Michael Bryan.

Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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Trustees Academy. His early works were chiefly
vignette portraits, but he was employed by tlie
London Art Union on its foundation, and produced
several excellent plates for its subscribprs. He
died at Edinburgh in 1872. Amongst his plates
we may also name :

The Expeotel Penny ; after A. Fraser.
The Rush-plaiter.s ; after Sir G. Hareey.
The "Widow ; after Sir W. Allan.

ROBERT, Fanny, painter, a native of Paris, and
a pupil of Girodet. She flourished about 1825, and
painted portraits and historical subjects.

ROBERT, Felicitas, Madame, painter. She
practised in Germany in the early years of the
19th century, and was the daughter of the Belgian
painter and engraver, Philip Tassaert, who died
in England in 1803. Her work was chiefly in
pastel. In the Dresden Gallery there are two
pictures by her, a ' Visitation,' after Rubens, and a
portrait of ' An Old Cook.'

ROBERT, Hubert, generally called Robert des
RcriNES, a painter and engraver, born in Paris in
1733. After learning the rudiments of design in
his native city, he went to Rome, where he passed
several years, and made accurate drawings from
the remains of ancient architecture. On his return
to Paris he was made a member of the Academy,
and his pictures were held in high estimation. He
has also left a series of eighteen spirited etchings,
among them a set of ten views, with buildings,
entitled ■ Les Soirfees de Rome.' In the French
Revolution he was deprived of his position, and
imprisoned for ten months ; but tliat did not
prevent his painting, and he produced a 'Taking
of the Prisoners by Torchlight in open Carts from
St. P^lagie to St. Lazare.' He obtained his freedom
through a mistake of his gaoler, another prisoner
of the same name being sent to the guillotine
instead of him. He died in Paris in 1808. The
Louvre possesses seven good examples of his

ROBERT, Jean, was a pupil of J. 0. le Blond.
He has left some prints in colour, which possess
considerable merit. They are carried out, like
those of his master, by the use of four plates.

ROBERT, LE Long, generally called Fiaminso,
a native of Brussels, went to Piaoenza, where he
visited the school of Bonisoli, and later on took
Massarotti as his model. Of his works we find
'Scenes from the life of St. Theresa,' in St.
Sigismondo, near Cremona, in the style of Guido
Reni ; ' St. Anthony the Martyr ; ' and ' The Death
of St. Xavier,' in the cathedral of Piiicenza, which
is the best of his works. He died at Piaoenza
in 1709.

ROBERT, Louis Leopold, painter, born at I;a-
Chaux-de-Fonds, in the canton of Neufchatel, in
1794, at first entered a house of business, but his
love of art induced him to follow Charles Girardet,
the engraver, to Paris in 1810; from him he
learned engraving, and then entered the studio of
David. The cession in 1815 of Neufchatel pre-
. vented him from obtaining the Grand Prix
de Rome, as it is only awarded to those who
are natives of France, and under the French
Government, In 1814 he obtained a second prize
for engraving. Disappointed at his want of good
fortune, he returned home, and supported himself
by portrait painting, till a friend made it possible
for him to go to Rome, which he did in 1818. In
1831 he returned to Paris, but soon went back to
Italy ; this time to Florence, where an unfortunate
passion for Princess Charlotte Bonaparte kept
him, and on his return to Venice in 1835 he
committed suicide in a fit of despondency. Pic-
tures :

^&r\m. National Gallery. Sleeping Virgin.
Munich. Pinakothek. Woman of Procida and child.
Paris. Louvre. Eeturn from the Festival of

the Madonna dell' Arco.
„ „ £eapers in the Pontine

„ „ The Fisherman of Lugano.

„ „ Peasant Woman of the Cam-


ROBERT, Nicolas, born at Langres in 1610,
excelled in painting animals, insects, and plants, in
miniature, and was employed by Gaston, Duke of
Orleans, in painting the most curious beaets and
birds in the royal menagerie. The results are
preserved in the National Library, Paris, in the
Recueil des Valins. He was also commissioned to
engrave his own drawings, in which he was assisted
by Abraham Bosse and Louis de Ch^tillon. In
collaboration with Girard Audran, he engraved
several plates of ornaments, from the designs of
G. Charmetton. See the Ahecedario de Marwtte,
vol. iv. pp. 408—411. He died in Paris in 1684.

