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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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Other works are :

Encounter between the King's Troops and Peasants at

Ballynahiuch.
The Giant's Causeway.

ROBINSON, William, an English portrait
painter, born at Leeds in 1799. He had to over-
come parental opposition and many difficulties,
before he could make his way to London and
enter first the studio of Sir Thomas Lawrence and
then the schools of the Academy. Returning to
his native town in 1823, he obtained a good local
practice, his chief patron being Earl de Grey.
He painted for the United Service Club, portraits
of the Duke of Wellington, Lord Nelson, George
III., and Sir John Moore. He died at Leeds in
1839.

ROBIONOI, De., a Flemish artist, who flourished
in the middle of the 16th century. The only
known works of this painter are three pictures at
Verviers, which seem to belong to the school of
Lambert Lombard. One of these is signed and
dated 1560.

ROBSON, Geoegb Fennel, an eminent land-
scape painter in water-colours, and native of Dur-
ham, was born in 1790. His taste for drawing
• displayed itself at a very early age, and Bewick's
book of ' Quadrupeds,' then lately published, be-
came, after nature, the favourite subject of his
study. It seems that he never received any
regular instruction in the rules of art, but that
all his Icnowledge was derived from observing
artists who came down to Durham to sketch the
scenery in its vicinity. At the age of sixteen,
with only five pounds in money, he left his father's
house and travelled to London. There he made
drawings, which he exposed in the shop window
of a carver and gilder, and sold for small sums.
By these means he not only supported himself for
twelve months, but was enabled to return the five
pounds he had received fi'om his father. He now
published a view of his native city, and the fimtls
derived from the speculation enabled him to visit
the Highlands of Scotland. He dressed himself as
a shepherd, and with his wallet at his back, and
Scott's ' Lay of the Last Minstrel ' in his pocket,
he wandered over the mountains in all seasons.
He left many transcripts of the beautiful scenery
of Loch Katrine and its neighbourhood. Though
especially inspired by the grandeur of the High-
lands, he did not confine himself to Scotland, but
visited the Lakes of Cumberland and Westmore-
land, made himself familiar with North Wales, and
crossed over to Ireland to depict the beauties of
Killarney. He was a constant exhibitor with
the Water-colour Society ; on one occasion he
contributed no less than thirty-eight drawings.
Robert Hills, who lived for a time in the same
house, inserted animals, especially deer, in some
of his drawings. Robson died in London, Sep-



London.



tember 8, 1833. It was supposed that his death
was caused by something poisonous in the food on
the ' James Watt ' steamship, in which he had
travelled from London to Stockton-on-Tees in the
last days of August. Works :

„ „ Loch Achray.

„ „ Loch Coruisk, Skye.

„ „ Conisborough Castle, Yorks.

„ „ Trees at Dingwall.

„ „ Rural Landscape.

„ „ Mountainous Landscapes, with

Figures and Goats.

„ „ Wooded Gorge, Llauberis.

Besides the ' Views of Durham,' Robson published
' Outlines of the Grampians,' and ' Scenery of
the Grampian Mountains.' Britton also published
from his drawings ' Picturesque Views of the
British Cities.'

ROBUSTI, DoMENico, son and disciple of Jacopo
Robusli, was born at Venice in 1562. He followed
in the footsteps of his father at a very respectful
distance. His principal works are in the Sala di
Cons.'glio, and in the Scuola di S. Marco at Venice ;
in some of these he is said to have been much
assisted by his father. He was more successful in
portraits than in history, and painted many of
the principal personages of his time. He died in
1637.

