Entry of John III., King of Poland, into

Warsaw, after raising the siege of Vienna.
Constantinople taken by the Turks.
A set of plates representing the Excesses committed by

the French in Holland. 1672, 1673.
The Deluge of Coerverden.
The Massacre of the two De Witts. 1672.
The Defeat of the French at Hochstadt in 1704 ; with

medallions of the Duke of Marlborough and Prince


The Taking of Narva by Charles XII.
The Battle of St. Deuys, near Mons ; in two sheets.
The Jewish Synagogue at Amsterdam.
The Entry of Louis XIV. into Dunkirk ; two sheets ;

after Van der Meulen.
Charles II. of Spain, descending from his carriage to pay

homage to the Host.
Six Emblematical Subjects, relative to the abuses of the

clergy of the Romish Church. 1679.
The Fair at Arnheim.
Twelve Figures habited in the mode of the end of the

17th century.


Woodbttry Co. photu\ Rational Gallery



Hanfsta ngl photo'\ i


[National Gallery


DE HULST, FRANS, a Dutch landscape painter,
was admitted in 1631 into the Guild of St. Luke
at Haarlem, where he died in 1661. There is by
him in the Berlin Gallery a view of a town in
Holland. He painted in the style of Ruisdael and
Van Goyen, but his works are seldom met with.

DEI, MATTEO DI GIOVANNI, was one of the most
celebrated of the goldsmiths and workers in niello
who flourished at Florence in the middle of the
15th century. He executed in 1455 for the church
of San Giovanni a pax which represented the
' Crucifixion of Our Lord.' He also engraved for
a pax for the confraternity of St. Paul a silver
plate, representing the ' Conversion of St. Paul,'
which is preserved in the Florence Gallery. It has
never been filled in with enamel, and modern
impressions have been taken from it.

DEI BUONI, BOONO, was born at Naples, and,
according to Dominici, flourished about the year
1430. He was a disciple of an old Neapolitan
painter called Colantonio del Fiore, whom he as-
sisted in several of his works, and after whose death
he became one of the most reputable artists of his
time. There are many of his works in the churches
at Naples ; one of the most esteemed is a painting
in the church of the Restituta representing ' St.
Francis receiving the Stigmata.' He died about
the year 1465.

DEI BUONI, SILVESTBO, the son of Buono de'
Buoni, was born at Naples about the year 1420.
After studying for some time under his father, he
had the advantage of being instructed by Antonio
Solario. Under that master he became an eminent
painter of historical subjects, and was employed
in some considerable works for the churches and
public edifices of Naples. He died about 1480.
The following are his best works :

Naples. S. Caterina. Christ appearing after his

S. Bestituta. Virgin and Child, with SS.

Restituta and Michael.

,, -S'. Piitro Martin. Death of the Virgin.
Virgin and Child between two

Monte Oliiieto. Ascension.

DEI CONTI, BERNARDINO, an Italian painter, is
said to have been born at Pavia in the latter part
of the 15th century. He died in 1525. He was a
follower of Zenale, but little is known of his life
or works. The following paintings, howeverj are
preserved :

Bergamo. Lochis-Carrara Madonna and Child (signed).

Gallery. 1501.

Berlin. Gallery. ' Profile of a Prelate. 1499.



Genoa in 1598. He was first a scholar of Bernardo
Castello, but he afterwards studied under Bernardo
Strozzi. His principal historical works are his
picture of ' Theodosius,' in the style of Castello, in
the Jesuit church at Genoa ; ' The Nativity,' in the
cathedral of the same city ; and in a church at
Voltri, the ' Birth of the Virgin,' his most esteemed
production, a composition of many figures ; the
two last pictures are in the style of Strozzi. He
died at Genoa in 1669.