ROBERT, Paul Ponce Antoine, called Robert
DE Seri, or R. DE Seis, a French painter and en-
graver, born in Paris about the year 1680, was a
scholar of Pierre Jacques Cazes, and afterwards
studied in Italy. On his return to Paris he painted
an altar-piece for the church of tlie Capuchins,
representing the ' Martyrdom of St. Fidelis,' which
is considered his principal work as a painter. He
etched several of the subjects executed in chiaro-
scuro, by Nicolas le Sueur, for the Crozat Col-

ROBERT-FLEURY, Joseph Niceolas, painter,
was born at Cologne, 1797, but was brought to
Paris by his parents at the age of seven, and
received his education in that city, studying for





a time under Horace Vernet, and later under
Girodet. After a term of study in Rome, he
finally settled in Paris, where he produced his
most _ important works. He was first brought
prominently before the public by a picture ex-
hibited in 1833j the subject of which was a scene
from the Massacre of St. Bartholomew. He sub-
sequently painted a good many pictures of the
same kind, showing an inclination to depict scenes
of horror and bloodshed ; but later his art took a
simpler and less tragic direction, with increased
success in result. In 1864 he was commissioned
to paint four pictures for the hall of the Tribunal
de Commerce in Paris, namely : ' The Installation
of the Judges, 1663;' 'The Proclamation of the
Trade Statutes of 1673 ; ' ' The Granting of the
Laws of Commerce by Napoleon I.;' and 'The
Visit of Napoleon III. to the new Tribunal de
Commerce.' Other well-known works by him are :

The Conference at Poissy. 1561. (Mus.N'at.LiJUcemhaurg.')

Clovis entering Tours. ( Fersaiiles.)

Baldwin of Flanders before Bdessa. ( Versailles.)

The Marriage of Napoleon III. (Senate Souse.)

Benvenuto Cellini in his atelier.

The Death of Titian. (Academy of Antwerp).)


Charles V. at S. Yuste.

Fire in the Ghetto. (Luxemlourg.)

Louis XIV.

Jane Shore. (JWus. Nat. du Luxembourg.)

He also painted several portraits of much merit.
He was member of various foreign Academies of
Arts, and received many decorations and medals,
both in France and in other continental countries.
His son Tony is a well-known historical painter
practising in Paris.

KOBERTI, Albert, painter, born at Brussels,
1811. He was a pupil of Navez, and painted
portraits and historical subjects. There are by
him, amongst other things, a ' Baptism of Christ '
and a • Review of a Chapter of the Golden Fleece
by Charles V.' He died in 1864.

ROBBRTI, DoMENioo, painter, born at Rome,
1690. The details of his life are unknown, but
there are in the Dresden Gallery four pictures of
ruins by him.


ROBERTS, David, a Scottish painter, born at
Stockbridge, Edinburgh, October 2nd, 1796. His
parents were in poor circumstances, but his father,
a shoemaker, remarking his strong artistic pre-
dilections, determined to give him a trade in
which his gift might have opportunities of develop-
ment. He was accordingly placed with one Beugo,
a house-painter and decorator, and, after a seven
years' apprenticeship, he turned his attention to
scene-painting. He was first employed by a
travelling company at Carlisle, and subsequently
obtained more regular work at the theatres of
Glasgow and Edinburgh. In 1822, whilst scene-
painter at the Theatre Royal, Edinburgh, he sent
several architectural pieces to the Edinburgh Ex-
hibition, and in the same year was engaged as
scene-painter to Drury Lane Theatre, and settled
in London. He afterwards left Drury Lane for the
rival house, Covent Garden, and in 1824 he became
a member of the Society of British Artists, and
exhibited at the SufEoIk Street Gallery. A first
visit to the continent took place about this time,
and his wanderings amongst the picturesque old
towns of Normandy resulted in his painting various
pictures during the next two years, introducing
some of the finest of their Gothic remains. In


