Michael Bryan.

Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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about the year 1605, was brought up in the school
of Correggio, whom he assisted in his great work
of the dome of S. Giovanni. In the church of St.
Mary Magdalene, at Parma, is a fine ' Virgin and
Infant Jesus,' which has been sometimes mistaken
for the work of Correggio. His talents were, how-
ever, confined to compositions of a few figures.
One of his most considerable works is a ' St.
Augustine and St. Jerome,' in the Eremitani.
Pungileone often mentions him in connection with
Allegri ; and at the death of the latter, Rondani
inherited the drawings and many of the cartoons
from which he had worked in the Cupola at Parma.
Lanzi says that he had seen one of his Madonnas,
in the possession of the Marquis Scarani, at
Bologna, Mary bearing a swallow in her hand, in
allusion to the painter's name. Rondani's known
works are rare. He died at Parma about the
year 1548.

RONDELBT, Jean and Guillaume, brothers,
flourished in France in the 16th century. In 1552
they were engaged on the decorations of the
palace of Fontainebleau.

RONDINELLO, Niccolo, flourished at Ravenna
and Forli in the last quarter of the 16th century. He
is described by Vasari as one of Giovanni Bellini's
most industrious pupils. He spent his early years
at Venice, and produced pictures that are often
thought to be Bellini's own works. In the Doria
Gallery, Rome, is a 'Virgin and Child with St.
John the Baptist,' signed by Rondinello, that is
an exact counterpart of the same subject painted
and signed by Bellini in the same Gallery. The
identity is so great as to lead Crowe and Caval-
caselle to conjecture, that, while Rondinello
painted the whole of the picture which bears his
name, he also painted a great part of that signed
Bellini, the latter being content to finish his pupil's
work and sign it as his own. The Gallery of
Forli possesses a half-length ' Virgin and Child,'
painted by Rondinello after he left Venice; a por-
trait of a young man in the same Gallery is now
also assigned to him. The Duomo of Forli has a
' S. Sebastian ' by him, in the style of Palmezzano,
whom he seems to have copied in his later years.
In the Brera, Milan, a 'St. John the Evangelist
censing a kneeling female figure wearing a crown,
with angels ministering on each side of the altar,
over which hangs a picture of the Virgin and
Child,' is rightly assigned to this artist. Many
of the churches in Ravenna contain paintings by
Rondinello. No dates are known of either his
birth or death, but he was still alive in the first
years of the 16th century. He usually signed
thus : Nicolaus Rondinelo.

RONDINOSI, Zaccaria, a painter of the Floren-
tine school, working at Pisa between 1666 and
1680. He was mainly occupied with ornament,
and when he died in 1680 he was buried in the
Campo Santo by the Pisans, who there put up a
tablet to his memory.

RONDOLINO II. See Terenzi.

RONJON, Louis Augusts, a French historical
painter, born in Paris in 1809. He studied under




J. M. Langlois, and obtained a medal in 1834.
During his later years he gave up painting, and
devoted himself to teaching. He died in Paris in
1876. His best known pictures are :

The Assassination of the Diike of Guise.
An Incident in the Life of Kichelieu.

RONMY, GniLLAUME FRiniElc, painter, was
born at Rouen in 1786. He was a pupil of Vien
and of Taunay, and for many years was a frequent
and successful exhibitor at the Salon. He colla-
borated with Provost in his panoramas, notably
those of Rio Janeiro and Constantinople. He died
at Passy in 1854. Among his principal works we
may name : ' The Temple of the Sybil at Tivoli,'
' Henry IV. at the Siege of Paris,' ' A Camp of
Laplanders,' and a 'View of Constantinople.'

RONSE, Philippe, a French artist of the 17th
century, who, in conjunction with Pauvert and
VesprI, painted in the cathedral of Chartres. He
died in 1645.

RONSERAY. See De Lobme.

