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Bryan, Michael

Bryan's dictionary

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THE most notable article in this Volume is that on Titian by Mr. Herbert Cook. 1
Early in importance after this come those relating to four eminent artists who have
recently died Watts, by his old friend, Mr. M. H. Spielmann ; Whistler, by his
recent biographer, Mr. G. R. Dennis ; Vereshchagin, by Mr. H. Rayment ; and
Frederick Sandys, by the Editor. In each of these cases, but especially with regard
to Whistler, an effort has been made to give the very fullest possible account of
the artist and his works that the limits of such a dictionary as this permit. The
list of Whistler's etchings is by far the most complete that has yet appeared.

There is an unusually large number of biographies in the volume relating
to old Italian masters whose lives in recent years have been reconstructed, and
whose works have received fresh and informing attention.

In this series the contributions made by Miss Olcott as to Alvise, Bartolommeo,
and Antonio Vivarini are of the first importance, and hardly second to them come
the articles from the pen of Mr. R. H. Hobart Gust on the three artists of the
Semino family ; the three of the Salimbeni ; the three of the Tiepolo family ; the
Tressini ; the two artists named Spanzotto, and Pier F. Sacchi. Miss Olcott has
also written the article on Cosimo Tura, and those on the two Vanni, Lippo and

The two Signorelli have been entrusted to Miss Maud Cruttwell, who has long
made a special study of these painters, while Mr. Langton Douglas has dealt with
that mysterious personality whose greatness has so recently come to light, the
Sienese artist Sassetta. Solario, Salaino, and two very little-known men, Sebastian!
and Trino, have fallen to the share of another member of the Gust family, Mrs.
Wherry, and all that could be told respecting them she has set forth.

It has been a particular pleasure to enlist in the service of the Dictionary the
eminent scholar, Herr Paul Kristeller, and the important article on Squarcione from
his pen sets to rest, finally, it is hoped, some of the vain imaginings that have
been current as to this so-called founder of a school.

Other Italian artists who have been treated afresh in the light of new discoveries
are Sassoferrato, Bramantino, Savoldo, Tisio, Torbido, Varotari, and Vasari, who have
been described by Mr. Brinton; Leonardo da Vinci, who has been taken in hand

1 The article on Titian was, by an oversight, mentioned in the Note to Vol. IV., where another
article written by Mr. H. Cook, that on PrevitaK, appeared.


by Mr. McCurdy, Leonardo's most recent biographer ; Spinelli and Turchi, who
have been treated of by Mr. Strutt, the writer of the book on Lippo Lippi ; the
three Vecelli and Vavassori, who have received most careful attention from Miss
Jourdain ; and Perugino, who, as a matter of course, has fallen to the share of
the Editor.

In the German School there are some notable articles, especially those from
the pen of Mr. Campbell Dodgson on Schongauer, Sehou, the three artists of the
name of Traut, M. Wolgemut, and the two of the name of Weiditz ; while Miss
Constance Jocelyn Ffoulkes has reviewed a long list of the more unusual and
difficult of the little-known German and Italian artists ; writing articles upon
Schlilein, Van Schwaz, Scotti, the two Seregno, the Master of Sigmaringen, De
Soye, Van Staren, Stefano de' Fedeli, Strigel, Theodorich of Prague, J. Thiifel,
Tommaso da Modena, the two artists of the Da Vaprio family, D. J. Vellert, F. de
Vico, G. Vismara, Hans Weiditz, the two Weinschroters, the Master of Werden,
Olmutz von Wenzel, Conrad Witz, A. and J. Woensam von Worms, N.^ Wurmser,
Zavattari, and P. and M. Zoppo.

The veteran writer, Mr. Weale, who from the very first has had charge of the
section dealing with the old Flemish and Dutch artists, has contributed an
unusually large number of articles to this volume, writing those on Saftleven, Saive,
Sanders, Scorel, Snellaert, P. and H. Steenwijck, the three Stoeveres, Susenier,
Taulier, Teylingen, Tieffental, Tillemanns, Tol, Uute Wael, Van de Capelle, Van der
Goes, Van der Hagen, Van der Leepe, the five Van der Meeres, the three Van der
Neers, Van der Pluym, Van der Veen, the three Van der Weydens, Van der Woestine,
Van't Woudt, Van Voorst, Van Vucht, Van Wytevelde, Verbuys, Verwilt, De Vigilia,
the two Volmaryns, Vrelant, J. Van Wijckersloot, F. Walschartz, C. Witz, Zegelaar,
Zutmann, and Zyl. He has also sent in many small corrections of dates and lists
of pictures, acquired during his unceasing researches into the history of Flemish