IS'^S he sent his first picture to the Royal Academy,
' Rouen Cathedral,' but for some years after this
exhibited only at the SufEolk Street Gallery, until,
in 1836, he resigned his membership. His in-
creasing reputation now entitled him to seek the
honours of the Academy, and in 1839 he became
A. R. A., receiving the higher dignity two years
later. His journeyings in quest of subjects for his
art were very extensive, and he wandered through
most of the Western countries of Europe, also
visiting Syria and Egypt in 1838. Italy and
Austria he first saw in 1851. Towards the close
of his life he remained in England and painted
English scenes, his last work being a series of
views on the Thames, of which he had completed
six before his death. His productions divide them-
selves into three classes, identical with the various
influences under which he came. The pictures
dealing with scenes from Western Europe, and
painted before 1838, are after the Dutch manner,
broad in treatment and luminous in colour. After
his visit to the East he adopted a colder and
thinner style, and in his latest work these defects
were aggravated by an unpleasant blackness of
tone. His strength lies in his fine feeling for
architectural effect, artistic composition, and good
drawing of detail. His pictures were at one time
very popular, and in addition to his paintings he
made considerable sums by his published works,
of which the best known are his lithographed
' Picturesque Sketches in Spain,' ' Sketches in the
Holy Land and Syria,' and his ' Italy : Classical,
Historical, and Picturesque.' For some years he
also contributed drawings to the ' Landscape
Annual.' He was a member of various foreign
Academies, and was appointed one of the Com-
missioners for the Great Exhibition of 1851. On
November 26th, 1864, he had an apoplectic seizure
in the street, and died in the evening of the same
day. His Life has been written by James Ballantine.
Among his numerous works in oil and water-colour
we may mention :

London. 2fat. Gallery. Interior of the Cathedral,

„ „ Chancel of the Collegiate

Church of St. Paul at

„ South Kensington. Entrance to the Crypt, Roslin

„ „ Old Buildings on the Darro,

„ „ The Gate at Cairo called ' Bab-

„ „ Interior of Milan Cathedral.

„ „ The Porch at Ecslin. 1845.

( Water-colour.)
„ „ Sketch of the opening cere-

monial of the luternatioual

Exhibition of 1851. (Do.)
„ „ Great Temple of Edfon, Upper

Egypt. 1838. (Do.)
„ „ The Pyramids, from the Kile.

1845. (Do.)
J, „ Gateway, Spain. (Do.)

II „ Alcazar of Carmona, Andalusia.

1833. (Do.)
1, „ Castle of Ischia. (Do.)

n „ Isola Bella, Lago Maggiore.

n „ Interior of Eoslin Chapel.

1830. (1)0.)
„ „ Fontarabia, Spain. 1836. (Do.)

,. „ Church of St. Pierre, Caen.

1831 ? (So.)
,y „ March6 au BIS, Abbeville.

1825. (So.)




London. South Kensiruf- \ Interior of the Capilla de los
ton. j Reyes in the Cathedral of
Granada. (So)
„ City Gallery. Antwerp Cathedral.

» ,. Interior of St. Stephen's,

Edmburgh. Nat. Gallery. Home. Sunset from the Con-
vent of San Onofrio.
The following works are in private collections :
Rouen Cathedral.
Church of St. Germain, Amiens.
Interior of Milan Cathedral. {Dan. Thwaites, Esq.)
Obapel in the Cathedral of Dixmude, West Flanders.

(John Pender, Esg.)
Baalbek. ( W. S. Houldsworth, Esq. M.P.)
Ruins of Baalbek. (B. Brocklebank, Esq.)
Temple of the Sun.
Destruction of Jerusalem.
Jerusalem from Mount Olivet.
Rome. The Tiber.
Psestum. (JV. Eckersley, Esq.)
New Palace of Westminster. (C. Zucas, Esq.)
The Thames at Greenwich. (Do.)