RONTBOUT, J , a Dutch landscape painter,

whose pictures at first view have a slight resem-
blance to those of Hobbema and Ruysdael. They
are generally of a small size, always on panel, and
represent wooded scenery. The figures are of the
same character as those in Hobbema's pictures
when painted by himself. They are signed with
the name in full, or with a monogram, somewhat in
the manner of Jakob Ruysdael, which has deceived
many into the belief that they are by that artist.

RONZELLI, Fabio, painter, probably the son of
Piero Ronzelli. He flourished at Bergamo sLortly
after 1627, and is known by the ' Martyrdom of
San Alessandro,' which he painted for the church
of Santa Grata, at Bergamo.

RONZELLI, PiBRO, practised at Bergamo about
1600, and became known as a skilful painter of

ROODS, Thbodor, (or Db Roodb,) painter and
engraver, bom at Rotterdam in 1736. He travelled
through Belgium and Germany in 1756, and settled
for a time in Vienna, where he was appointed
painter in ordinary to the Archduke Charles of
Austria. He returned to Rotterdam in 1771, and
died in 1791.

ROOKER, Edward, an English draughtsman and
engraver, born in London about the year 1712,
was a pupil of Henry Roberts. He possessed an
admirable talent for engraving architectural views,
of which he has given an excellent example
in his large plate of the Section of St. Paul's
Cathedral, from a drawing by Gwyn, the figures
by Wale. The plates in Sir W. Chambers's ' Civil
Architecture,' several of the plates in Stuart's
' Athens,' and Adams' ' Diocletian's Palace at
Spalatro,' are by him. We have also the following
views :

Four Views in Italy ; after E. Wilson.
Six Views in London ; after F. Sandby.
Twelve Views in England ; after the same.

ROOKER, Michael Angelo, the son of Edward
Rooker, born in London in 1743, was first instructed
by his father in engraving, but was after placed
under the tuition of Paul Sandby, to be in-
structed in drawing and landscape painting. In
1772 he painted and exhibited a view of Temple
Bar, which possessed considerable merit, and was
much admired. For several years he was the
prinfip.il scene painter to the "theatre in the Hay-
market." As an engraver he acquired considerable

celebrity, and for many years engraved the head-
pieces to the Oxford Almanacks. They were exe-
cuted from his own drawings. Rooker was one of
the first Associates of the Royal Academy. About
1788 he began a series of autumn tours on foot,
and made many drawings from picturesque ruins
in Norfolk, Suffolk, Somerset, Warwick, and other
counties. He contributed some of the illustrations
to an edition of Sterne, published in 1772. He
died in London in 1801.

ROOM, Henry, an English portrait painter, born
in 1802. He practised in London and Birming-
ham, and occasionally exhibited at the Academy
between 1826 and 1848. He died in London in
1850. His principal works are :

The Interview of Queen Adelaide with the Madagascar

Princes at "Windsor.
The Caffre Chief's Examination before the House of

Commons' Committee.

Many portraits by him are engraved in the
' Evangelical Magazine.'

ROOS, Cajetan, (Gabtano,) son of Philipp Peter
Roos (Rosa da Tivoli), was an animal and landscape
painter, and practised at Vienna towards the middle
of the 18th century.

ROOS, Jacob, a son of Philipp Peter, commonly
called Rosa da Napoli, was born at Tivoli in 1680,
and painted in Naples in the style of his father.

ROOS, Jan, a Dutch landscape and portrait
painter, born at Amsterdam towards the close of
the 18th century. After a sojourn at Dresden he
went to Italy, and was practising his art at Rome
about 1820.

ROOS, Jan, painter, born at Antwerp in 1591.
He was a pupil of Snyders, and went to study in
Italy in 1615. He was for some time at Rome, and
became famous for his. painting of animals. It is
said that dogs were deceived by the hares he
painted. From his choice of subjects he has been
occasionally confounded with Philipp Peter Roos
(Rosa da Tivoli). He settled later at Genoa, where
his works enjoyed a high reputation. He there
became acquainted with his great countryman,
Vandyck, and was one of the artists who frequented
the salon of Sofonisba Anguisciola. The many
commissions which he received caused him to
work so unceasingly that his health gave way, and
he died at Genoa in 1638. In the church of SS.
Cosmus and Damianus at Genoa there is an
' Entombment ' by him.

