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and the Waterloo Gazette ' for the Duke of Wel-
lington. In 1822 he was back in Scotland, to be
present at the famous visit of George IV., ami
again in 1824 ; and then, in 1825, came the failure of
health which drove him to seek change of scene,
and led to a complete change in his art. In 1812
Wilkie's father had died, and he had summoned his
mother and sister Helen from Scotland to share his
home, which was henceforth in Phillimore Place,
Kensington. In 1824, on the day before his return
from Scotland, his mother had died, and her death,
no doubt, was one cause of his illness.

His foreign route lay through Paris, Milan, Genoa,
Pisa, Florence, Rome, Naples, Bologna, Parma,
Venice, Innspruck, Munich, Dresden, Toeplitz,
Prague, and Vienna, and then by Trieste back
to Italy and Rome. From Italy, he went to Switzer-
land and then to Spain, where the example of
Velazquez, Murillo, and the crowd of unknown Span-
iards of lesser mark revolutionized his style. From
Spain he sent several pictures home to the Aca-
demy, and in 1828 he returned to England. From
this time forward lie painted openly, loosely, with
little care for detail, and with less for local and
individual truth. Even in his finest works there
are hints of the mannerist, and in the weakly con-
dition in which his last sixteen years were passed,
he seems to have had no strength to shake off the
fault. Two of the best pictures of this time are
' Napoleon and Pius VII.,' and 'The Queen's First
Council,' but it is to the reflected glory of the early
pictures that most of their sesthetic interest is due.
On the death of Sir Thomas Lawrence, in 1830,
Wilkie was appointed Painter in Ordinary to the
King, and was brought forward for the Presidency
of the Academy. For this, however, he only
received two votes, those of Collins and Leslie.
Between 1830 and 1840 Wilkie painted many
pictures, among them the two above-named, and
the 'First Earning,' in the National Gallery. In
1840 he began that pilgrimage to the East, from
which he was never to return. Leaving London
in August, with Mr. William Woodburn, he made
his way, by the Rhine and Danube, to Constan-
tinople, where he painted the Sultan's portrait,
and where he was the guest of Sir Moses Montefiore.
From Constantinople he made his way by Smyrna,
Rhodes, and Beyrout to Jerusalem. From Jeru-
salem he turned to come home by way of Alex-



andria, Malta, and Gibraltar. After the steamer
left Malta he was taken suddenly ill, and on the
forenoon of June 1, 1841, he died. He was buried
at sea the same evening, within sight of Gibraltar.

Edinburgh. Nat. Gall. Knox dispensing the Sacra-
ment at Calder House. (Un-

tt Sketch of Kilmartin Sacrament.

Sketch of a Confessional.

Portrait of Mrs. Hunter, Wil-

kie's sister.
Sketch of Blind Man's Buff.

(Pen and septa.)

London. Nat. G,:ll. The Blind Fiddler.

The Village Festival

The Parish Beadle.

The First Earning.

The Bagpiper.


John Kuox preaching.

Sketch for ' Blind Man's Buff.'

A wooded landscape.

Portrait of T. Daniell, R.A.

S. Kensington. The Broken Jar.
Duncan Gray.

,, Nat. Port. Gall. Portrait of himself.
Royal Academy. Boys digging for Rats.
,, Stafford House. Breakfast.
Apsley House. Chelsea Pensioners reading the
'Waterloo Gazette.'

Earl of Norman-) O i i r ^ j- r TTT-II ,
tgn > Sketch for ' Reading of a Will.'

Grandmamma's Cap (' Old

Man with a Girl's Cap ').
Buckingham Pal. The Penny Wedding.
,, Blind Man's Buff.

Munich. New Pina- 1 ,, ,. c -ur'ii

kothek f Reading of a Will.

Nottingham. Corporation "I Sketch for ' The Soldier's
Art Museum. $ Grave.' (fi'eqiteatlied by the
late Mr. Richard Godson
Windsor Castle. The Queen's First Council.

Pitlessie Fair. (J. Boyd Kiniiear, Esq.)

The Card Players.

A School ; unfinished.