ROBERTS, Edwaed Juhn, an English engraver,
born in 1797. He studied under Charles Heath,
with whom he worked many years, on the ' Annuals.'
His name does not often occur, as he was chiefly
engaged in etching the engraver's plates. He died
in 1865. Specimens of his art are to be found in :

Prout's ' Continental Annual.' 1832,

Roberts' ' Pilgrims ot the Rhine.'

Birket Foster's ' Rhine.'

ROBERTS, Henry, an Englisli engraver, horn
about 1710. There are some humorous prints,
large landscapes, &c. by him. One of his land-
scape plates, after T. Smith, of Derby, is dated
1743. He was a print-seller in Hand Court, Drury
Lane, and mostly confined his attention to plates
for which he might hope to find a ready sale at
small prices. He died before 1790.

ROBERTS, James, an English engraver, was
born in Devonshire in 1725. He engraved several
landscapes and views from the pictures of Richard
Wilson, George Barret the elder. Smith of Chiches-
ter, and others ; also ' Fox Hunting,' in four plates,
after James Seymour. Two small marine views
after Pillement. He died in London in 1799.

ROBERTS, Jambs, son of the last-named, was
born at Westminster about the middle of the 18th
century. He was awarded a prize at the Society of
Arts in 1766, and first exhibited at the Academy
in 1783. After practising some years at Oxford,
he settled at Westminster about 1794, and subse-
quently held the appointment of portrait painter
to the Duke of Clarence. In 1809 he published
some ' Lessons in Water-colour Painting,' which
is the last trace we have of him. Amongst his
works are :

London. Garrick Cluh. Mrs. Abingdon in the ' School
for Scandal.'
„ British Museum. A series of elaborate "VTater-
colour Drawings.
Oxford. Bodleian, Portrait of Sir John Hawkins.

ROBERTS, Thomas, an Irish landscape painter,
born at Waterford about the middle of the 18th
century. He studied under George Mullens, and
was patronized by the Duke of Leinster and by
Viscount Powersoourt. He died at Lisbon, where
he had gone for his health. His sister, a landscape
painter of some skill, was employed as scene-painter
in the Waterford theatre.

ROBERTS, Thomas Sawtellb, an Irish landscape
painter, born in the latter half of the 18th century.
He was the younger brother of Thomas Roberts,

the landscape painter, and at first studied as an
architect. Devoting himself to landscape painting,
he settled in London, and exhibited at the Royal
Academy from 1789 to 1818. Returning to Ireland,
he took a leading part, in 1823, in forming the
Incorporation of Artists in Dublin. 'There is at
the Kensington Museum a water-colour drawing
by him of St. John's Abbey, Kilkenny. He died in

ROBERTSON, Andrew, a Scottish miniature
painter, was born at Aberdeen in 1777. When
young he had some instruction in art from Alex-
ander Nasmyth, but he did not neglect Iiis general
education, graduating at Aberdeen University.
Making his way on foot to London in 1801, he
attracted the notice of Benjamin West, whose
portrait he painted, and completed his art-training
in the schools of the Academy. His ability pro-
cured him a large practice ; he was patronized by
the royal family, and became the foremost niioia-
ture painter of his day. In 1815 he made a
tour in France and Italy. Of a kindly nature, lie
took great interest in several charitable associa-
tions, and was one of the founders of the Artists'
Benevolent Institution. His love of art was not
confined to painting ; he had a great liking for
music, and was an excellent amateur performer on
the violin. He retired from his profession in 1841,
and died at Hampstead in 1845. Two of his
brothers, Archibald and Alexander, emigrated
successively to New York, where they achieved
some success as painters. The latter was a pupil
of Samuel Shelley.

ROBERTSON, Charles, an Irish miniature
painter, the younger brother of ' Irish Robertson,'
who practised in Dublin about the end of the 18th
century. Coming to London, he exliibited at the
Royal Academy for some years from 1806 onwards.
Returning to Ireland, he took a prominent part in
the movement which led to the foundation of
the Royal Hibernian Academy.