ROOS, JoHANN Heinrich, painter and engraver,
was born in 1631, the son of a poor weaver, by
whom he was apprenticed to a painter of little note
at Amsterdam, named Julian du Jardio, for the
term of seven years. Under this master he made
little progress. At the end of his time he studied
under Adriaan de Bie; and it was not long
before he discovered an extraordinary talent for
painting horses, cows, sheep, goats, &c. ; not only
surpassing his instructor, but becoming one of the
most celebrated animal painters of his time. He
frequently placed them in the most singular and
difficult attitudes, but always drew them with the
correctness of character for which he is remark-
able. He was invited to the court of tlie Elector
Palatine, where he painted the portrait of that
prince, and those of his principal courtiers, for
which he was munificently rewarded. He was
employed at several other German courts, but
established himself at Frankfort in 1671, where he
painted his favourite subjects with great success.
His works were purchased with avidity, and he





received commissions from almost every court in
Europe. A catastrophe interrupted his career._ In
1685 a great conflagration broke out in the night,
and the house of Eoos was situated in the quarter
in wliich the flames raged with the greatest violence.
Anxious to save some valuable objects, he re-
entered his house, which was already burning
fiercely, and perished. He signed his pictures J.
H. Roos, the initials being welded into a monogram.
Works :

Berlin. Museum. Italian landscape with Cattle.

Dresden. Gallery. Cattle, Sheep, and Goats in a

„ Cattle and old 'Woman in a

„ „ Landscape with Sheep and

Munich. Gallery. Nine Landscapes, with Cattle.

J. H. Roos has left a series of excellent etchings ;
the following are tl:e best :

A set of eight Plates of Animals ; dated 1665.
A set of twelve Plates of domestic Animals.
Two large Landscapes, with Ruins and Animals.
A Shepherd sleeping at the foot of a Monument, near
his Flock.

ROOS, JOHANN Melchior, the younger son of
Johann Heinrich Roos, was born at Frankfort in
1659. After being taught some time by his father
he travelled to Italy, where he studied a few years,
and on his return to Germany settled at Nurem-
berg, where he met with considerable encourage-
ment as a painter of history and portraits, but his
inclination leading him to paint landscapes and
animals in the style of his brother, in the latter
part of his life he devoted himself entirely to that
branch, in which, although he never reached the
excellence of Rosa da Tivoli, his pictures possessed
sufficient merit to win him the patronage of the
Landgrave of Hesse Cassel. He died in 1731.
Works :

Dresden. Gallery. Stags under an Oak. Signed

J. M. Boos fecit 1714, the J
and M interwoven.
Hampton Court. Cattle at a Fountain.

There is only one etching known by this artist.
It represents a Bull standing, seen in front ; it is
inscribed J. M. Roos, fee. 1685.

ROOS, Joseph, the son of Cajetan Roos, was
born at Vienna in 1728. He painted landscapes
and cattle with considerable success, and was
much employed by the Elector of Saxony. He
was a member of the Dresden Academy, and was
afterwards keeper of the Imperial Gallery at Vienna.
His principal works are at Sohoenbrun. We may
also name :

Dresden. Gallery. Landscape with Sheep and

Shepherd. Signed Joseph
Moosf. 1765.

We have a few etchings by this artist, among
them the following :

A set of six Plates of various Animals ; inscribed Joseph

Eoos, inv. et fecit, aquaforti. 1754.
Ten Plates of Sheep and Goats.