ROBUSTI, Jacopo, called II Tintohbtto, 'the
little dyer,' on account of his father's trade, was born
at Venice in 1519. He may be considered the head
of the Venetian School in the second and less
glorious half of its supreme period, the sixteenth
century. He is said to have shown his inclination
for art almost from his infancy, and to have covered
the walls of his father's house with childish sketches.
The latter, recognizing his genius, determined that
he should become a painter, and after some ele-
mentary teaching, Jacopo was received into the
school of Titian. Here he studied for a short time,
(according to Ridolfii, only ten days,) when his
master's jealousy was aroused by the vigour and
spirit of some designs made by the new-comer,
and fearing a future rival, Titian dismissed the
too-promising pupil. Robusti's ambition seems,
however, to have only received a fresh impetus
from this indignity, and he conceived the project
of forming a new school, the characteristic of
which should be a union of the dignity and
grandeur of Michel-angelo's design with the
glow and splendour of Titian's colour. He estab-
lished himself in a small atelier, over the door of
which he inscribed the device : " 11 Disegno di
Michelagnolo, e il Colorito di Tiziano," and in a
short time gained a considerable following. Here
he worked indefatigably, making copies of Titian's
pictures, and drawings from casts of Michel-
angelo's sculptures, and of antiques, taken by
Daniele da Volterra, which he procured from
Florence. He frequently worked by lamplight, for
the purpose of giving greater breadth and power to
his efiects of chiaroscuro. To acquire a knowledge'
of foreshortening, in which the Venetians, as a
school, fell short of the Lombards, he made models
of wax and chalk which he hung up in his studio,
in a variety of positions, and drew them from
every point of view, and under different conditions
of artificial light. He also attended anatomical
lectures and dissections, to acquaint himself more
perfectly with the facts of muscular construction.

393



Robust!



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Kobusti



To this capacity for taking pains, he united a
genius which Vasari has described as "terribile" —
an extraordinary range and wildness of imagin-
ation, and a facility and despatch in execution,
which appeared to his contemporaries little short
of miraculous. The members of the Brotherhood
of San Roooo, at Venice, wishing to place in their
church a painting representing the Apotheosis of
their patron saint, commissioned some of the most
famous artists of the day, Paolo Veronese, Andrea
Schiavone, Salviati, Zuccaro, and Tintoretto, to
prepare sketches from which a choice might be
made. On the day appointed for the decision,
Tintoretto produced his finished picture, to the
amazement of all present. The astonished com-
petitors, lost in admiration of this feat, dubbed
him "II furioso Tintoretto," a nickname which
he amply justified by later achievements.

The impetuosity of his genius, and the extra-
ordinary promptness of his hand, together with
his ardent desire for opportunities of distinguishing
himself, induced him to paint several large works
for the convents and monasteries at Venice, for
little more than the cost of the materials. The
efEect of this unusual readiness and despatch was
naturally the frequent production of works un-
worthy of his powers. The consequent inequali-
ties in his achievements justify the remark of
Annibale Carracci, that " Tintoretto was sometimes
equal to Titian, often inferior to Tintoretto." On
the first appearance of his 'Miracle of St. Mark,'
Pietro Aretino, the vilifier of almost every one else,
wrote to Tintoretto, greatly commending the
work, but adding: "Happy would you he if,
instead of being so hasty, you could prevail on
yourself to be a little more patient."

A commission for which Tintoretto successfully
competed, even with Titian in the field, was the
decoration of one of the great halls in the Doge's
Palace, with a painting commemorating the victory
over the Turks at Lepanto, in 1571, an immense
composition, which he finished in twelve months.
His masterpieces were chiefly produced during the
first ten years of his activity ; three of his finest
works he distinguished by signing, contrary to his
usual practice. These are : ' The Marriage at
Cana' (now in the Sacristy of the Salute at Venice),
the ' Crucifixion ' (in the Scuola di San Rocco),
and the famous 'The Slave,' or 'Miracle of St
Mark' above-mentioned. This last represents a
Venetian slave, who, condemned to martyrdom by
the Turks, has invoked the aid of St Mark. The
saint appears ; the instruments of the executioners
are shattered, and the crowd of persecutors is
dispersed. In this fine work the artist is at his
best. The composition is grand and judicious,
the design correct, the chiaroscuro impressive,
and the colour as fine as Titian. The types, too,
are dignified and well chosen to a degree un-
usual with Tintoretto, who aimed rather at anima-
tion and vigour than at grace and beauty, and
took his models for apostles and saints as he found
them to his hand in the fishermen and gondoliers
of his native city. Among the most famous of his
other works are the colossal ' Paradise ' in the
Doge's Palace, the largest picture in existence,
measuring eighty-four feet by thirty-four ; ' The
Golden Calf,' and 'Last Judgment,' each about
fifty feet long ; and the series of fifty-seven works
in the Scuola di San Rocco, now in a very bad
state of preservation, and greatly obscured by dust
and dirt.