An Old Soldier.

Alfred in the Neatherd's Cottage.

The Letter of Introduction. (T. Brocklebaak, Esq.)

Discovery of the Body of Tippoo Suhib.

The Village Recruit.

The Bride at her Toilet.

Napoleon and Pius VII.

The China Menders.

The Cottage Toilet.

The Cottar's Saturday Night.

The Cut Finger.

Distraining for Rent.

Entry of George IV. into Holyrood.

Grace before Meat.

Josephine and the Fortune-teller.

Not at Home.

Columbus at La Rabida.

The Confessional.

The Guerilla Council of War.

The Guerilla taking leave of his Confessor.

'Ilir M:tid of S;tragossa.

Pifferari playing hymns to the Madonna.

Portraits of Queen Adelaide, George IV., William IV.,
Queen Victoria, Duke and Duel ess of Buccleuch,
Edward Irving, Sir William Knighton, Lord Kellie,
Daniel O'Connell, Duke of York, Duke of Sussex ;
and many others.

Wilkie was an etcher of great ability, though
but little practice. He has left fourteen plates,
the best of which are ' Cellini and the Pope,' and
' The Lost Receipt' (dry point). '. A.

WILKIN, CHARLES, an English engraver, was


born in 1750. He gained a prix.e at the Society of
Arts in 1771, and practised in London, working
chiefly in stipple, and on portraits. He died from
the effects of an accident, May 28, 1814. Amongst
his beat plates are :

Master Henry Hoare ; after Reynolds. 1789.

Lady Oockburn and Children ; after the same. 1791.

WILKIN, FRANK W., an English portrait painter
and son of Charles Wilkin, the engraver, was born
about the close of the 18th century. His early
efforts were in miniature, but in his later period
he worked in chalk, exhibiting at the Academy
from 1820 to 1841. For a time he was ambitious
to shine as an historical painter, and in 1820 ex-
hibited at Spring Gardens a very large picture of
'The Battle of Hastings,' which he had painted on
commission. But he did not receive any encourage-
ment to persevere in this branch of art. He died
in September, 1842.

WILKIN, HENRY, portrait painter, and also
a son of Charles Wilkin, the engraver, was born
in 1801. He practised in London, and afterwards
in Brighton, where he died in 1852. His works,
consisting chiefly of portraits in pastel, appeared
at the Academy from 1831 to 1847.

WILKINS, ROBERT, an English marine painter,
was born shortly before 1750. The Society of Arts
awarded him a prize in 1765, from which year
up to 1778 he exhibited with the Free Society.
His works also appeared at the Royal Academy
from 1772 to 1788, and soon after the latter date
he is believed to have died. He painted storms,
moonlights, sea-fights, and ships on fire.

WILKINSON, the Rev. JOSEPH, an amateur
draughtsman, published in 1810 a series of land-
scapes from Cumberland, Westmoreland, and
Lancashire, with Ackermann. They are poor

WILKINSON, , an engraver, working in

London towards the end of the 18th century. His
attention was chiefly given to portraits, but a good
mezzotint after Northcote's ' Loss of the Halsewell
East Indiaman,' is by him.

WILLAERTS, ABRAHAM, the son of Adam
Willaerts, was born at Utrecht. The date of his
birth is usually given as 1613, but this cannot be
correct if, as Kramm asserts, he was Dean of the
Guild at Utrecht in 1624. For some time he was
instructed by his father, but he afterwards studied
under Jan Bijlaert. On leaving that master he
went to Paris, where he entered the school of
Simon Vouet, and became a reputable painter of
portraits, historical subjects, and sea-pieces. Re-
turning from France to Holland he visited Brussels,
where he was taken into the service of Prince
Maurice, in whose employment he passed several
years. As a Dutch soldier he afterwards took
part in the expedition to Angola, where he painted
costumes and landscapes. He died at Utrecht in
1071. He painted the portrait of Jan Both, and
was the intimate friend of Jakob van Carnpen, the
architect. Pictures by him are at Munich and
Brunswick. He had a brother, CORNELIS WIL-
LAERTS, a landscape painter, and a member of the
Guild of St. Luke. A second brother, ISAAC
WILLAERTS, is mentioned in the Utrecht records
as having painted in that city in 1G59. In the
museum there several pictures may be seen, by
Schoorl, to which Isaac Willaerts added the
figures. A river landscape by him is in the
Rotterdam Museum.