ROOS, Philipp Peter, called Rosa da Tivoli and
Mbrcurius, was the son of Johann Heinrich Eoos,
and was born at Frankfort in 1657. Endowed
with genius by nature, and assisted by his excellent
father, he gave early proofs of capacity, and was
noticed by the Landgrave of Hesse, in whose
service his father at that time was. He took him
under his protection, and to promote his improve-


ment sent him to Italy, with an allowance sufficient
for his support. On his arrival at Rome his appli-
cation was so exemplary that he was regarded as
the most laborious young artist of his time. _ He
designed every object from nature, and to facilitate
this practice established himself at Tivoli, where
he kept a kind of menagerie, for the purpose of
drawing animals with the greater correctness. His
pictures are painted with equal vigour and pre-
cision. His colour, though it has darkened much
with time, is good. It is in inability to compose
that he betrays his chief defect as an artist. As a
man, he was given up to dissipation. Rosa da
Tivoli died at Rome in 1705. His few etchings
of pastoral subjects are very scarce. Works :

Dresden. Gallery. Seven landscapes with Cattle,

jj „ Noah surrounded by the


Florence. Uffid. Cattle on theEoman Campagna.

„ „ Cattle at Pasture.

Paris. Louvre. Wolf devouring a Sheep.

Vienna. Liechtenstein Col. Sheep and Shepherd.

ROOS, Theodor, the younger brother of Johann
Heinrich Roos, born at Wezel in 1638. He was
first a scholar of Adriaan de Bie, but afterwards
was instructed by his brother. In 1669 he was
invited to the court of Mannheim, where he was
taken into the service of the Elector. _ His first
performance was a group of portraits of the
principal magistrates, still preserved in the council
chamber. He afterwards visited with success
several other courts of Germany. The Duke_ of
Wtirtemburg employed him in several historical
works, and appointed him- his principal painter.
He was present in Strasburg when it was taken in
1681 by the French, by whom he was treated with
great courtesy. The pictures of this Roos are
chiefly confined to Germany. His touch is firm
and facile, his drawing weak, his colouring vigor-
ous and clear. Theodor Roos has left a set of six
etchings, small upright landscapes, with ruins,
dated 1667. He died in 1698.

ROOSE, NiooLAES. See De Liemakee,

ROOSMALE, (or Roozmale). See Rosemalb.

ROOSTER, Adkiaan, (or De Rooster,) landscape
painter, born at Mechlin. He was a pupil .of
Gaspard Poussin, and practised in Italy in the 17th

EOOTIUS, Jan Albbrtz, (or Rootseds,) born
at Hoorn about 1615, was a disciple of Pieter
Lastman, under whose instruction he became
eminent as a portrait painter. Some of his pic-
tures in the hall of the Archer's Guild, in his
native town, prove him to have been an artist of
considerable ability. They consist of three large
groups of portraits of the members. Rootius
died in 1674. In the Amsterdam Museum there
are by him :

Portrait of Vice-Admiral Jan Corn. Meppel, signed

J. A. Rootius, 1661.
Portrait of a Child. Same signature, and the date 1652.

ROOTIUS, Jakob, (or RooTSEns,) a younger
brother of Jan Rootius, born in 1619, was a
scholar of J. D. de Heem, and painted in his
manner ; and, it is said, approached him closely in
excellence. He died in 1681.

ROPER, , an English artist mentioned by

Edwards as a painter of sporting pieces, race-
horses, dogs, and dead game. Some of his pic-
tures were in tlie exhibitions in Spring Gardens in
1761 and 1762, dates he did not long survive.




ROQUEPLAN, Camille Joseph Etiennb, (or
ROCOPLAN,) a French genre, landscape, and marine
painter, born at Mallemart (Bouches-du-RIi6ne)
in 1800. He entered the Ecole des Beaux Arts in
1818, and studied under Gros and Abel de Pujol.
Notwithstanding this training amongst the "classic-
ists " he won fame as a " romanticist," and gained
great reputation by his works founded on subjects
from Sir Walter Scott. In his latter years he
suffered much from illness. He died in Paris in
1865. Tlie following is a list of his more important
works :









Versailles. Gallery.