391



Tintoretto's work suffered from the mistaken
tendency in favour of rapid production and pre-
posterous dimensions, which exercised such an evil
influence on Venetian art towards the close of the
16th century. That he was capable of elaboration
as delicate and minute as that of a miniaturist he
showed in the ' Susanna ' of the Casa Barbarigo at
S. Polo, in which he represented "in a small
space, a park containing birds and rabbits, and
all the adjuncts of a pleasure-garden, all carefully
finished."

In addition to his vast historical works, Tinto-
retto produced many portraits, in which his art,
having less scope for its characteristic defects,
shows to great advantage. He particularly ex-
celled in the rendering of human flesh, an excellence
which was marred towards the close of his career
by his abuse of a certain purplish tint. His use
of dark grounds for most of his later pictures
has caused them to lower very much in tone. He
continued to practise at Venice to an advanced
age, and produced a vast number of works, in
which he was greatly assisted by scholars. The
most important members of his school were his
own son Domenico, his daughter Marietta, and
the two (?) Greeks, Domenico Theotocopuli and
Antonio Vasilacchi, called respectively II Greco
and Aliense. Tintoretto died at Venice on the
31st of May, 1594. Works :

BerliQ. Museum. Two Portraits of Procurators of

St. Mark.
„ „ Virgiaaod Child with SS. Mark

and Luke in Adoration.
„ „ Portrait of a Young Man. {At-

tributed by Morelli to Giulio
Canipi,)
„ „ Luna and the Hours.

„ „ Three Venetian Procurators

before St. Marlt
Brunswick. Gallery. Christ's Entry into Jerusalem.
„ „ The Last Supper.

„ „ The Lute-player.

Castle Howard. Gallery. Adoration of the Shepherds.
„ „ Temptation of Christ.

„ „ Sacrifice of Isaac.

„ „ Two Princes of Ferrara in a

church.
Darmstadt. Gallery. Bust Portrait of an old Man,
in a black dress.
„ „ A Han with a gray beard.

„ „ Martyrdom of two Saints.

Dresden. Gallery. Virgin and Child, with SS.

Barbara, Catharine, John,
Chrysostom, and Augustine
in Adoration.
Virgin and Child with S.
Catharine ; a Venetian Ad-
miral kneeling to them.
Portrait of a Man seated, a

youth standing behind hira.
Knight in a Gondola, rescuing
two naked women from a
tower.
The Fall of the Rebel Angels.
The Nine Muses and the Graces

on Parnassus.
Women with musical instru-
ments.
The -Woman taken in Adultery.
Portrait of a Nobleman.
Head of a Venetian Nobleman.
The Seasons (3 pictures).
Portrait of a Venetian Senator.
Florence. Pitti Pal. Cupid born of Vulcan and

Venus.
Portrait of a Man with a gray

beard and bald head.
Portrait of Vino^zo Zeno.
The Descent from the Cross.



Dublin. National
Edinburgh. Nat.



Gall.
Gall.



Bo'busti



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Kobusti



Florence


J'ittiPaZ


The Resurrection.


Milan.


Brera


*


"


Madonna and Child.


Paris.


Louvre.






Portrait of an old Man with a


}J


a






long white beard.


tt


it


))




Portrait of a bearded Man,




»






holding in his hand the


Petersburg. Hermitage.






model of a horse.






»j


»


Portrait of a Man with short
hair, in a vest trimmed with
fur.


it


IT


»j





Portrait of a young Man.


tt


a


tj


Uffizi.


Christ's Entry into Jerusalem.


j>


»


»)


tt


Portrait of Sebast. Teniero.






It


tt


Portrait of an old Man seated.


Veuice.