wag born at Antwerp in 1577, and distinguished
himself as a painter of river and canal pieces,
coast views, fish-markets, processions, and so
forth. His pictures are generally embellished with
groups of small figures correctly drawn, and
handled with spirit. He also painted villages and
ships on fire. In the year 1600 he left Antwerp,
and established himself at Utrecht, where he be-
came a member of the Guild of St. Luke in 1611,
and Dean in 1620. It has been said that he died
after 1666, but Cornelia de Bie writes of him as
already dead in 1662. Two sea-fights by him are
in the States Chamber at Utrecht, and a ' View of
Dordrecht from the Water-side ' is in the museum
of the latter city. Pictures by him are also to be
found at Antwerp, Berlin, Frankfort, Dresden,
Rotterdam, Copenhagen, Vienna, and Madrid.

WILLE, AUGUST VON, German painter, born at
Cassel in 1829 ; became a pupil of the Diisseldorf
Academy ; worked at Weimar and Diisseldorf.
Many of his works were exhibited at his death in
the Diisseldorf Kunsthalle. They were mainly
landscapes and genre subjects. He died at Diissel-
dorf, March 31, 1887.

WILLE, JOHANN GEORO, an eminent engraver,
was born in the Bieberthal, near Kb'nigsberg,
November 5, 1715. In his early youth he was placed
under a gunmaker, with whom he learnt to engrave
in silver and steel. In 1736 he went to Paris, where
he engraved some plates after Rigaud. His earlier
works were mostly portraits, but later he also ap-
plied himself to historical subjects. He worked in
line, and particularly excelled in representing silk
and satin draperies, and the general delicacy of
his method was admirably adapted to do justice
to the work of the most celebrated Dutch painters.
In 1746 he visited Western Germany, but returned
to Paris in the following year, and remained there
for the rest of his prolonged life. In the Revo-
lution he lost his property, and, about the same
time, became blind. He died in Paris in 1808,
iu his ninety-third year. The dates on his prints
range from 1738 to 1790. His talent was duly
appreciated during his life, and accordingly he
was a member of the Academies of Paris, Rouen,
Augsburg, Vienna, Berlin, and Dresden. He was
engraver to the King of France, to the Emperor
of Germany, and to the King of Denmark ; he was
also a Knight of the Legion of Honour. Among his
most distinguished pupils may be named Schulze,
Schmutzer, J. G. Mu'ller, Bervic, Bunker, Chevillet,
the brothers Guttenberg, Halm, and Dennel. His
memoirs, by himself, were edited by Georges
Duplessis, with a preface by Edmond and Jules de
Goncourt (Paris, 1857). The following are among
his most famous prints :

Prince James Frances Edward Stuart.

Prince Charles James Edward Stuart.

Prince Henry Benedick Stuart, Cardinal York.

Prospero, Cardinal (..'olonna ; after Pompeo llatoni.

Frederick II., King of Prussia ; after Pesne.

Marshal Saxe ; after Riyaud.

Waldemar de Loevendael, Marshal of France ; after

La Tour.

Louis Philipeaux, Count of St. Florentin ; after Tocqut.
J. B. Masse ; after the same.
Albert Francois Poissou, Marquis de Marigny ; after the


C. E. Briseux, Architect.
Anastasia of Hesse-Homburg ; after Eoslin.
Marguerite Elisabeth de Largilliere ; after N. de Lar-


Elisabeth de Gouy, wife of H. Eigaud ; after Eigaud.
Joseph Parrocel, Painter ; after the same.

Jean de Boullongne, Comptroller-general of Finance;

after the same.