Valentine and Baoul.

Child playing with Cat.

Coast View.

Sea Piece.

The Harbour of Boulogne.

Death of the Spy, Morris (' Rob

Roy ').
View on the Coast of Normandy.

Battle of Blchingen. 1837.
„ „ Battle of Bocoux.

„ „ Portrait of the Mar^chal, Marquis

de Chastellux.

ROQUES, GuiLLADME, or Joseph", painter, born
at Toulouse on the 1st October, 1754, was the son
of a respectable workman of that city, and showed
such an early inclination for art, that at eleven
years old he entered the Ecole des Beaux Arts of
Toulouse, then directed by Rivalz. His talent and
industry enabled him to distinguish himself in all
competitions, and a youthful picture of ' Amyntas '
was pronounced to be a work of precocious promise.
The young painter ardently wished to visit Italy,
and, provided with a little store of money which
his mother had saved, he set out for Rome when
about 22 years old. Here he was kindly received
by Vien and David, and formed a friendship with
the latter, who assisted him in many ways. His
Italian studies proved of great service, and on his
return to his native place he was overwhelmed
with commissions. Among his pupils was Ingres,
in whose development he took a special interest,
and with whom he always remained on terms of
affectionate intimacy. After the Revolution Roques
was appointed director of the Art School at Mont-
pellier, but his affection for his native town
induced him to resign his post for a Professor-
ship at the ficole des Beaux Arts at Toulouse,
and there he remained until his death in 1847,
at the age of 91. His best known works are the
following :

Portrait of his Mother. (Toulouse Museum)
■ The Tomb of Amyntas. (Toulouse Museum.)
The Communion of the Duke of Angouleme. (Toulouse

Shepherds of the Valley of Campan. (Toulouse

Marat in the Bath.
The Death of Lucretia.
Cupid and Psyche. (A lamplight effect.)

RORBYE, Martin Christian Wesseltoft,
painter, born at Drammen in Norway, in 1803,
entered the Academy at Copenhagen in 1819, and
learned drawing under Eckersberg. From 1834
to 1837 he was travelling through Italy, Greece,
and Turkey. On his return home he received the
Thorwaldsen medal for his picture of a 'Turkish
Notary settling the Marriage Articles,' and then,
with his ' Life in the East,' he won the Fellowship
of the Academy. In 1839 he went to Italy, where

he painted his 'Market in Amalfi.' He died in
Copenhagen in 1848. The Copenhagen Gallery
possesses the following pictures by him :

Chapel of St. Benedict at Subiaco.

Oriental Chess-players.

A Holiday at Cape Skagen.

Arcade of the Town-haU of Copenhagen.

RORE, (BoKUS,) Jacques. See Db Rooke.

ROSA, Aniella di. See Beltuano.

ROSA DA Napoli. See Rocs, Jakob.

ROSA DA TlvoLi. See Roos, Philipp Peter.

ROSA, Cristoeoro, bom at Brescia about the
year 1520, excelled in painting perspectives;
and lived in habits of intimacy with Titian, by
whom he was occasionally employed to paint the
architecture in some of his pictures. There are
several of his works at Brescia and at Venice,
particularly in the antechamber to the library of
St. Mark, in the latter city. He died of the plague
in 1676.

ROSA, Francesco di, called Pacicco, painter,
bom at Naples about the year 1600, was brought
up in the school of Massimo Stanzioni. His easel
pictures are frequently found in private collections
at Naples, and he painted some altar-pieces for the
churches, of which the best, perhaps, are his St.
Thomas Aquinas, in the Sanita; and the Baptism
of S. Candida, in S. Pietro d'Aram. He died at
Naples in 1654.

ROSA, Pietro, son of Cristoforo Rosa, was born
about 1550. From the friendship that existed
between his father and Titian, he was received
into the school of that great painter, of whom he
became a favoured disciple. His best works are
in the cathedral and the churches of S. Francesco
and le Grazie at Brescia. This promising young
artist died of the plague, in the same year with
his father and his master, Titian.