Of the more strictly-called Dutch School the chief article is a very important
one from Mr. Frank Einder on Vermeer, containing the result of all past investiga-
tion, and correcting the errors hitherto adopted as to this wonderful painter ; while
of hardly less importance are the articles from the hand of Dr. Martin of the Hague,
dealing with Jan Steen, the four artists named Teniers, Ter Borch, and Terbruggen.
Mr. Staley has contributed the article on Troost.

Another article that deserves attention, especially as it is one of the few
contributed by American scholars, is the one on Van Audenaerde, written by Dr.
H. Hochheimer.

The baffling Cretan who settled in Spain and became known as El Greco is the
subject of a long article by Mrs. Jack Henniker-Heaton, who has translated a recent
work on that artist written in Spanish by the leading artistic scholar of Spain,
Senor Don M. B. Cossio ; while the head of the Spanish School, the great Velazquez,
has fallen to the care of Sir Walter Armstrong, who has pruned and brought up
to date the notice he contributed to an earlier edition of the Dictionary.

In the French School the lives of Troyon and of J. A., F. L. J., and L. J.
Watteau are the work of Mr. Staley.


Of modern Italian artists the one deserving most attention is Segantini, and
his biography has been written by Mr. Arthur G. Bell, who had the advantage of
personal knowledge of that gifted man.

In the Russian School mention has already been made of Vereshchagin, but the
assistance of Mr. Cazalet, President of the Anglo-Russian Society, must not be over-
looked in some corrections made by him, and especially with regard to the memoir of
P. A. Sviedomski which he has contributed. That of Tatkeleff is the work of the
Editor, who has contributed several other memoirs of Russian artists.

American artists have not been overlooked, and the names of H. Sargent, W.
Sartain, James Sharpies, R. Sharpies, H. Stone, W. 0. Stone, A. W. Thompson,
Edwin L. Weeks, R. W. Weir, S. L. Wenban, A. Wright, and E. A. Willis represent
this rapidly-growing body of workers.

Turning now to the English artists, it should be mentioned that, as before, Mr.
Dibdin has contributed the stones of the Liverpool painters, including George
Stubbs, Tonge, the two Townes, John and J. C. Turmeau, Walker, Wallis, Richard
Wane, and the various painters of the Williamson family, while the life of another
Stubbs, J. H. P., has been written by his lineal descendant, Mr. H. Stubbs. Four
other cases in which the assistance of lineal descendants has been secured, are those
of the immortal Turner, where the information as to the family of the artist has
been sent in by Mr. C. M. W. Turner, the memoir of Robert Kent Thomas, which
has been carefully prepared by his daughter, Mrs. Ewen, while in the case of the
brothers Alfred and Henry Tidey, the narratives have been compiled by their niece,
Miss Levering, and Miss Wallis and Mr. G. H. Wallis have contributed the life of
George Wallis.

Many of the Scotsmen who have lately passed away have come to the share of
Dr. Laing, of Dundee, who has prepared biographies of W. Bell Scott, John Smart,
Robert Thorburn, James A. Walker, John Wallace, Robert Bruce Wallace, John
Watson, J. D. Watson, J. W. Whymper, and W. J. Yule, as well as taking his part in
writing upon some of the smaller English and foreign artists who might otherwise
have been overlooked, such as Saftleven, Salmon, Salmson, Sannier, Sayers, Schaar-
schmidt, Schlesinger, Slocombe, Sorokin, Stanton, Steenwijck, Stiickelberg, Sundberg,
Surat, Tourrier, De Tours, Unger, Vallance, M. L. Vermeer, Vidal, Wattier, H.
Wilhelm, Yon, W. J. Yule, and Zalisker.