The Death of Cleopatra ; after Netscher.
The Death of Mark Antony ; after Pompeo Batoni.
Les Bons Amis ; after Ostade.
La Menagere Hollandaise ; after G. Dou.
La Liseuse ; after the same.
L'Instruction Paternelle ; after Terborch.
La Gazettiere Hollandaise ; after the same.
La Tricoteuse ; after Mieris.
L'Observateur Distrait; after the same.
La Cuisiniere Hollaudaise ; afttr flfetsu.
Le Concert de Famille ; after Schalfken.
Les Musiciens Ambulants ; after Dietrich.
Les Offres Reciproques ; after the same.
La Petite Ecoliere ; after J. E. Schnunt.
Le Marechal-des-Logis ; after P. A. Wille.
La Maitresse d'Ecole ; after the same.
Les Soins Materuels; after the same.
Les Dclices Materuelles ; after the same.

WILLE, PIERRE ALEXANDRE, painter and etcher,
the son of Johann Georg Wille, was born in Paris,
July 19th, 1748. After receiving some instruction
from his father, he was the scholar successively
of Vien and Greuze. He distinguished himself as
a painter of domestic and other subjects, and
became a member of the Paris Academy. He was
appointed court painter to Louis XVI., but, like
his father, lost his property during the Revolution.
He died in Paris after 1820, for in 1821 he petitioned
the Duchesse d'Angonleme to assist him in the
maintenance of his wife in the asylum of Charenton.
His father (q. v.) engraved after him. He amused
himself occasionally with the point, and etched
a few prints, among them one called ' Le Petit
Vauxhall,' from his own design. He also left some
good drawings in Indian ink, including the por-
traits of his father and mother. There are pictures
by him in the museums of Angers, Bordeaux, and

sometimes called BOSSCHAERT, (or BOSSAERT,) was
born at Bergen-op-Zoom in 1613. After studying
for a time in his native city he was sent to Antwerp,
where he became a disciple of Gerard Zeghers,
under whom he worked four years, when he was
advised by his preceptor to visit Italy. On his
return to Antwerp, he was commissioned to paint
several altar-pieces for the churches there, and in
other cities of Flanders and Brabant. His style
was modelled on that of Van Dyck. He was much
employed by Prince Frederick Henry of Orange
and his son William, for the former of whom he
painted several important works, particularly a
large allegory of 'War and Peace.' Two of his
best pictures are a ' Marriage of St. Catharine,' in
the church of the Carmelites, at Antwerp ; and a
' Martyrdom of St. Basil,' at the Capuchins, in
Brussels. In 1650 he was made Dean of the St.
Luke's Guild at Antwerp, and died in that city
in 1656. Some of his portraits were engraved
by Paul Pontius, others by Theodoras van Kessel.
His pictures are to be found in the museums at
Brussels and other Belgian towns, while his ' Venus
and Adonis ' and ' Lion in Love ' are at the Hague,
and his ' Elijah in the Desert ' in the Vienna


WILLEMENT, THOMAS, a skilful artist in
stained glass, born in 178li, and successively herald
painter to George IV. and to Queen Victoria. He
issued a considerable number of heraldic books,
several of which he illustrated himself. He was a
skilful painter upon stained glass, confining his



attention mainly, however, to armorial bearings.
He was an antiquary of no mean repute, and con-
tributed several articles to the publications of the
Society of Antiquaries. Genealogy and topography
also received considerable attention at his hands,
and he made close investigations into the history
of the land and buildings on his own estate near
Faversham in Kent. He will be remembered for
his exceedingly accurate heraldic drawings, and for
the sketches which he made in annotating volumes
in his own library. For some years prior to his
death he retired from the active pursuit of his
profession, and, a widower without family, died
in his own house in 1871.

born at Nancy-Euville (Meurthe) on the 5th
August, 1763. He was a pupil of Taillasson and
of Lagrenee, junior, and exhibited at the Salon in
1800 and 1824. He died in Paris, January 25th,

WILLEMS, CORNELIS, an obscure painter, who
flourished at Haarlem in the 16th century, and
was the first master of Maerten v. Veen.