DEI FERRARI, GREGORIO, a Genoese painter,
was born at Porto Maurizio in 1644. He was a
disciple of Domenico Fiasella, called II Sarzana,
whose manner was not conformable to the genius
of his scholar, which aimed at a style more grand

and free. He went to Parma, where he studied
with attention the works of Correggio, and made a
faithful copy of the great cupola. He was also
much employed at Turin and Marseilles. He died
at Genoa in 1726. Of his works the most esteemed
are his ' St. Michael,' in the Madonna delle Vigne
at Genoa, and his ' Apollo and the Muses ' and
' Plato and Aristotle ' in the University. The
Palazzo Balbi, also in the same city, contains some
pictures by him.

DEI FERRARI, LORENZO, the son of Gregorio
de' Ferrari, was born at Genoa in 1680. He was
instructed by his father, and, like him, he imitated
the grace and suavity of Correggio. He assisted
his father in some of his works, but surpassed
him in foreshortening and correctness of drawing.
He excelled in painting in fresco, but he also
painted many pictures in oil for churches. In his
works in the Doria Palace, he has emulated the
vigour of the Carloni, and is little inferior to them.
In the Carega Palace is a gallery of subjects from
the jEneid, which were his last works. He died
at Genoa in 1744.

DEI FERRARI, OBAZIO, was born at Voltri in
1606, and was a scholar of Andrea Ansaldo, under
whom he became an able painter of historical
subjects in oil and fresco. His merit recommended
him to the patronage of the Prince of Monaco,
who employed him for some years. His ' Last
Supper,' in the Oratory of the church of San Siro
at Genoa, is alone sufficient to establish his
reputation. This artist was high in the public
esteem when Genoa was visited in 1657 by the
plague, which carried off a great number of the
inhabitants, with this painter and all his family.



at Venice in the latter half of the 16th century,
was a type-cutter and printseller. The following
two excellent prints are by him :

The Procession of Corpus Christi at Venice. 1565.
The Parade of the Emperor Solyman I. at Constanti-
nople. 1565. A very rare plate.

BORGHESE, was born at Borgo San Sepolcro in
Umbria about the year 1416. It is not known
by whom he was instructed in the art of paint-
ing, but in 1438 he made the acquaintance of
Domenico Veneziano, and was employed by him on
the frescoes of Sant' Egidio at Florence, which
were executed between the years 1439 and 1450.
He was a complete master of linear perspective
and thoroughly understood all its laws, as also the
true art of projecting shadows, and thus giving an
additional charm to his pictures. The majority
of his pictures were painted in oil, then a com-
paratively new medium for colours, and he carried
out many improvements in the usage of this vehicle.
Between the years 1447 and 1452 it is thought that
both Domenico and Piero were at Loretto, where
the ceiling of the sacristy was commenced by
them ; and it was probably at about this period that
Piero left Domenico and went to Rome, where, in
conjunction with Bramantino, he painted two fres-
coes in the Vatican by order of Pope Nicholas V.
These frescoes were afterwards removed by com-
mand of Julius II. in order to make room foi
Raphael's frescoes of the ' Deliverance of St. Peter
from Prison,' and the ' Mass of Bolsena.' After 1451