F. W. Topham and Wimperis have been the work of Mr. Henry Walker, who
has also contributed a long fresh account of Ziegler from special sources hitherto

Wright of Derby and J. R. Wilson have been treated of by Mr. W. Roberts, the
biographer of Romney ; Gleeson White, the well-beloved designer, has been contributed
by his friend Mr. Dennis ; Viscountess Templetown has been the subject of a notice
from Mrs. Erskine, to which Mr. Campbell Dodgson has added some special informa-
tion; Alfred Stevens is the subject of an inspiring article from the pen of Mr. Layard;
Tissot has been contributed by Mrs. Arthur Bell; George Wilson by his recent
biographer, Mr. J. Baillie ; Smetham and Lewis Wingfield by the Editor ; and Stott
of Oldham and H. T. Wells have been supplied by Mr. Malcolm Bell, who is the
author also of an excellent account of Daniel Vierge.

viii NOTE TO VOL. V.

Turner has received attention from three separate authors ; Mr Algernon Graves,
whose knowledge of the pictures is unrivalled, having gone through the article with
great care and made many additions and alterations, while Mr. C. M. W. Turner,
already mentioned, has contributed the family section, and another writer some

There are yet very many of the English artists to be mentioned.

The medallists have not been overlooked, as their fine drawings are worthy of
notice, and the volume contains notices of eight members of the eminent family of
Wyon, as well as references to other leading men in the same profession, such as
Tanner, Simon and Snelling. A few architects have been hitherto overlooked, and had
to be referred to on account of their work in water-colour or oil ; such men as Sir
G. G. Scott, J. D. Sedding, Smirke and Sir John Soane appearing in this volume ;
while the writers who practised art, such as G. A. Sala, Sir George Scharf, Challoner
Smith, and R. H. Soden Smith, and the collectors, as John Sheepshanks, have also
received notice.

Amongst the miniaturists the accounts of Scouler and John Smart call for special
attention, while amongst English artists not hitherto properly treated, and of some-
what lesser moment, it may be well to direct the reader to the memoirs of such men
as William Simpson, and the Varleys, the work of Mr. Martin Hardie, who has
also contributed many other articles, including those on C. K. Sharpe, J. Sibmacher,
T. Sibson, A. Sisley, George Smith, W. B. Smith, W. C. Smith, G. Steell, James
Stephenson, J. E. Stevens, A. and L. Stocks, F. Tayler, and H. J. Townsend, and also
to the notices of the various artists of the Strutt family, of the Sharpies family,
of J. Wolff the animal painter, John Syer, Elijah Walton, and others.

The rank and file constitute a very long list, far longer than in the preceding
volumes, and the following names may be mentioned :

J. Saddler, John W. Saddler, Camille Saglio, G. H. Sagstatter, H. Sagstatter, J. E.
Saintin, Salisbury, B. N. Salm, L. A. Salmon, H. F. Salmson, G. Saloman, Anthony
Salvin, John Sanders, J. A. Sanders, Francis Sandford, H. Sandreuter, F. Sanguinetti,
F. Sargent, John Sartain, E. Sartori, J. F. Sartorius, J. N. Sartorius, H. Sass, A.
Sauerweid, Noel Saunier, George Saunders, P. E. Sautai, J. L. du Sautoy, Savill,

F. R. Say, E. J. Schaller, E. de Schampheleer, W. Schaw, A. F. A. Schenck, H.
Scherenburg, K. J. N. Scheuren, F. A. H. Schielvelbeine, E. J. Schindler, G. Schirmer,
Ivan Schischkin, A. Schleich, E. Schleich, F. Schmalzigang, M. Schmidt, P. Schobelt,
A. Schoenn, Otto Scholderer, C. von Schraudolph, A. Schreyer, W. H. Schroeder,

G. E. Schuback, F. A. Schubert, E. Schultz-Briesen, L. F. Schiitzenberger, T. S.
Schurawlew, C. Schweich, A. Schwendy, Baron von Schwiter, J. J. Scoles, G. G. Scott,
A. Sege, G. Seidel, A. Seifert, A. Seitz, C. Sell, L. Sellmayr, H. C. Selous, G. Semper,
L. P. Sergent, Sarah Setchell, G. P. Seurat, J. M. Sevestre, Charlotte Sharpe, Mary
Anne Sharpe, F. Sharpies, James Sharpies, junr., George Sheffield, T. H. Shepherd,
W. Sheppard, Chas. Sherwin, F. S. Shuranlew, S. Sidley, A. Siegert, H. Siemiradski,
E. Signol, P. C. Simart, W. H. Simmons, N. Simonsen, F. J. Skill, J. Skippe, E.
Slingeneijer, Sydney Smirke, J. R. Smith, S. C. Smith, Franz Sodar, J. P. Sodermark,
C. F. Soerensen, P. P. Sokolow, H. Sondermann, G. A. Spangenberg, L. Spangenberg,
C. Springer, F. G. Ssolnzeff, A. Stabli, J. P. Stafford, A. Stannard, A. G. Stannard,