WILLEMS, MARCUS, was born at Mechlin in
1527, and was a scholar of Michiel van Coxie.
He painted a good picture of the ' Decollation of
St. John' for the church of S. Rombouts in his
native town. When Philip II. of Spain made
his public entry into Mechlin, Willema was em-
ployed to paint a triumphal arch with the ' History
of Dido,' though he was then only twenty-two
years of age. He designed much for glass-painters
and tapestry weavers, and worked for a short period
in England. He died in 1561.

WILLERS, ERNST, a landscape painter, was
born an Oldenburg in 1804. He studied at Dresden
and Munich, and afterwards travelled in Italy and
Greece, collecting subjects which he used in later
works. He died in 1880.

WILLES, WILLIAM, an Irish landscape and
subject painter, was born at Cork about the begin-
ning of the 19th century. He was a man of con-
siderable culture, and occasionally exhibited at the
Royal Academy and the British Institution, be-
tween 1820 and 1865. In the middle of his career
he lived in London, but in the latter part of his life
at Reading. Among his exhibited works may be
named: 'A Serenade,' 'A River Scene, ''A Mid-
summer Night's Dream,' ' The Mock Funeral,' and
'Excelsior.' Altogether he sent twenty-seven
pictures to the two exhibitions above named.
After 1865 his traces disappear.


WILLIAM of FLORENCE, a monk of West-
minster Abbey, in the 13th century, who was
employed by Henry III. in decorative painting at
Windsor. He also worked at Guildford.


WILLIAMS, A. SHELDON, animal painter and
draughtsman, was born in the first half of the
present century. He contributed drawings oi
sporting subjects to many of the leading illustrated
papers. He died in March, 1880.

WILLIAMS, EDWARD, an engraver, who worked
in London at the end of the 18th century, and U
whom we owe several plates after Rowlandson, and
one after H. Wigstead. He married the sister of
James Ward, R.A.

WILLIAMS, EDWARD, landscape painter, and

son of the last-named, was born in Lambeth in

1782. He studied under his uncle, James Ward,


and was afterwards apprenticed to a carver and
jilder. Trying his hand, however, at some moon-
.ight landscapes, he was so successful that he took
up painting again in earnest, and in 1814 and 1815
exhibited at the Royal Academy. Later in life he
painted much of the scenery of the Thames. He
died at Barnes on the 24th of June, 1855, leaving
six sons, who all became artists, three of them
changing their names (to Boddington [a. v.], Percy
~q. .], and Gilbert [still alive] respectively) to avoid


WILLIAMS,) was born of a good Welsh family in
1773. While still young he settled in Edinburgh,
and Scotland became his adopted country. In
1808 he joined the short-lived New Society of
Painters in Water-Colours. In 1811 and 1812 he
published six large engravings of Highland views.
After winning a name in Edinburgh, where he was
personally very popular, he travelled several years
in Greece, the Greek Islands, and Italy. On his
return in 1818, he began to publish the results of
his journeys, and to exhibit the sketches he had
brought home. His ' Travels in Italy, Greece,_and
the Ionian Islands ' appeared in 1820 ; his ' Views
in Greece' came out in numbers between 1827 and
1829. He married a lady of position and fortune,
and died soon after at Edinburgh, June 23rd, 1829.
There is an account of his Gallery in ' Peter's
Letters.' Works:
Castle Campbell, looking down the Devon. (South

Loch Tumrnel. (Do.)
Bothwell Castle. (Do.)

Temple of Minerva Simias, on Cape Colonna. (Scottish
National Gallery.)

Athens from the East. (Do.)

Plain of Marathon and distant View of Eubrea. (Do.)

Twenty-five drawings of Greek, Italian, and Scottish
Scenery. (Do.)

Many of his early topographical drawings are
engraved in the ' Scots Magazine.'

WILLIAMS, JAMES FRANCIS, a Scottish landscape
painter, was born in Perthshire in 1785. His early
manhood was spent in London, scene-painting. He
went back to Edinburgh about 1810, and gradually
relinquished working for the stage for teaching.
After 1811 he exhibited with the Associated Artists
at Edinburgh, and on the establishment of the
Scottish Academy in 1826, he was elected one of
the original members, becoming subsequently
Treasurer. His works occasionally appeared in
London at the Royal Academy, the British Insti-
tution, and the Society of British Artists. He died
at Glasgow in 1846. By him :
Edinburgh. Nat. Gal!. Scene on the Ayrshire Coast.