Piero entered the service of Sigismondo Pandolfo
Malatesta, Duke of Rimini, and adorned for him
the chapel of the Relic in the church of San
Francesco with a picture representing ' Malatesta
kneeling before the enthroned St. Sigismund of
Burgundy.' Soon afterwards he commenced the
cycle of frescoes illustrating the Legend of the
Cross in the church of San Francesco at Arezzo.
This immense series commences with the Death and
Burial of Adam, and follows the legend up to the
Finding of the Cross by St. Helena. They are
wonderful alike by the reality of their effects of
light and shade, and their harmony of colour. They
were finished about 1454. In 1445 he painted
for the Compagnia della Misericordia the altar-
piece of the 'Virgin of Mercy,' with Saints and
scenes from the Passion, now in the Hospital at
Borgo San Sepolcro. Whilst in his native city
he executed many commissions for altar-pieces
and banners, some of which still remain in its
gallery and churches. From there he went to
Urbino, where in 1469 he entered the service of
the Duke Federigo, and also made the acquaint-
ance of Giovanni Sand, the father of Raphael. He
painted for the duke a 'Flagellation,' which is
preserved in the sacristy of the cathedral, and an
' Apotheosis,' containing the portraits of Federigo
da Montefeltro, and Batista Sforza, his wife. The
last-mentioned picture is now in the Gallery of
the Uffizi at Florence. He is also known to have
gone to Ferrara, where he was employed by Duke
Borso in the decorations of his palace called
' Schifanoja," which means " Begone, dull care."
The frescoes executed there by Piero have been
destroyed, but the remains of others have been
recovered, which clearly indicate the great in-
fluence possessed by this artist over other painters
of his time. The statement that he became blind
in 1458 is clearly incorrect, for he was still work-
ing in 1478, and it is probable that age alone at
last incapacitated him from further work. Piero
della Francesca died at Borgo San Sepolcro in
1492. Luca Signorelli, Melozzo da Forli, Barto-
lommeo della Gatta, and Perugino were among
his pupils. He wrote a treatise on Perspective, of
which there are copies in the Vatican Library and
in the Ambrosian Library at Milan. Amongst his
paintings may be mentioned :
Arezzo. S.Francesco. The Legend of the Holy Cross, with

the Vision of Coustantiue.
Borgo S. Sepolcro. The Resurrection.
London. A'at. Gall. Portrait of a lady. (Doubtful.}

n The Baptism of Christ.

Portrait, said to be that of the

Contessa Palma. (Doubtful.)

The Nativity.

St. Michael.

Milan. Brera. Madonna with Saints, and Portrait

of Federigo of Urbino.
Perugia. Acadtmy. Virgin and Child enthroned, with


Rimini. S.Francesco. St. Sigismund (Sigismondo Pan-
dolfo Malatesta).

Urbino. Cathedral. The Flagellation.
Venice. Academy. St. Jerome in the Desert.

PIPPI, but more commonly GIULIO ROMANO, was
born at Rome in 1492. He was apprenticed to
Raphael when quite young, and assisted him in
the Vatican ; and he is generally considered
Raphael's best pupil. He copied several of his
master's Madonnas, and executed some few from
his designs. While in Rome he painted mythical
frescoes in the Villa Lanti, the Villa Madama, the

Farnese Palace, and the church of Santa Triuita
de' Monti. By his will, Raphael bequeathed his
implements and works of art to his joint-executors,
Giulio Romano and Gianfrancesco Penni, and
entrusted to them the completion of his unfinished
frescoes in the Sala di Costantino in the Vatican.
In 1524 Giulio went to Mantua and entered the
service of Duke Federigo Gonzaga. He was there
architect for the Palazzo del Te, and, assisted by
numerous pupils (of whom the chief were Bene-
detto Pagni, Rinaldo Mantuano, and Primaticcio),
decorated the interior with frescoes representing
the ' Defeat of the Giants,' his greatest work, and
with scenes from the ' History of Cupid and Psyche.'
He also painted at Mantua, in the Ducal Palace,
frescoes representing 'Diana hunting,' and the
' History of the Trojan War,' as well as frescoes in
the cathedral and other churches. Those in the
cathedral, however, he was not able to complete,
for having accepted the post of architect to St.
Peter's at Rome, in succession to San Gallo, he was
about to set out for that city when he died at
Mantua in 1546. Of his easel pictures the following
are the most famous :



Pitti Palace.

Genoa. San Stefano.





Nat. Gallery.


. Peter's (Sacristy).
. Prassede (Sacristy)

oryhese Pal.

Colonna Pal.

La Madonna del Catino.

His own Portrait.

Madonna and Child.

Portrait of Cardinal Accolti.

Dance of Apollo and the

The Virgin with the Lizard.

Martyrdom of St. Stephen
(one of his best works).

The Infancy of Jupiter.

La Madonna della Gatta (a
variation of Raphael's
'Perla'). '

The Nativity.

The Holy Family.

Triumph of Titus and Ves-

Venus and Vulcan.

Portrait of a Man.


The Flagellation.

Madonna and Child.