Doge's Palace,


»)


tt


The Marriage in Cana of Galilee.





tt


»j


1)


Portrait of Sansovino.


ti


a


it


»»


Abraham's Sacrifice.


}t


it


n


Tl


Bust Portrait of a Maa






Liverpoo!


JJ. Inst.


Sketch for the ' Paradise.'


u


Scuola di San


I^ndon.


Bridgewater


\ The Descent from the Cross.
/ Presentation in the Temple.




Eocco.




Gallery.






»





Two Portraits of Venetian
Gentlemen. (One iJaicd 1588.)


»»


Jtoj/al Library.


tt


}7


Portrait of a Venetian Coun-
sellor.


tt


Academia.


*j


Hampt. Court.


Esther before Ahasuerus.


;j


St


tt

J'




The Nine Muses in Olympus.
Portrait of a Knight of Malta.


tt


tt




J)


Portrait of a Venetian Gentle-
man.


tt


j>


«





Portrait of a Man in a Fur
Mantle.


tt


it


It


»


Male portrait, called Ignatius
Loyola.


tt


It


n


)j


Christ before Pilate. (Study.)








j>


St. Eoch curing the Plague.


tt


tt


»


»»


St. George and Princess Cleo-
dolinda.






jt


jj


Labyrinth in a Garden.


tt


tt


tt


JVational Gall.


St. George destroying the










Dragon.


it


tt


it


ij


Christ washing the Feet of
His Disciples.


tt





Madrid.


Stafford House.
Museum.


A Party of Musicians.
Battle by Sea and Land.


It


»






Portrait of Sebastian Veniero.


,^




^'


J.


Portrait of a Man in black.


tt


J,


»»


jj


Baptism of Christ.


tt


tt




jf


Portrait of a Venetian Senator.


M


)J


j^




An Allegory of Venus.






>}


)j


Portrait of a Prelate. (Inscribed


tf


tt






Petrus Archiepiscopus.)


it


tt





)i


Portrait of a young Jesuit,
with black beard.


tt


S. Maria della

Salute.





»


Portrait of an elderly Man,
probably a Secretary of the
Venetian Senate.


it


S. Maria deV
Orto.

SS. Giovanni


jy


))


Portrait of a young Lady,




e Paolo.






holding a Eose.


it


S. Zaccaria.


»)


»»


Portrait of an armed Man,
probably a Spanish Creneral.


Vienna.


Gallery.


»


»»


The Chastity of Joseph.


i>


)i


))


j>


Visit of the Queen of Sheba to
Solomon.


tt


it


»)





The Finding of Moses.


tt


a




»)


Susanna.


n


,,


»>


s>


Esther before Ahasuerus.
Paradise.


tt


it
it


»


»)


Portrait of a Man with a small
brown beard, holding a
manuscript.


"


It
tt




,


Portrait of a Man in a silk robe.


»


It


»





Portrait of a young Man in a
gray silk gown.


tt





jj





Purification for the Midianitish
Virgins.


»»


it








Death of Holofernes.


tt


tt


»j


tJ


Judith and Holofernes.






9*


it


Tarquin and Lucretia.


it





Jj


)l


Five more male Portraits. .






Milan.


Brera.


Three Portraits of "Women.
Pieta.


»


»>


)t


f}


St. Helena with the Cross, and


ji









other Saints.





a



Portrait of an old Man.

Susanna and the Elders.

Paradise.

Portrait of Himself.

Male Portrait.

The Nativity of St. John the
Baptist.

Eesurrection of the Saints.
(Sketch for the ' Paradise.')

St: George and the Dragon.

Andromeda.

Portrait of a Venetian Noble.

Male Portrait.

Paradise.

Bacchus and Ariadne.

Mercury and the Graces.

The Forge of Vulcan.

Mars driven off by Pallas.
) A Series of fifty-seven pictures,
I among them the * Cruci-
fixion.'

Two pictures of Miracles by St.
Mark.

Miracle of St. Mark. (The
Slave.)

Adam and Eve.

Madonna and Child and Three
Senators.

Eesurrection and Three Sen-
ators.