WILLIAMS, JOHN, an English engraver, born
about the middle of the 18th century. He studied
in the schools of the Academy, and under Matthew
Darby, the engraver. But he is chiefly known as
an art-critic, writing under the name of ' Anthony
Pasquin.' He emigrated to the United States, and
died at Brooklyn in 1818. His chief publications
were :

' Liberal Critique on the Exhibition for 1794.'

' Lives of English and Irish Artists.' 1794.

' An authentic History of the Professors of Painting
&c., in Ireland.'

' Memoirs of the Academicians, being an attempt U>
improve the taste of the Realm.'

' Critical Guides to the Academy for 1796 and 1797.'

WILLIAMS, JOHN MICHAEL, portrait painter,


said to have been a scholar of Jonathan Richardson,
flourished in London about the middle of the 18th
century. He painted a half-length portrait of Mr.
Beard, the celebrated singer, from which there is
a mezzotint print by McArdell. He exhibited with
the Incorporated Society in 1761. He lived in
Scotland Yard, and is supposed to have died in
London about the year 1780.

engraver and water-colour painter, was born early
in the 19th century. He contributed to the 'Art
Journal' and to the 'Illustrated London News,'
for the latter of which he superintended the en-
gravings of the exhibition of 1851. For the Art
Union he illustrated ' L'Allegro,' ' II Penseroso,'
'Childe Harold," and 'The Traveller.' He also
worked much for Messrs. Blackie of Glasgow.
His water-colour drawings, chiefly domestic in sub-
ject, appeared occasionally at the Royal Academy,
the British Institution, and the Society of British
Artists, between 1834 and 1874. He died on the
19th September, 1877.

WILLIAMS, PENRY, painter, was born at Mer-
thyr Tydvil in 1798. His father was a house-
painter, and he himself was sent as a boy to London,
to study in the Royal Academy, at the charges of
Sir John Guest, Mr. Crawshay, and some other
Welsh magnates who were interested by his talent.-
He first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1824.
In 1827 he went to Italy, and settling in Rome,
continued to contribute constantly to English ex-
hibitions, his works being chiefly Italian landscapes
and character subjects, painted in the manner of
the Italian school of fifty years ago. His ' Italian
Girl with a Tambourine,' and ' Italian Peasants,'
had for a time a place in the National Gallery.
They have now been relegated, the first to the
Nottingham, the second to the Leicester Museum.
For nearly sixty years he was a familiar figure in
Rome, where he was very popular. He died in 1885.

WILLIAMS, ROGER or ROBERT, mezzotint en-
graver, was a native of Wales, and flourished about
1700-15. He is stated to have studied under
Theodorus Freres. He has left a number of por-
traits, among them the following :

Charles I. ; after Tan Difck.

Edward, Lord Littleton, Lord Keeper ; after the same.

Charles II. ; two plates ; after Lely and Kneller.

James II., when Duke of York ; after Cooper.

Mary Beatrix, his Queen ; after Jf'issing.

William III., when Prince of Orange ; after the tame.

Mary, Princess of Orange -after the saute.

Henry Somerset, Duke of Beaufort ; after the scant .

William Russell, Duke of Bedford ; after the same.

George, Prince of Denmark ; after the same.

Anne, Princess of Denmark ; after the same.

Lord Cutts, when Mr. Cutts ; after the same.

George Fitzroy, Duke of Northumberland; nt'ttr the


Charles Lennox, Duke of Richmond; after the same.
James Fitzroy, Duke of Monmouth ; after the same.
James Butler, Duke of Ormond ; after the same.
Charles Somerset, Marquis of \Vorcester ; after the same.
Ann Scott, Duchess of Monmouth ; after the same.
Catharine Sedley, Countess of Dorchester; inscribed

Mrs. Xedley ; after the same.

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