ROBERTSON, George, born in London about
the year 1742, was instructed in design in Shipley's
drawing-school. His father, a wine merchant,
brought up his son to the same business. At
an early age, however, he went to Italy with
Beckford, where he chiefly studied landscape
painting, and produced some pictures which pos-
sessed considerable merit. He afterwards visited
the island of Jamaica, where he made several
drawings and pictures of views of that country,
some of which were exhibited in 1775. Not
meeting with the encouragement he expected, he
adopted the profession of a drawing-master, in
which he was more successful. He died in 1788.
We have a few landscape etchings by him from
his own designs.

ROBERTSON, Mrs. J., an English miniature
painter, and niece of George Saunders. She had a
good practice in London, and exhibited at the Royal
Academy from 1824 to 1844. She then migrated
to Russia, when she was elected a member of the
St. Petersburg Academy.

ROBERTSON, Walter, an Irish miniature
painter, known as 'Irish Robertson,' who prac-
tised in Dublin about the end of the 18th century.
In 1793 he departed to America with Gilbert Stuart,
after which he went to the East Indies, where he


ROBETTA, engraver, who flourished in Florence
from about 1490 to 1520, worked after Filippo





Lippi and Sandro Botticelli. His history is
wrapped in the greatest obscurity, but it appears
that twelve artists formed a club under the
appellation of Ln Gompagnia del Pajuola (the
company of the Stock-pot), and had pia-nic
suppers alternately at each other's lodgings. The
names of these associates were Gianfrancesoo
Riistici (the founder) ; Andrea del Sarto ; Spillo,
Pittore ; Domenico Puligo ; II Rohetta, Orafo ;
Ariatotile da San Gallo; Francesco di Pellegrino ;
Nioolo Boni ; Domenico Baooelli (who played and
sang excellently) ; II Solosmeo, Scultore ; Lorenzo
detto Guazzetto ; .wd Roberto di Filippo Lippi,
Pittore. By his being admitted a member of a
select club of eminent artists, it may be supposed
that he was of some celebrity before 1612. He is
called Orafo in the list of names, that word being
then used for Orefke, goldsmith ; but engraving
was part of a goldsmith's business in those days,
and ranked liim among artists. Robetta had an ex-
cellent fancy and composed with facihty, but his
technic is poor. In some of liis backgrounds borrow-
ings from Diirer may be recognized. Tlie follow-
ing is a hst of his prints :


1. The Creation of Eve. Not signed.

2. Adam and Eve driven from Paradise. Not s'f/ned.

3. Adam and Eve, with Cain and Abel. Sit/ned KBTA.

4. Adam and Eve, with Cain and Abel. No mark.

5. Adam and Eve, with Cain and Abel. No mark.


6. The Adoration of the Kings. Sii/ned ROBETTA.

7. Ihe Nativity. Not signed, but nndoiibtedly hi.s worlc.

8. Jesus Christ baptized in the river Jordan. Signed

9. Jesus Christ taking leave of His Mother. Signed

10. The Resurrection of Christ. Signed RBTA.

11. The Virgin giving the breast to the Infant. Signed

12. The Virgin seated in a landscape, &o. Signed RBTA.

13. The Virgin with Angels, &c. Not signed.

14. St. Sebastian and St. Roch, Not signed.

15. Faith and Charity with their attributes. Signed


16. Ceres with two goat-footed Cliildren. Signed

17. A young Man tied to a Tree, &o. Signed RBTA.

18. Venus surrounded by Cupids. Some traces of «
signature may be seen in a dark shadow.

19. Apollo and Marsyas. Signed RBTA.

20. Hercules between Virtue and Vice. Nol signed.

21. Hercules killing the Hydra. Signed KBTA.
23. Hercules and Antasus. Not signed.

23. The Lyrist. Signed RBTA.

24. An old Woman and two amorous Couples, &o. Not

25. A Man tied to a Tree by Cupid, &c. On a tablet
RORETTA (sic).

26. Mutius Scajvola. Signed RBTA.

The following six prints, the first five of which
are in the British Museum, are presumed to be by
Robetta, although they are without his mark.