Portrait of the Doge Luigi
Mocenigo.

Virgin and Child, with SS. Jo-
seph, Mark, John, and a
Doge.

Death of Abel.

Portrait of Pietro Marcello.

St. Mark._

The Prodigal Son, and the Car-
dinal Virtues. (A Ceiling.)

Descent from the Cross.

Portrait of the Procurator Carlo
Morosini.

Portrait of the Procurator Al-
vise Eeniero.

Several other male Portraits.

Assumption of the Virgin.

Virgin in Glory with Saints.

Christ on the Cross and the
three Marys.

The Eesurrection.

The Woman taken in Adultery.

V The Marriage in Cana.
> The Last Judgment.

t A Holy Conversation.

Birth of the Virgin.

Christ blessing Venetian Sen-
ators.

Adoration of the Magi.

The Finding of Moses.

Jews gathering Manna.

St. Jerome.

Susanna and the Elders.

Descent from the Cross.

Mucius Scsvola.

Apollo and the Muses.

Hercules driving the Fawn out
of the bed of Omphale.

Sebastiano Veniero.

Portrait of the Doge Glrolamo
Priuli.

Two Portraits of the Doge
Niccolo da Ponte.

Portrait of an Officer in ar-
mour.

A Portrait Group of an old
Man and a Boy.

Three Portraits of Procurators
of St. Mark.

Three Portraits of Senators.

Thirteen other Male Portraits.
395



Kobusti



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Boden



ROBUSTI, Marietta, the daughter of Jacopo
Robusti, bom at Venice in 1560, was instructed
in art by her father, and devoting herself to
portrait painting as an art suited to her sex, she
acquired considerable reputation. She painted
many of the principal personages at Venice, but
her celebrity was not confined to her native
country. She was invited to the court of the
Emperor Maximilian and to that of King Philip II.
of Spain ; but her father's affection prevented an
acceptance of either invitation. She died in 1590.
EOCCA, Antonio, painter, practising in Italy
about the middle of the 17th century. The de-
tails of his life and works are unknown, but he
is mentioned by various writers of his age as a
foreign artist of much excellence, working in Rome
and in Piedmont. He is said to have been a monk,
and to have died at Rome about 1660.

EOCCA, Daniels Jaoopo, painter, born at Rome.
He was a pupil of Daniele da Volterra, and was an
artist of mediocre talent. He died at Rome in
1600, at a very advanced age.

ROCCA, MioHELE, called also Pakmigiano the
younger and Michele da Parma, was born at
Parma in 1671. He practised in Rome, and died
some time after 1751. He was gifted with some
talent, and worked in the manner of P. da Cortona.
In the Munich Gallery there is an ' Adoration of
the Shepherds' by him.

ROCCADIRAME, Angelo, painter, born at
Naples in 1396. Several of his works are to be
found in the churches of his native city, among
the best is an 'Archangel Raphael' in SS. Severino
e Sosio.'

ROCHARD, FBAN501S, a miniature painter, born
in France in 1798. He studied in the Paris
Academy, and about 1820 migrated to London,
where he exhibited for many years at the Royal
Academy. He died at Netting Hill in 1858.

ROCHARD, Simon Jacques, a French miniature
painter, the elder brother of F. Rochard, was born
in Paris in 1788. He entered the Ecole des Beaux
Arts in 1813, and studied under Merimee and
Isabey. After practising in Paris he settled in
England, where he obtained a large and fashionable
connection. He exhibited at the Royal Academy
for many years, but in 1850 retired to Brussels,
where he died.

ROCHE, Benedict, painter, born at Valencia.
He was a pupil of Gaspar de la Huerta, and it is
said that his works were sometimes mistaken for
those of his master. He died in 1785.

ROCHE, Jean, (or Bboche,) a French painter,
born at Carcassonne. In 1365 he painted several
pictures for the ' Eglise des Domes ' at Avignon.

ROCHE, Sampson Towgood, miniature painter,
practised at Bath early in the 19th century. He
exhibited at the Academy in 1817, but his practice
seems to have been purely local.