Karl Stauffer, K. K. H. Steffeck, M. Steinla, Jas. Stephanoff, F. M. F. Storelli, Thos.
Streatfield, Jas. Stuart, L. Stiirtz, N. Y. Svertschkof, Chas. Swaine, S. D. Swarbreck
James R. Swinton, E. Swoboda, John Syme, A. C. L. Tacke, A. Tahy, W. H. F. Talbot
L. Tancini, James Tassie, W. Tassie, George Tattersall, John Taylor, Peter Taylor, C.
Teja, E. Tenner, F. Tepa, E. Tepper, L. Terrazzi, H. J. Terry, E. Teschendorf, E.
Tetzner, M. Than, W. Theed, E. R. Thirion, C. A. E. Thomas, John Thomas, W. L.
Thomas, Jacob Thompson, James Thomson, S. A. Thon, 0. von Thoren, J. Till, L. C.
Timbal, James Timbrell, J. J. J. Tissot, H. G. Todd, M. Todt, V. Tojetti, A. Toulmoucbe,
H. Toutin, J. Toutin, Carl L. Tragardh, J. M. von Trenkwald, W. H. Trood, P. D.
Trouillebert, G. S. Truesdell, K. A. Trutowsky, Charles P. Tschaggeny, J. B. Tuttine,
R. S. Tyrwhitt, J. W. Upham, S. Ussi, P. Vaini, Jules E. Valadon, J. Valentiny, T.
Valerio, H. Valkenburg, G. Vanaise, J. van Bree, J. H. F. van Lerius, S. Vannutelli,
P. A. Varin, M. L. B. Vautier, A. Veillon, C. L. Verboeckhoven, E. J. Verboeckhoven,
J. L. J. Verdier, E. Verdyen, J. Verhaz, M. C. Verlat, J. B. Vermay, A. J. Verwee, J. G.
Vibert, C. L. Vielcazal, T. Viero, F. Vinea, H. F. Vion, T. de Viva, F. Vizetelly, H.
Vizetelly, W. Vogels, A. C. Voillemot, A. Vollon, A. J. J. Vollvveider, J. F. Voltz, W.
Volz, A. de Vrien.lt, J. A. Vrolyk, Jan M. Vrolyk, E. L. Wagrez, G. Walckiers, Henry
Wallis, James Ward, Isaac Ware, J. B. Waring, Robert Warthmiiller, R. F. Wassmann,
Jas. Wathen, M. L. Watson, W. H. Watts, Charles M. Webb, A. Wegelin, J. F. W.
Wegener, K. G. Wegener, C. Weigand, J. G. Weinhold, L. Weisser, E. Welker, T. L.
Weller, M. Welter, G. Wertheimer, F. Westin, K. Weysser, George Whitaker, J. W.
Whittaker, N. Whittock, J. J. G. van Wicheren, F. Wichert, W. Widgery, F.
Wieschebrink, H. G. Wieschebriuk, H. Wilhelm, B. Wilkes, A. von Wille, T.
Willement, T. Williams, Cresar Willich, E. A. Willis, W. G. Wills, C. H. Wilson,
M. E. Winge, F. W. von Winterfeldt, H. Wislicenus, 0. Wisniewski, E. S. Witkamp,
J. P. Wittkamp, J. M. Wittmer, A. E. van Woerndle, M. A. Wolff, A. Wolfl, B. Woltze,
A. Wonseidler, L. J. Wood, W. F. Woodington, Thos. Woolner, Jos. Wright, Wm.
Wyld, R. Yeo, E. F. You, J. M. Youngman, A. Yvon, M. Zaliski, E. K. G.
Zimmermanu, F. Zimmerrnann, J. B. A. Zo, F. Zuberbuhler.

In all there are nearly six hundred new biographies in this Volume, and over
three thousand corrections have been made on the last edition.