The Sacrifice of Cain and Abel.

The Death of Abel.

Jupiter and Leda.

The Virgin and Child attended by St. Sebastian and the

A Riposo. Formerly in the Duke of Buckingham's

St. Jerome kneeling before a Crucifix.

ROBINEAU, G, a French portrait painter,
born about the middle of tlie 18th century. He

practised in Paris, where he afterwards held the
appointment of Inspector of Drawing Schools.
There is a portrait by him of Abel, the musician,
at Hampton Court, and one of George IV. when
Prince of Wales, in the Royal Collections. Both
are small full-kngths.

ROBINS, Thomas S. In 1839 he was nominated
one of the original members of the Institute of
Painters in Water-Colours, but resigned in 1866.
His marine and landscape jiictures were long a
feature of the exhibitions. Ho died in 1880.
Works :

London. '^. ^^-^^^*- 1 Calais Harbour.

„ „ Shipping — a Fresh Breeze.

„ „ Hay Barges off Reculver.

ROBINS, AViLLlAM, an English engraver in
mezzotinto, who flourished about the year 1730, by
whom we have a few portraits ; among others,
that of

William Warren, LL.D. ; after Heims.

ROBINSON, John, portrait painter, born at Bath
in 1715, came to London when ho was young, aud
entered the studio of John Vanderbank, under
whose tuition he reached considerable proficiency.
He afterwards distinguished himself as a por-
trait painter, and succeeded Jervas in his house
in Cleveland Court. For a time he was extensively
employed, though his colouring was faint and
feeble. He was accustomed to dress his sitters
in Vandyck costume. He died in 1745.

ROBINSON, John Henky, an English en-
graver, born at Bolton in 1796. He came to
London when young, and studied under James
Heath. His early practice included book illustra-
tion ; his best work in this line was for Rogers'
' Italy.' He attained great excellence in his pro-
fession, and was prominent in the agitation for the
admission of engravers to the Academy, of which
he was elected an associate in 1856, and a full
member in 1867. His method was line, in which
he contrived to get iicculiar richness. He married
a lady of property, and retired to Petworth, where
he died in 1871. Amongst his best plates are:

The Flower Girl ; after Murillo.

The Emperor Theodosius refused admission to Milan
Cathedral by Archbishop Ambrose ; after Van Dyck.

The Countess of Bedford ; after the same.

The Mother and Child ; after Leslie.

H. M. the Queen ; after Partridge.

Napoleon and Pius VII. ; after Wilkic.

The Wolf and the Lamb ; after Mulready.

Little Red Riding-Hood ; after Landseer.

ROBINSON, R., an English mezzotint engraver,
who practised in the latter half of the 17th
century. He chiefly engraved after his own designs,
and his works have mm-h merit. He died or re-
tired from practice about 1690. Amongst his
plates are :

Charles I. ; after Van Di/ck.

The Seven Bishops ; on one sheet, each in a small oval.

Charlotte, Countess of Lichfield.

James, Duke of Monmouth.

William, Prince of Orange.

Frances, Duchess of Richmond.

Sir James Worsley.

Diara and Actseon.

ROBINSON, Thomas, an English portrait painter
who practised in London early in the 18th century.
He lived in Golden Square. He studied for some
time in Italy, where he became a master of
Italian and a good musician. In his later years
he was afflicted with blindness, and was mainly




supported by the talents of his daughter, the
famous singer, Anastasia Robinson, who married
Lord Peterborough. Robinson died in 1755.

ROBINSON, Thomas, an English portrait painter,
born at Windermere, about the middle of the 18th
century. He studied under Romney, with whom
he lived for some years. Migrating to Ireland, he
practised at Belfast from 1801 to 1808, and was
patronized by Dr. Percy, Bishop of Dromore.
He tlien removed to Dublin, where he became
President of the Society of Artists, and died in
1810. There is a. ' Procession in honour of Lord
Nelson ' by him at the Harbour Office, Belfast.

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 102 of 201)