ROCHERS, Etienne des. See Deskochers.
ROCHETET, Michel, a French painter of por-
traits and historical subjects, who flourished in the
16th century, and worked at the decoration of the
Louvre, and of the palace at Fontainebleau, under
the direction of Primaticcio.
ROGHETTI. See Faenza, Marco Antonio di.
ROCHFORD, P. DB, a native of France, flourished
about the year 1720. He engraved several of the
plates for the large folio collection of ' Views of the
Palace and Gardens of Versailles,' published by
P. Menant. He also engraved some prints from
the pictures of Jean Baptiste Santevre, and other
■ 396



painters. He resided some time in Portugal, where
he died.

ROCHIENNE, Pierre, a French engraver on
wood, who flourished about the year 1651. In
conjunction with J. Ferlato, he executed a set of
very indiHerent wood-cuts for the New Testament,
in Latin, published in 1551 . He also engraved some
cuts for the ' Legende dor^e,' published in 1557.

ROCQUE, J., was probably a native of Prance,
but about 1750 he resided in England, where he
graved maps and a few views from his own de-
signs. Among these are two large views of
Wanstead House, Essex. Vivaret engraved a view
of Kensington Palace after a drawing by Rocque.

RODDELSTET, (or Rddestedt,) Peter. See
GoTTLAND'j', Peter.

RODE, Christian Bebnhard, painter and en-
graver, was born in Berlin in 1725. Having learned
the rudiments of his art in his native city, he went
to Paris, where he studied for a time under Charles
Vanloo and Pesne. He afterwards travelled to
Italy, and on his return to Berlin met with very
flattering encouragement as a painter of history
and portraits. He painted several altar-pieces for
the churches at Berlin and the other towns in
Prussia, and was employed by the king in em-
bellishing the palace of Sans Souci. In 1783 he
became Director of the Academy at Berlin. He
etched a great number of plates from his own
designs and those of others. There is a MS.
catalogue of 309 plates by him in the British
Museum Print Room. The following are his
principal works :

The ceiliogs in the New Palace, Sans Souci.
A Descent from the Cross. (Marienldrche, Berlin.)
The Agony iu the Garden. (Manenkirche, Berlin.)
The Ascension. {Rostock.)

ENGRAVINGS.

A Head of Christ.

The Maskers ; after Schluter.

Plates for Gessner's ' Idylls ' and Gellerl's ' Fables.'

RODE, JoHANN Heinrich, the younger brother
of Christian Bernhard Rode, born at Berlin in 1727,
■was brought up to the profession of a goldsmith,
but abandoned that pursuit to devote himself to
engraving. Having executed some plates at Berlin
with considerable success, he went to Paris, where
he became a pupil of Johann Georg Wille. During
his ]-esidence in that city he engraved a few plates
in the finished style of his instructor, and on his
return to Berlin published several prints from the
designs of his brother. He had acquired a reputa-
tion, when his career was cut short by his death
in 1759. Among others, we have the following
prints by him :

The Portrait of Johann Georg AVille ; after Schmidt.
A Head of Epicurus ; after J. M. Preislcr.
Jacob wrestling with the Angel ; aftei- C. B. Eode.
An Ecce Homo ; afiei' the same,
A Sacrifice of the Vestals ; after the same.

RODE, (or Roode,) Niels, Nelis, or Cornelis,
painter, horn at Copenhagen in 1743. He came to
Holland, and studied at the Hague under the
portrait-painter J. G. Ziesenis. In 1776 he became
a member of the ' I'ictura ' Society at the Hague,
and finally established himself at Leyden. He
died in 1794. There is a portrait group by him
in the Town-hall at the Hague.

RODEN, Mathys, a Flemish painter of the 15th
century, who practised at Ghent, and became a
member of the Corporation in 14'75. In 1477, he
designed some allegorical figures for the fete in



Boderigo



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Koeh.lL



honour of the entry of Duke Maximilian. No record
of his works later than 1483 has come down to us.

RODERIGO. See Sicilliani.

EODERIGO. See Rodriguez.



Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 103 of 201)