ROSA, Salvatoee, born at Renella near Naples,
in 1615, was the son of Vito Antonio (an archi-
tect and land surveyor) and Giulia Grecca Rosa.
His parents intended him for the Church ; with
that view he was sent to the College of the Con-
gregazione Somasca at Naples. His impetuous
character and temperament seem to have brought
him into great trouble, and he left before his
education was completed. He returned home, and
as his sister meanwhile had been married to Fran-
cesco Francanzani, an artist of the Spagnoletto
school, the lad was often found in the work-room
of his brother-in-law. There he first displayed his
talent, and encouraged by Francesco, he was
enabled to earn enough to procure himself clothes
and sustenance. Impatient, however, of restraint,
in his eighteenth year he left Naples, and after
wandering about he joined himself to a body of
banditti, who infested the Abruzz! ; to this sojourn
may be traced many of those robber pictures
which so especially distinguish this artist. Under
what circumstances Salvator returned to Naples is
unknown, but it is certain that he did so during
the residence of Lanfranco in that city. A few
days after his return his father died, bequeathing
to the care of his son a poverty-stricken family.
Oppressed by want and privation, he used to expose
his pictures for sale in the street, till one day
Lanfranco happening to be attracted by a ' Hagar '
thus exposed for sale, purchased it. It is asserted
by some that Lanfranco sought Salvator's acquaint-
ance, and assisted him, though the fact of his
continued poverty seems to be in strong disproof





of this idea. But the bare circumstance of being
brought into notice, though it exposed him to
much envy and hatred from less favoured rivals,
acted as a spur on his drooping spirits, and was
the means also of gaining for him the friendship
of Aniello Falcone, one of the best pupils of
Spagnoletto, who may be looked upon as the
first painter of battles. In 1634 poverty made
him resolve to leave Naples and visit Rome. There
he maintained himself by his sketches for some
time, but under the influence of malaria his mental
energy gave way, and he returned to Naples, de-
prived of hope and strength. Soon after his
return, however, he agreed to accompany his
fellow-student Girolamo Mercuri, who had been
appointed Chamberlain to Cardinal Brancacoia,
back to Rome. This led to his being commis-
sioned to paint the portico and loggia of the
Cardinal's palace at Viterbo, and also an altar-
piece for the Chiesa della Morte, in the same
city. After a year's residence in the Episcopal
Palace of Viterbo, Salvator returned to Naples,
from whence he sent to Rome his great picture,
' Prometheus,' which gained him such reputation
as to induce him to return there. Belonging,
however, to no school, he was unable to win for
himself the footing he wished, till the Carnival
of 1639, when, flinging aside his palette, he came
forth as a poet, singer, and actor, and found all
Rome at his feet. After this outburst he applied
himself with increasing success to painting. From
1639 to 1647 he produced numbers of gloomy
forests, rocky defiles, and storms at sea, as well
as subject pictures and a few altar-pieces for the
churches of Lombardy. In 1647, hearing of the
approaching revolution in Naples, he shut up his
house in Rome, and hastening to his native city,
joined himself to Masaniello, together with his old
friend Aniello Falcone and his pupils. After the
death of Masaniello, Falcone fled to France, where
he spent the rest of his life, and Salvator returned
to Rome, where he painted his ' La Fortuna ' and
' L'Umana Fragilita,' for which he was threatened
by the Inquisition, to escape wliioh he fled in the
train of Prince Giovanni Carlo de' Medici to
Florence, where he was received in triumph.
While at Florence he formed a great friendship
with Lorenzo Lippi, himself a poet and painter,
whom he assisted in his pictures. After a re-
sidence of five years in the Tuscan capital, he left
it in 1652 to return to Rome, where he established
himself in a house on the Monte Pincio. During
this period he painted his ' Jonas preaching at

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 106 of 201)