The Editor would like to add a word in explanation of the fact (frequently
commented upon by the reviewers) that considerable space has been given in all the
volumes to modern men, especially those who have recently died. His reason for this
is that the information is specially required when these artists are being constantly
referred to and their works being collected, and the information is not readily
obtainable outside the Dictionary without the examination of many books. He is
aware that the space given to modern men is often disproportionate, but it is, if an
error, an intentional one, and made in order to render the Dictionary the best modern
work of reference. It is necessary also to state once more that the work does not
deal with living artists.

In conclusion, the Editor takes this opportunity of thanking all his contributors
for what they have so kindly done for him, and the reviewers for the considerate
way in which they have received and reviewed the various volumes. His thanks are
also due to very many owners of pictures who have allowed the works in their


possession to be described and often photographed for use in this work ; and, lastly,
he would thank all those critics who with much courtesy have written to him pointing
out various errors and suggesting additions and improvements.

It was at one time thought that a supplement might be added to this final volume
containing notices of the painters unfortunately a considerable number who have
passed away while the book has been in the press, as well as certain memoirs omitted
in previous volumes. The volume has, however, run out to so great a length, that
this is out of the question. The Editor, therefore, can only express the hope that
when sufficient material shall have accumulated, be may be privileged to issue a
supplementary volume, and with this object in view he will always be grateful for
the assistance of his numerous readers, and begs them to be good enough to
communicate with him (to the care of the publishers) as to any omissions or errors
that they may at any time discover, or any special information they may be able to


As confusion frequently arises in the alphabetical arrangement of biographical dic-
tionaries owing to the arbitrary mode in which it has been customary to deal with such
names as are preceded by an article or a preposition, or by both, it has been thought
desirable in this work to adopt the grammatical principle sanctioned by the Belgian
Academy in regard to the names of Flemish and French (or Walloon) origin, which
are included in the ' Biographie Nationale.'

The arrangement therefore is according to the following plan :

I. Every artist having a surname is placed under that surname, cross-references being
given from assumed names and sobriquets whenever needed.

Thus, Correggio is entered under AUeyri, Antonio.

Pinturicchio Biayio, Bernardino.

Sebastiano del Piombo Luciani, Sebastiano.

Tintoretto Kobusti, Jacopo.

(a) When the prefix to a name is an article it remains annexed, because it is an integral
part of the name ; but when it is a preposition, it is disunited, because it indicates the place
of origin or birth of the artist, or a territorial or seigneurial name. Thus, the French Le
and La, and the equivalent Dutch and Flemish De are retained ; while the French de, the
Italian da and di, the German von, and the Dutch and Flemish van are rejected.

Thus, Charles Le Lrun is entered under Le Brun.

Jan David De Heem De Heem.

Jean Francois de Troy Troy.

Heinrich Maria von Hess Hess.

Isack van Ostade Ostade.

(J) When the prefix is an article joined to or preceded by a preposition, as in the French
du, de la, and des, the Italian del, della, degli, dai, dagli, and dalle, the Spanish del and de
la, and the Dutch van der, van de, van den, and vet- (a contraction for van der), it cannot be
disunited from the proper name, because the particles together represent the genitive case
of the article.

Thus, Alphonse du Fresno// is entered under Du Fresnoy.

Laurent de La Hire De La Hire.

Niccolo deW Abbate Dell' Abbate.

Girolamo dai Libri Dai Libri.

Willem van de Velde Van de Velde.


(c) English artists bearing foreign names are placed under the prefix, whether it be an
article or a preposition.

Thus, Peter De Wint is entered under De Wint.

(d) Proper names with the prefix St. are placed as though the word Saint were written
in full : and similarly, M' and Me are arranged as Mac.

(e) Foreign compound names are arranged under the first name.

Thus, Baptiste Aulry-Lecomte is entered under Aubnj-Lecomte.

Juan Cano de Arevalo Cano de Arevalo.

II. An artist having no surname is placed under the name of the place from which he
is known, or failing that, under his own Christian name

Thus, Andrea da Bologna is entered under Bologna.

Andrea del Sarto Andrea.

Fra Bartolommeo Bartolommeo.

III. Anonymous artists known as the Master of the Crab, the Master of the Die, the
Master of the Rat-Trap, will be found under the common title of Master.


W. A. ... ... ... ... Sir Walter Armstrong.

J. B. ... ... ... ... J. Baillie.

A - L. B. ... ... ... A. Lys Baldry.