Madonna and Child.


St. Margaret and theDragon.

died in 1562, at the age of thirty.



VICENTINO, or simply VirENTlNO, was born at Venice
in 1539, and was a scholar of the elder Palma. He
painted historical subjects in the style of his in-
structor, and was employed in several works,
representing subjects from the history of the
Republic, in the Sala del Gran Consiglio, in the
Palace of St. Mark. He also painted easel pictures
for private collections, of which there is one in
the Florence Gallery, representing the 'Anointing
of Solomon, King of Israel.' He died in 1614.

DEI MOTTI, JACOPO, was a Milanese painter in
oil, in fresco, and on glass, who, between 1485
and 1490, painted several windows in the Certosa
at Pavia, and in the succeeding years decorated
with frescoes several of its chapels. He died at
Milan in 1505.

CRISTOFORO DE' MOTTI also practised as a painter
in fresco and on glass at Genoa, Milan, and Pavia,
between the years 1468 and 1514.











A/itiai i photo

\Brera GalUry, Milan



known as the BRESCIANINI of Siena, were the sons
of a dancing-master at Siena, where they flourished
from 1507 to 1525. They were the pupils of a
Sienese painter, named Giovan Battista Giusi, and
they together painted an altar-piece, representing
the ' Virgin and Child, with Saints,' which is in the
Siena Academy, and in 1524 the ' Baptism of
Christ,' for the baptistery of the cathedral of the
same city. In 1525 they went to Florence, and in
the same year Andrea, and probably Raffaello also,
was registered in the Painters' Guild. A ' Holy
Family ' by Andrea, who was the better artist of
the two, is in the Uffizi Gallery at Florence, and
another ' Holy Family,' ascribed to him, is in the
Berlin Gallery. The beautiful altar-piece, a ' Holy
Family,' of the church of Torre di Bibiano, long
attributed to Baldassare Peruzzi, is also supposed
to be by him. The brothers appear to have worked
under the influence of Fra Bartolommeo. Raffaello
died at Florence in 1545.


DEI ROSSI, BERNARDINO, who worked at Pavia,
was one of the artists called to Milan in 1490 to
decorate the Porta Giovia Palace of Lodovico
Sforza. In the church of Santa Maria della Pusterla,
Pavia, is a picture of the ' Virgin, with Saints and
Donors,' signed and dated by him in 1491. Between
the years 1498 and 1508 he decorated the Certosa
of Pavia with wall paintings, of which the frescoes
of the 'Eternal,' the 'Prophets,' and the 'Virgin
Annunciate' still remain. In 1511 he executed
some frescoes for the church at Vigano, belonging
to the Carthusians of Pavia, which have now dis-
appeared. No certain dates can be given of his
birth or death.

SALVIATI, or IL SALVIATI, (which appellation he
acquired from the favour and protection he
experienced from the cardinal of that name,) and
also FRANZCHEN, was the son of Michelangelo
de' Rossi, a weaver of velvets, and was born at
Florence in 1510. He was a fellow-student with
Giorgio Vasari, first under Andrea del Sarto, and
afterwards under Baccio Bandinelli. The two
young friends pursued their studies at Rome with
the same intimacy, and in the church of Santa Maria
della Pace Salviati painted the 'Annunciation ' and
'Christ speaking to St. Philip,' by which he gained
considerable reputation. He also embellished the
chapel of his patron, Cardinal Salviati, with a
series of frescoes, representing the ' Life of St.
John the Baptist.' He was employed by Pier
Luigi Farnese to make designs for Flemish tapes-
tries for his palace, in which he represented the
' History of Alexander.' In conjunction with Vasari
he ornamented the apartments of the Cancellaria
with several paintings in fresco. From Rome he
went to Venice, where he painted several pictures
for the public edifices and private collections, par-
ticularly the ' History of Psyche,' in a saloon of
the Palazzo Grimaldi, which Vasari, with marked
partiality for his fellow-countryman and co-dis
ciple, calls the finest painting in all Venice. He

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