A. G. B. A. G. Bell.

C. B. ... ... ... Clara Bell.

M. B. ... ... ... Malcolm Bell.

Ifc B. ... ... ... Lawrence Binyon.

S. B. ... ... ... ... Selwyn Brinton.

J- C. ... ... ... ... Julia Cartwright (Mrs. Ady).

J. L. C. ... ... ... .. J. L. Caw.

E. A. C. ... ... ... ... E. A. Cazalet.

A. B. C. ... ... ... ... Arthur B. Chamberlain.

H. C. ... ... ... ... Herbert Cook.

M. C. ... ... ... ... Maud Cruttwell.

L. C. ... ... ... ... Lionel Gust.

R. H. H. C. ... ... ... ... E. H. Hobart Gust.

G. S. D. ... ... ... ... Rev. G. S. Davies.

G. R. D. ... ... ... ... G. R. Dennis.

E. R. D. ... ... ... ... E. R. Dibdin.

C. D. ... ... ... ... Campbell Dodgson.

L. D. ... ... ... ... Langton Douglas.

0. J. D. ... ... ... ... O. J. Dullea.

B. E. ... ... ... ... Beatrice Erskine.

J. E, ... ... ... ... Jessie Ewen.

C. J. Ff. ... ... ... ... Constance J. Ffoulkes.

R. E. F. ... ... ... ... Roger E. Fry.

A. G. ... ... ... ... Algernon Graves.

R. E. G. ... ... ... ... Robert Edmund Graves.

G. G. ... ... ... ... Georg Gronau.

M. H. ... ... ... ... Martin Hardie.

F. H. ... ... ... ... Frederic Harrison.

M. M. H. ... ... ... ... Mary M. Heaton.

S. H. H. ... ... ... ... Sermonda Henuiker- Heaton.

H. H. ... ... ... ... H. Hochheimer.

J. B. S. H. ... ... ... ... J. B. Stoughton Holborn.

C. H. ... ... ... ... Charles Holroyd.

M. J. ... ... ... ... M. Jourdain.

P. K. ... ... ... ... Paul Kristeller.

J. H. W. L. ... J. H. W. Laing.


G. S- L. ... ... ... ... G. S. LayarJ.

M. L. ... ... ... Mary Logan (Mrs. Berenson).

I. L. ... ... ... ... Ida Levering.

E. McC. ... ... ... ... E. McCurdy.

H. C. M. ... ... ... ... H. C. Marillier.

W. M. ... ... ... ... W. Martin.

I>- R. M. ... ... ... ... Dora E. Meyrick.

L. O. ... ... ... ... Lucy Olcott.

E. J. O. ... ... ... ... E. J. Oldmeadow.

A. O'R. ... ... ... ... Agnes O'Reilly.

F. M. P. ... ... ... ... F. M. Perkins.

P.P. ... ... ... ... Percy Pinkerton.

A. H. P. ... ... ... ... A. H. Pollen.

S. P. P. ... ... ... ... S. Pugin Powell.

H. R. ... ... ... ... H. Rayment.

C. R. ... ... ... ... Corrado Ricci.

R. R. ... ... ... ... Ralph Richardson.

J. P. R. ... ... ... ... J. P. Richter.

F. R. ... ... ... ... Frank Rinder.

W. R. ... ... ... ... W. Roberts.

E. R. ... ... ... ... Emily Robertson.

\V. B. S. ... ... ... ... William Bell Scott.

F. S. ... ... ... ... Florence Simrnonds.

H. C. S. ... ... ... ... H. Clifford Smith.

E. S. ... ... ... ... E. Staley.

E. S. ... ... ... ... Elliot Stock.

E. C. S. ... ... ... ... E. C. Strutt.

H. S. ... ... ... ... H. Stubbs.

C. M. W. T. ... ... ... ... C. M. W. Turner.

H. W. ... ... ... ... Henry Walker.

G. H. W. ... ... ... ... G. H. Wallis.

W. H. J. W. ... ... ... ... W. H. James Weale.

A. W. ... ... ... ... Albinia Wherry.

A. W. ... ... ... ... Alfred Whitman.

F. W. W. ... ... ... ... Frederic W. Why te.

G. C. W. ... ... ... ... George C. Williamson.


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